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Full text of "The new and universal system of geography [microform] : being a complete history and description of the whole world, containing a particular, full, accurate, circumstantial, and entertaining account, including the antient and present state of all the various countries of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, as divided into empires, kingdoms, states, republics, and colonies ..."

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■50 "^™ 


•^ 1^ III 2.2 



1.25 1.4 1.6 











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r~7| Additional comments:/ 

L^ Commertaires supplimentaires: 

There are some creates on the maps. Irregular pagination : [i] - viii, [5]- 62, 69-72, 
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This Elegant FRpNTispTECE .'mm^jMu^. 



:^U-^f-M/ m ^l^'^J 






The Whole 
iriei, the 
Meflrj. P 
and capiu 
ihe ir.oft \ 
by Mr. A 

THE ^tllW ANb UHlVfi 






- O F T H R 


C O N t A I I* I N C 

A pirticular, fiin»MCurate, eireamftutial, wad CBttminHg Account, Including the antlcflt and prefcnt St>te, of all the varioUi Counuiet of 





Continents, Iflands, Provinces, Pentnfulas, Ifthmufes, Seas, Oceans, Gulphs, Straits, Rivers, 
Harbours, Deferts, Lakes, Promontories, Capes, Bays, Diftri£ls, Governments, Principalities, &c. &c. 


Their Situations, Extent, Boundaries, Limitc, Climate, Soil, Natural and Artificial Curiofities and Produflions; 
Laws, Religions, Revolutions^ Conquefts and Treaties, Antiquities, Revenues, Naval and Military Force, &ۥ 


All the Cities, Capital Towns, Villages, their Diftancc and Bearing, Univerfities, Fortifications, Caftlcs, Forts, Sea-ports, 
Mountains, Volcanos, Metals, Aquedudts, Docks, Arfenals, Minerals, Foffils, Ruins, Palaces, Temples, Churches, Struc- 
tures, Edifices, Public and Private Buildings, Roads, &c. contained in each Part. 


An ufefnl and entertaining Hiftorica! and Defcriptive Relation of all their Cufipmi, Manners, Genius, Trade, CommeTce. Agricnltnie, 
Learning, Policy, Arts, Science*, ManufaAurei, Tenipen,_Diibo{itioni, Amufementt, Habits, Statue, Shape, Colours, Virtue*, Vices, 
Richei, or Poverty, Entertainment*, Language, and fingnkr Ceremonie* at Birth*. Marriages, and Funeiab, Titles of DifiinCkion, 
tec. ofthe different Inhabitant* : And a genuine Hiftory of all Sort* of Bird*, Bead*, Filnes, Reptile*, In&ds, Vqittable Pro- 
duftioai, Flowers, Herbs, Fruits, Plants, Gums, &c. found in the variou* Region*. 



To difFerent Parts of the World from the earlieft Times to the preicnt Year 1782; 
particularly all the MODERN DISCOVERIES in the Southern and Northern Hemifpheres, &c. by 

CapUin COOK, 































IRWIN, &c. &t.; 

■T ■■' ■ 


Not only all the late Difcoveries in the Fox, and variou* other Iflands in the South Seas, and wwards the North Pole, but aln^ . 
tliorenudein the Jafanrss Ocean, in the New Northern Archipblaoo, in North America, die West Indib9,V 
and thole made by Order of ihe Empref* of Ruffia in the Red Sea, the Indian Sea*. Eaitbrn Ocean, &c. && Alfo a ^leat 
Variety of curious Particular* communicated to the Author of thi* New Work, by Military and Naval CooiBanden, Captain* of Ships, 
Noblemi;!!, private Gentlemen, ingenious Traveller*, &c. and every Curiofity extraAcd from various Languages relative to the difl^rent 
Parts of the Univerfc. The Whole being brought down to the prefent Time, and forming the utjift extcnfive and original ProduAiea 
on the S ubjeA ever publiQisii,. wherein a great Variety of Improvement* are included, not to be found in any other Work of the Kind. 

A Niw, CoMrLiTi, aatf.'9«iT iN' 

the Principles and Termi of'bbih' 
Ure of Maps the fcompafi, the 
auibcatic ParlicuUr 

By G1B^ 

TO waicH WILL as aaoip, 
DUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY and ASTRONOMY t givlag a* •fcfol aad celcrttiBiag Explanation of 
^ce>, their Relation to etch other, the Figure, Motion, Sec. Mihe Banh, Planet*, Ac. Latitude, Lonciiode, 
of Wind*, coBSaat aad variable, of brthqaak**, Coaett, Mttaon, Thooder, Lightabg, Ab, and odier 


L L A R, Efq; 

Gkogkavht, particularly 

Aflifted bv feveral Gentlemen, celebrated for their Knowledge in the Science af 
WILLI AM LANGFORD, Efqt who accompanied Capt. Cook in making Ne«r Difcoveries. 

Calculated to convey ufefu^and entertaining Knowledge to all Ranks and Degrees of People, for u a celebrated Author juftly obfervts, 
^ Tbtrt it Mt M StM «r « Dtughur »f AoAM hit bat fmi anttrm in GEOOftArMY.** 

The Whole embelliSied with upward* of Oni Hunosio end Twihtt caoital BnRravinn, bnng: the noft elegant Set of COoper, PfaMt cv«r 
publiihed in a Work of thii Kind, and confiftina of beauiifal Views, Land and Water PtofpeSi, DreSe* of the varloui Inhabiunu of diltaew Ceaa« 
tries, their fingular Cercmoaiet, Amalemenu, Caaom*, &e. Alio aeceflary Maps, Chans, Drai^hls aad Plan*, with ihcdiffieicat Oijcfi* ia Natuial 
Hiflory, fcch as Birds, Bcafts, Fiflies, Amphibiom Aaimalt, tct. I'hefe ekcant EoibclIilhnMata are tailhed in the bcS Maaaer I9 the rnh hi tmt 
MefTrj. PtlUri, Tajhr, RtniuUfim, Smilb, WMir, CMttr, IF—4H»{, Ptn, Sttrwi*, Grinitm, Gtfdtr, aad ethers, fitom catiom orMnal De6glW~ 
and capital i'aintings made by Mr. Hamilln, lAt. Wif, Mr. DUi, SnutlWah, Elb. &c. 1 he ncceirary Maps, tee. (abfohltely fewniag of thfria w a 
the moll v;>luable and complete Atlas ever delivered with any fimilar Work) are all newly drawn and engraved acceidiag (o iks laiaft DUcomJv 

by Mr. Kiukm, Geographer and Hydrographer to hi* Majefty, Mr. Mtiaim, Mr. Ctrndir, Mr. Ltdgt, &c. 



O N D O 
HOGG, No. i6, 




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V* C A - a a T B O VI il a T A 4 , ' uVC tQ D O 11 ^* H 


"'•'' ■ ■ i fhfi t t i '''''"^ -'■ ■ I !■■ ■•^• r a t r"" iai ff ll l i | ii j i i 

> . 


P R E FA C E; 

TH E Study of Geography has a peculiar Claim to'the Atrention of Mankind in general, 
and cannot be too farneftly recommended to ail Ranks of People. This pleafing, ufe- 
ful, and delightful Science, difplays to our View, in the mod entertaining and profi- 
table Manner, a general Knowledge of the World. A good Work of this Kind, exhibits to; 
Perfons of every Capacity and Situation in Life, an authentic *Account of whatever b worthy 
of Notice, in the various Countries of the Univerfe. It not only fumifhes a Defcription, but 
alfo an Hiftorical and Political Reprefentation of all the feveral Provinces, Diftridh, and 
Subdivifions of every Country ) together with a clear, natural, and methodical Detail of the 
Cuftoms, Manners, Drefles, Ceremonies, and prefent State of the Inhabitants' ; the taofk re- 
markable Events that have tranfpired, from the earlieft Period to the prefent Time, and the 
Confequences that have attended them : Alfo an accurate and impartial Hiftory and Survey of 
their Laws, Government, Maxims of Policy, Forces, Revenue, Trade and Commerce, and a 
great Variety of other important and interefting Particulars, fome of which are emimerated in 

our Title Page. 

' ' . . •■ 

The Public in general are fo thoroughly convinced of the Utility of this Subject, that it 
might polTibly be thought Impertinent to dwell long on the Recommendation of it. 

The Pleafure, as well as Profit, attending the PeruCd of Books of this Sort, has made them 
more univerfally Read than any other Branch of polite "Literature { and the Study of Geography 
has now become one of the moft fafhionable Purfuits of the prefent Age, for both Sexes. In 
ihort, this is a Subje£l in which every Man is materiatlfioterdled } for, as a celebrated Author 
juftly obferves, " There is not a Son or a Daughter of Ajiim, but has fome Concern ia Geogra- 
phy." ^J 

However, amidft the Variety of Publications on tlus Subject, which have made their Ap- 
pearance from Time to Time, it has been Matter of great Aftoniflntaent to many, that no one 
has been written on an improved Plan of genenil Infbi-mation, containing all the recent 
Difcoveries, and which may be fuitable to fuch as wifli to gun a perfect Knowledge of Men and 
Things in every Part of Europe, Afia, Africa, and America. This has been, moft certainly, a 
general Complaint throughout this Country ; but, without p<Mnting out the Errors and Ab- 
futditics of other Writers, we now offer to the Public A NEW and UNIVERSAL SYSTEM 
or GEOGRAPHY, being a complete Hiftory and Defcription of the WMots Wofti.t>, updn 
fuch an improved and extenfive Plan, as has bein long wiihed for. 


Our Readers will have no Re^fon to comphuiji, that they have been caught, hy an, inviting 
Title Page, or that they have received leis than Wbf promifod themfelves, from the Perufal of 
tliis new and improved Performance. We acknowledge that we have promifed much, but we 
likewife confidently afTert that our Performances will not be .found inadequate to our Propofals. 
•—The moft ample Forume of the richeft Man, and the longeft Life of the moft laboripui 

4 i Travello; 

Tv^^: ¥ R & F - A C fi,. ; 

'T^mreUet MtendiMilnth 'lAl diatpSucceii wKj^h his moftfin^'me E]^^(ioWtoii]<Mtope t >r. 
wfohl b« bfaffiiMMiidiMe httfi acaiMiriMil with the tw«itifeth fm uf what'wUl kt found in 
cMa N«r Work. iHOdi U cakataM ror fM«r«l Ittik 

ittdedtt AiMlttrv«««ildhave been wiwly o iiuwJ W ffy . a^MbH^al^i^gU M 


tetideci it AiMlM->«««ild have been eaiiMljr ontwdAi^. acM^MbH^a 
aiid Othora concannd in ^Im extornat |hRc^iM- o| it i .•!/ tjitMritb^^^ 
traerdinary lacfi and dcfaitt Siae ia witkh tha^JSwdt it piiaiiaJi JgUae nanafcill^ amitmi (he 
tedioui Errors of other Writeri, particularly long and injudicious poetical Quotations from 
Authors, who never were allowed by People of any Difcernraent, to have aimed at Authenti- 
city in their-^ancied iocal OefcriptionV), So that thps Wo^is n^only the Ct^cnpeft bf the Kind, 
but alfo the moil ' Complete and Elegant in every RefpeA whatever. We (hall, therefore, 
fiibmit the Whole to the Patronage and Protection of .the unprejudiced, difinterefted, and dif- 
ceming Public, who will, no doubt, gf neroufly give the Preference according to Merit. 

' *■■"»"" " T .'^^f 

That Turn for Reading which' now fo uni\i|eT&lly prevaih .throughout thftfe King(!bmp, is 

certiinty very Laudable, and cannot but be atteiMied with Srery great Ad^anTagcs. It tsim- 

pofliblc that vacant Hours can be better filled up, than in the Perufal of well-chofen Qooks ) 

and a very little Reflection will (hew, that next to the Sacred Scriptures, nothing can have a 

gtvatsr Claitt to our gpeneral Notice, than the Work which wie noifr ofbr to the FobDc. 1 ' \ 

W« (hall begin with a New Hi(lory and Defcription of Afia, that Quarter of ebq Globe, 
which on many Accounts demands our carlieft K^ard. Africa will make the Tecond Part of bur 
Work ) and, attending to the regular Order, of Thiogs, we (haU next come to tltc E,ur<»pean 
Countha, whofe Inhabitants, becomii^ more Bold in the Spirit of Enterprise, t^ian thoie Qf, 
the other two Parts of the Globe, di(€oyer(4 ^hc fytnitth grapd Divifiqn of th|e World, namely,. 
AnK?>C4i with a more complete Hi(iory and Der(;fiptHm (including the prefcnt, a^ w^l Aa. 
tntient State) of which than is to be foutid in any fimiLir..Ferfonnanpe, we (hall conclude tliis 
New Syftero of Ceography^ra Work, fbund«4 on $he moft re<pe<^able Authorities, comprizing- 
all the late Difccveries made in every Part; of the Globe, by the moft celebrated Navigators* 
«|i4 Wgeivous Travellers, and arranged .with the gre^teA A<!<:urac;y and Care, being the Refulti 
9lF.iWwaarifid Afliduhy and Study,^ for iiweral Years, 



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N.B. TheN^,0:pi^l^,.ai^Ei|f7lNTRODUC7JONtoGEO^O^ 
NOMY » (CQq^R^lfnidMvi^ uTciiMai^l e^^ Btplanation of^he Principles and Terms 

of both Sciences, thrirRelatioiiiti^,^^ other, the Figure,, Motion. 6cc. of the Earth, Planets,. 
&c. Latitude, Longitude, Ufeof Maps,'Compafs, the Nature of Heat, Air, Meteors, Wind, 
2cc. con(tant and variable, and .other Particulars: Together yyith a complete G£OGRaj>kical 
JNDja toSiUthePtocisi wUhgiiun'dttbtCimituJi^^gig,^^^^^ 

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KiiPNip"f^P|li>i!'U PUIIIH 

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MOM cMMi w iM Mridte. yM «« M k to iki italifc, «» wptf ja |ldt» mdij 
» frfM Ik* |taU ftr IMi liilM^. *« yM art «lm» ik« MM fdi » M IM 
wUI fcHiir iiiijili y*. 

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iSSM«,ilill i«l« »• Mia MMi» te«w. wA MMv 

rkfMl^. n*lk«ta*<^««lAM«|MiN 

*Mll. liWirMiiift.llwM»MB «S gltMWlMk«(b,Ml4iiM 

iW M iSilftr dMMt ikbt*.MW MlMMH, MMl Itewlit fM^ A^fw. Aa< •kwwi Cia^rMd ftodiMa U 

», fti IimIIiiJm lirifcuimj ■!— <lttWi Mtt'MMltoaMh. aMClM* A«M4t|f«HikIhr HbMHwaank. 

•M Nmm te aMb* m4 ilM«iMr MI^ (M*4*7dM«tMw7mi»li lolv. IIm; N) wMk laa iIm Mhir fcwk taiin^) 

■ rt !#*■, — 4 tUtotoi imw i U MUM «f ^ liriirit w<afa*l.-JnM. C aB wto j W ktht-tw i»pm fatty ■toiy Mwfc. 

(•MlaEg^UBinMMdigNMtURjraiaMHfiMik: ihA «IM MfHlMr mJw AvMx-tfo itgnM im ■(■•»>. A»Stmm» 

VtnUi. '^i* kmktA ^•vaL* |*miA«m «m mW4Im, M m0 tt^ fUtti, t0t>bv itt/imi Im^hJ*:] ThU U ^M* tftw iIm &M 
■MMV M Um MlNri «al» Imm A, a»him wilt k« M ik* Miiugr, ii| mtmn «pm«m ik« aMtUiaa. I woald know what ptuM km tk« bm» 
lM|ilii^M|lMit«,M4ik*baMkMglnrf«a»klD«»wr TkaMkb, kriM LmUm w dM oMridiw. ikm •» ikola pUcu oo ih* jktw (frwi 
ikfMttkMUwiktfeaikpanertkakoriioa) ikM !!• wmUt ik« adM oTik* OMiidlM, k>v« ik« &m katitad* m Loadon t ikat Fun NiAa. 
- -- vHvaaarlfihafiMMiangitadaaaUadafc Aa4 Mafuw. U kforcwu, kai vary ncailyika Sum 

I, AaiiOBli, wU Tripaii, la Sfria, 


Rttltk HlfV W two tl^rtMMMa 

loe|i(ada, vis. ibirif-favca dcgiaaa ikitijr i 
Fif*. irdMphca*liabMkMft.arbMk«iii«,orck« 

■a4 Fort Mfawt ia Qaiaa*. kawikaiaaM, 
h agtwda ■» Ahppay >i Syria »»Mb 

Vae». 6. TiHttihtilj/^rtau*/Uafiuiih»ffUtu.'] ^ 

llA awridlaa, or wkaia voa nckoa tin iaagituda fnm, vis. if ikajr botk ba atH. ot belk ba waA loagiiaUn, tkaa lub;fai\uaa Aom tka oiktr, yaa 
kavadMdICmne*. Tkiu I find Jiralakn kai thirMb dqnan AAaaa aiaatst aU kMcitada Ama Lmuioa. sad Pakia oaa kandiad *ad un da- 
giaat Ifty.taro siiaaM aaft Iaagituda i thanfen faStma Mitf** dagnai Mm* ariaaM fma om kundiad aad tan dagnn iftytara niaaia*. 
•ad tkaia mnaiM lavaal^ibar dcgraai tkfat^iat«a aaaata* daknnc* of langhada asi at wcAi iksi U, PtUa i* Unmn4omt d^gnn, ikiity. 
ftvaa ai^aatat taft imgitodt of Jvuialaah m Jaraftlaai k Avaaqr-fcar digiaat uuny-iavaa auauttt araft kwgliada of Pckin. Saccmdiy, If ooa 
plMabtaaA. ud tkaotkar weftlaagiiadaaf AaiiAaMridiaa, (fappoA teadoo, or say oikar matidiaa) ikan add ibaif kwgitadai togatltar, aod 
ika r«« ia tiM dilTeraDca of longitada ra^aliad. 

Faok. 7. Titdirtt/tt»mtmkrimmi»/mlih/birtjlatthitit€UfHt.] Rula. Tkadayaf tk* aoaik bain|givtn. look on iba inaar ca- 
laadar 00 tba saw giobat, aad you bi*a tka figs, and tka dagiaaof tku figa that the fua if ia for tkat day, accordiag to tka naw Ajric. If it ba 
apaa old gk>b(M. look oa ika ouiar caltadar, yoa kava tkaCga, and dagiea of the iTga. N.B. You may fij^karoUtm, tkal tkacalaadar aftd 
tkio|igkoat fiuiopa ii ikc caiaadar fof aaw l^la, vis. naw ttyla it alway* kaowa from tka oikar. kacaafe u kWtki 
ihiagt iafcribad on ike horii 

I from tka oikar. kacaafe u Ilftke faiau dayr, aad ftvarU otka%. 

P*aa.8. ntJm'tfUutivmm JbtdtUJaf»f titmtmki\ Tbiiboaiyika rcvarftof ikafarwrpaoblaai 1 ibrkavisgtkaran'iplacagivta, 
Mikia the aiKlaanaag tka ligat, tkaa agauA that dagiaa is tka ealaaiiar, naw ftyla, yoa ba«« ik«4iy of tka sMatk rtoairad. Esample. X 
woald kaowwkatiuaaafjUM year ihafMt ia la oa< d^ne of Oeaiini 1 at alio whao ka aann Arfaa, Caactr. Libra, aad Capricora. Piocaad 

Rub. Fiad Ika fta'a 

. aad.fcad ika Guoa figs 

tka bnse^. Buridiaa, aiad 

. globaraOlM fat tkat day. 

•■dtkadagKeof the aeltpiicikai liat asdar tl>a aqaatoc lapiafcaw ika fuBt placa at aooa, or twatva o'dack'tkat dar. Note, Tka altoaoawr'a 
dayi«rsckoB(dlnMa,orbagiMa:,ttml*eo'cleck|aadif yaaiistkaqu4draatof aliitada ta tka laikad* ia Ika aaaiik, tka globe win ka corn* 

pa* a. 10. TtiMihJitUutUM»tftl»ftmmmHfJnttiktynr, Rale. Haviag fbaad tke fca'tplacaiadwadlplic fiif tkerivaaday, brhf 
it to tka braam oNtidiaa, add obienM what d^Ms of the mrridiaa it U« ander, aad wkatkar k k* oa tka nenli or oia ibe loath fide of Ik* 
e4aator, for thai it the declination accordingly. Thui, on April 11, the fan bat eleven degrea tkirty aiisBlse north dadioatioe, aadeaMaysi, 
ka h«i twenty dcgrcntkiriy aaiaulet dcclinuwn, but oo OckoMi 17, ke bai twelve degraei thirty miaawa foaih daclinaiioa. 

PaoB.ii. i.iUliitUitudil<i!ftfikim»mthtivtm,uttlltht/iufimtriMaamUituJt,vin.htiktitita»mm.\ Rale. Bring tka faa'a plac* M 
tka meridian, and oblcrve what uegrte of the meridian tka fas'* placa it ander : for thole d^reea oa.lkc maridiaB tkal are intercepted, or Ua ba- 
twecn the fouth vtrga of the horizon aul the dMiae, whkk ia Avar tka fuo'i place oa ike aMrlvImn, (aoaaiad on tka aieridiao) k the fan*t VCTidiaa 
aliiiude required. Tkui I find kit aMridian aluiwla atLoodoa, May tka aiftr W baift- 'j>.n dtf rata, bat oaNovaaiber tka fiftk, ke kaafcat 
tweniy-tkree degraea thirty minaiet altiuid*. ^ ' . 

PaoB. lai ThiUlilMdiMul4ly*/iitmuik gh>m,HltlttitfiaftsUllmdtatmMiimt.i ..Kaai|a*. Oa May tkaa i ft, U ala* ia tk* mora* 
ing, and at five in tki aftcrnoan, at Londoa, I wnold know tka fin't altitude, or haigjhtf Kale t^eOiiy ikagioba for the laikude. aad bring dM 
fan'apUca (ooa dcgiae gemini) to tba naridiaa, aad tka iadex to the upoer twdv* oa ika dial-phte 1 ikaalcraw tha^uadiaatof aldtndaoa tka 
acntih, vis. tka left edge of the nat mail k* foiad on the sMridiaa, at ifty-on* damaa tUrty ariaatat, tkaa taia ika^globe till tha iadax pointa 
to the hoar, vis. nine ia tha moraings .thiadeaa, fix tbe^ thtaOlnga auill k ui aaia it aad tk* korfamn : lat^ tarn tka ^aadtaat aboat 
till ike graduated or figured edge touch the fun'* place, (vis. eiie degree gemioi] and tka dmaei on tka f uadranti caotad fiMa die hariate ap> 
watdtootha^uadraat, ukiakeigktstthattiaM, vis. fmty.ikraiadMtamtkirnf minaH*. iTMa tarn tka iltks all Ike iadas poinm at Av« in tt* 
afiamooa ; aad alfo tarn tka ouadrant on tha weR.fid* (MibOM *nKica4ng it) till k loackaa tkaiaaV places and yoa kaea akoai tweaty-fiiur 
degree* on tka qnaJrant, kit altkade at tka; tima> N.B. AiNonkcapa, (nortk latkaJe, (maiy.4wo di gi i a i «t aia* ia tfc* awraiag) Miqrika 
sift, he will aoi babul aboatlkirty.twodtnatahigk. . . 

PaOB, 11. Tit UuUU$tiiMm, II li/lthri/UfmJ /tiling YltiJkm.mJ Itiffitfthd^mJ Kigtt, at MfiiMY*^.J^ 
Aula. Refiify ihe globe, (vis. elevate it for the laaiude i bring the fna'a place to the oaiUiaB, aad iadea to ika upper Melva) 1 tken tarn it till 

ikcfilO^plaCC •■'■ —•—--'- :-A-i-: ._ .V_ „« tj- _».■.- u-_i .,. ,.-._j jii «. 1-.<_ 

fan's riling ( 

liBM, countl 

a>arfob*M< _ 

drttatnigkt. (low double what he anaitaf twelve at rifiaa, vis. eigkckouri,'andtegi«ettk*kngtk«f tkatdayl 

Tnoy. 14. Tt nil ttt/mt't rifki m/tt^fim.1 Bring tka Aii'a placa to tks' brasaa naridiaa^ •adaowarkald^tcedf tkaaqtaior i 
ateiUiaa, for ikat i* kk right alccnfioa taqaind. I wouMkaow ika faa^a r^ afoahfiteaa Maick tka sil^ Jnaa tkc ait, 1 

ii cut by tha 

andDeoaabartbcaiAf I find the fun't place for ikafcdifttaatdayi, and bring it 10 tka meridian i I findthamcriifiaifCuti tke'eouator in (o), 
iB(9o), in (ito), and in (tyo d^reei) hu right afoanfion reoairsi. Nota. WkeaikafnaailaraArfo^Marck^aiAikehatnongktafcenfioa, 
becauHkkcauaicd&offl, orb^iniaiAiksi tkanfat»on Matdiikasoik,kea»atk«vakkgi*aiaftrigknfeaataat wa, tktaakaaAadandfifty- 

aine degrcai. 
Paoa. 15 

rt/nJlitfif'i aU^mfnnfim mkldffit^m t lit lim*, aaiiumf iMkmh.} lials. Raaify Ae gkhafer the lBdiade,andbrin(; 

Ike foa'l bIm* down lothceaAem vei)(eof ihehorisonf then obArva what degree tbakoriaon cuia tkoe^aatar ia, far tkai k dM' oblique aicen* 
Son Ttqatnd. That on March the aift, luae (ke siR, S ep ae m fce i die sad, and December ike sift. via. wkan '"^ ' ' — * ' 

iobe(a), (s6). (i«e), BadCxH). 

1 Ttqati**. Thai on March laa aitt, luae (Ae siR, S ep ae m be i 1 
librs, aad Ciprioom, you will find kk olilifue aibaafion at Lt * 
dafocnfioB will be (o), (isj.) (180). aad (ajy) aa4 a kalf. 

PaOB. u6. Tit ItiiliuU andtay tf lit mtati flvtmt HM*iifm*t tt/aa/maat J^tnmif, 
mM4n^/ifMatlflttilliittui]flitftiiilt!ft,fif^/tlitrim>inmMl*t0tit-tUt.'l Rule. By 1 

nfcenfion ; then fubuaA the oblique from the ngnt albeBfion, or the eoatrary, and the remainder k tkc afceafioaal difetcat* NouSiaiit wkick i 
«ida by fifteen, tke degrcei of ike equator ikat pafi Umagk ik* ■aridma 'flfoaa hoar< (orfiivcaaad a kalf for kalf an ko«r) j^vca thvaafwer ik 
dsN, Aat tke fun rilei and Alt kefore and afiar As. Tkaa, aa Mqr a6, ifiad ikafoaAs degraea af Gemini, aad kk right aftinfioa k Any-fgar 
dsgiaaaandondiefameday, kk oMJoae afccafioe k iMrty-feiit da g i n i i i now tkirty.foar digteaa Awai Asty«A»ur da gw e * tk*^ awaaiat Aktv da. 
grata, kk afcenfional diAitrtBce » wfcidi divide by fifteen givaa tare boaw, the tim«llatkerifo« t ! ififg. srfe;saga». 

Paov. 17. nr/tf><aidlraW^yi'^assi5|^wi( 

riaba, (arkick Awwikia |'" ■ * 

tke faa taMrt Aiiea. Caacef. 
Aai Ml the fiuM dayi ki< obliqua 



rnb iear mmiitHfit, tr fin, (tfhrt tmi 
ly tke laA prabkm find tka fun't rigtai, ai 
ider k tkc aTceafional difatcat* Nnuiiadt 

irifiag) tkcatka 

Tht UtUUi aadJM »ftk. s^i j^^k^ t, uiiiit;^! JmfiHaJt, «Ai. 

fifimMijiii Ufa,] Rah. TkegltbebeiagiaOiMd. briagiksAwtpbcaiaikeeBAan _ _. 

Aa gr e* apoa the innermoA dtd* of tka horisoa, coa^fima A» aRweaApokKM tknphic*«|ite tka funS ntaea liaaagaUl oa lEa ko^na* 
Ihwyt {oa the fun't amplitude. Proceed according » Ike ral*. yw^will fiadrA»ABi'*ap plto d f *» toado a, (May ai,) at riAag, to ba afaoai 

"' irm dvae* Cm* ik( Mt n fli asnbi aad ibt poiM ki lifoi apiM M Mnk.*aft 

Proceed accerdktg 10 Ike ral*, 
Ik iiW lba i dagicti from tkc wft 10 ikt nortk, and at ftidi^ &ki|>l&BT dqiae* 



\ -; 





MAatatfiiNKlMiittwiiilkMk. Tti r >'t '"T i'^ frr 't rf "- rli i-'i tt< tV »~it V- fnn | Mm TB 
gkba UU ilMMca foian M iIm gMs Imim I i|Ui Mag 4«m, iw« *Im ^MalMMriill I«« 

Imimmaf tmkm Ami «nm», e*l|r ikM 

RV MNP JWWt fw MB 4pUlv4 aAHMMW' y MPnNipa^4^'^M^|pVMHwVHICiPvMf ^' MHi|M 

I aiiM te 

M ika tek. ,« wkMill lk««^ lii<l Mffm (mm IMtt it tk* mA i 
. . . •«■•••» Awn mAwnmw.^^ .j^i . 



Ik thSViht'^ MfaM««3ril |0»wqMttf(]r |Mvt. 

Vii«f«i win iatitlr'. •!. mmI AHgiA •««< lU-ttitfllllfc M Miy a« 

■Aw ik*&gibnili iWSwiagk aIT ktV lijiMra 4«|iMi Mm**^ kariwi. nA ik-MMlKaE 

ia4«|f«iWilMjM«iwaMAwMAM«kMMl*«knlM>iAiklkw«4MUlifliK lMUM||idk 

I, balltb«UbaiwliAfM|ir. , ., ^ . , ■ .. i.W '"j ,' . 

■T Tit hm-'glw»vittrt itiTmrt It lilt <wt0l inr it iium tttir flirt ^f'-tttmnfU.] RuIm llhig ik* li»M kbc* l»4l|^aHrUm^ 

ia4w M cha' givM boar, uwiKm ilM|lab«lill'liM oilMr ^Mtror pl»M>i MaM anJarika^MtAdUa, alMtht iaia> wi|lpJ|RLMtika 

•aiiMt. Kxainpl*. VVkm it b tafo o'clock In ika aftwaaaa H Loadaa. kwaaid ka«w iha ifaw M jtraiaitn, aa|l M P«i% AwU |a« 

■toMMtt Vmioa, b b I««ai)r4«« aUMta* paA M«r «> 

■l i ii Hg ,. «••• Ika iaa caaai arkk ilgkiaw i 
I aal y laagw i»k«a Jay* iacrtifc ta lawg ik, ' 

Paaa. ai. 

Iwal iiwa raquiMt* BbxAinprat * ' mm H w iwv o cum* in im «<iini*wi «i aoiauiNit ir 
l«aM|ci. mcaad «ocor4iag w '«• tala, tad jroa wiM tad ikai whaa it ill«f« in IM i 
JlM«(ilHB, aad bat tfijr-Mft miaoitt paA eight inihf awrping at Pen Ra*d> 
. Paot. I J. 7*4* ^Mjr »f tit mtntigliHt It ttit titji mitJUiimti Maf <mH i»in At/kn in litlr an^i, tr i*ir tMr itmdt, «• MaiU'iy.] ' .T|iai 
daaaoc kappva lomjruilter inbaMiant* Hot (hoftin ih»MnM iC9aat>:«ka(k |a tUfiicK m k«*« ifa(Maaiy«lhiM dagnai ini in hiff if lii|nj^ 
aiikcr aorth or Ibuib. ll«l«. ftriog the r«n'i piKc to (he aieridita, lad oMarvi *Mt&\y kit decliaition for ikil diy, Umb turn tka 'giaU aa*i 
way, uiii obierve whil plicu pib itadcr thMdagretof daUintiMi aa An flMridlA i lai all Iktk will ktva ika faa rigkt dnrikcir ktadt Amii(l 
tiow or ollwr on iku diy^ ... <. 

' Pana.tA. ntJi^iuulinnlviiiimaigflatitiliUti^iniaiiHmUiirltMfUii, ftnitUtilit/lmll iitit virtical,%la..iH tiiimiiii^ Rat*.' 
Bring iktgnaa'piaca 10 ib« bniaa aMrioian, and turntba iadoi leiliagivak kMBilkl* daa^ianklkaglobc till tka iadi« poinuiribtiippapi 
Mfiiaf or aooa I thckjook under tba.dc|t«a of dcclinMion-oa iki gbbaaf ika|d«)^ Avtkalii ika very fjioi, br ^laga to which the fun U (h««' 
verliaJ. Bsaaipte. On May i j. at -tMii auautei jmA ive ia tha aAeraoon at Loadont ( areald know what place k« the fan in th*ir^ni|iw< 
Amiuet, Port Royal la Jamaica. Thua jw> yoa will and, wkci) it ta tkitiy ikraf viinale* p*A tx in ibe awraiDg at Landea, on.Aaitt i^l aa^ 
Aueuft i8, the inhabitant! ol' Candy, ia tke ifl.indof Ceylon, will kavc the fun nearly in their leniik. i r.'^^ u 

Cmttmitx lii Mauaar tr LoikDi^OHi.1 The Ibadllona it found in ihm min«i, and fi much of a colour and «»tigbt wtAi Jrali. H aw an i , 
U i< obt to be iiwlied and hammered out like ii«n, but Diet to piecei uader tha kamaer, aod lurni tA a cajx in tbe fim, which Omwi, that iu parte* 
axcccdi ihofeof iron for iurdneti, jigidnefi, and. an iniriols combinatioo ana with another. Iti known propartiei arc theic : hrti, whan iv 
MBvailicely and wiihoat anyobAafAJb it poinu nor.ih and fouth, fo at that pan of it which ftandi to aoe pole never turni lolheothcrj Thewav' 
togivcit a frM motion, it to fwiaif' it in ine water upon a piccruf wood. Philofimhen have obbrved, thai the loadAoaa doai not alwayi poln* 
fall adrth and Ibuih, but iomeiimei inclioci to the ead or wefl without any rule, rl'htagk a loatlKone gantratly kaa tteo polei pointing north <ad 
faoth, aa we faid beifort, yet ibere art fpM iiicgnlar eaea, which fcm to have inara'^Ti«. Aa oa« ioadiioae botdt ap aaoiher, fo ii doei iiart «|< 
grentt* or left weight thaa itfclf. if Ufen duA be ftrewed upon a loadttane, the parHclei will difpafe iheBifelvai dirteUy betwaea Um pMia, anA' 
ihca t^ d^ftei int.lioc to an nrfaicolar flavre, lb ar t4 lie parallel with the aaia «f the IdidSone, aaleA it be ena of the intgalar iae|» baferv 
akeil natiee of. TbehMdApneimpaniua virine loiron fo efeAually, that iron, touched with a loadfbte, qppriwt. to ha«a all tha propartiaa 
afortfliU, ikougk not in an equal degree. Tke great ufeoF tkiicooimaoicauoa ii experienced in the «arioer'«'netdla, by tbt help whtreof tha»; 
■ ■' ' " her parte of. tha world. . • .' 

laadily fiad tka nort^ aod foiuK, and all other parte 
. CtMtmh^ itt't ' .-.-<•- ^- -1- ^ ^-^^ 

. Ctaetrtii^ iii'i*»') Tha feaiitkat rati ouatiti^ of fait water exiendiag from north' w Ibutk, and froai waS'to eaft, fanaaadii*'.(k* drf 
kNawhlck all Aiaaaii dilontrg* ihemfciret, aod out of which aigkty galfi and bayi are formed, the greataft uf which ii tkh 

kiadiwnaiicaa TiMethplait'cailedthaocaan, buitvadoafly dilHaguiihed andjuaied froai the ieveral coatriei by whote ceafta ii rum. Tka 
falUMle of the lea water feemi 10 proceed from Uie fame caufe aa that of fereral fbunuins, by the boiling of which water fait it prodiKadj for. 
Aim* tka btKtaiaof iba fra b of ttck rat extent, it it reifonaUelo thitok that iher4 are large mincioi (alt in many placet of it, which being 
ditMMl, fpread Ikioagboul tha lea. In Older to find oat ihtraafon why the water of tha fee b aotaugmenied, let ut fee whether (here baaait way 
far iu daib diaiinatiaat u well atiacreafe. 

CMMrataif Win 01.] lliawiadaauy badlvided'into conftant and variable: tke former are alwtyi, at certain timet of the year, and h 
cettaic paru of tke arortd, but Ate tatter vary fo much, that they cannot be redaoed to any rule. Now fince it it eafier to find out the caula of ona 
HgnlM effcQ, than of many iriagular, let ui, io the firft pleot^ treat of conRani windi. Aod baia we moft take notice, that the windi ai« 
qonSanl and periodical only in Ika opaa fiwi._^ Now tbe luivarial ocean may moA properly be divided into three parti, i, The*Atlaaiic and 
fedAosk ocean, a. Tke ladiaa < 

I oceaii. j._ The gicti Souk Sea^or. Pacific Ocean i and thoagk ikefb feat do all coninunkate by tke <b«th, yet 

■f Is sur'pralcnt parpofe of the periodical tnndt, tlmr are fufideatly feparaced by the interpofition of great trada of land t the trll lying ktweeil 
Afrha aad AflMnca, the ft«on<fh H>m *i AWcaandbidia, aad the laft batweebChiiia, Japani tad tha coaft of America. Tkerebinihe Atlantic 
■mI Btkiopic feat batwaea tha Tiopia a general aaScfty wind all ika year, cxeeptlng thai itb liibjeA to vtry aad deflefk fomafew poioii towaitia- 
ibtitatlkarfcnth, anwntlngioya poution of tkarpltce. Tka wiadi in tke IndUn ocean arc partly general, and in the Ethiopie ocean partly 
■aaodical'l iktlie^kiifllkajraarlhey MowoMway, aad tke Mkar kaif near upon the oppofus poinu i and thafe poinu, and timet of IhiitiBg,' 
aadiAtMMf mdiMat,|«ro of lUio«aui{ thaliadu of enck m*& of fea,. fubjea to the lame change, or moniooa, ai tha nativci call it, ai« 
m^Mintf katiiaAM— fan. .: 

TTk*fM»UiitMiM«Mta«At]rfcad, aadbfadi^tratf thaAaaeareaAlkootUielimiuof Am conftant windh to ika north and (batht 
4Mt hi in tka a*ld» ^ana nf th» dimu, and all over iii antmpA btyt, thepmcipal of whickaie tke Mediteiranaaa aad Bailie ! Ib^ne a*' 
llMUlttn M. dl eoBBWiM* 04|trf.«iaaNn pecul| fqaM.pinicular paftu . Of jikb latiar fort tha naft famoni aia the hurricaaeti which chiefly' 
Uiil Ika Caiibbaai. bat are nbt aanivarTaiy. nor cqaaUy frequent. Their fary U fo great, thai they throw down all befbr* thaaii tair up- 
tt^' fvtnfll konlH mA lkipapiadi|^«itody^ end bktar abool thiagi nf vail waighi. They are not even, but blow in iii<b,'which (bddanly 
^Moa and mi aeilbar do ihey exwid very wide, batata fiMnctimet confine lo aaarrow compals, and at other timet take a Girger ftope, \t fot 
ihlSr 4bi^M0R> it itt bat far a fW dayt; and fomctimatonly a itw koon,. Tkey are more common in America than any where, though Biiropa- 
•ad AikoiM'nat alng«hcr wkkoatibcm. "^ 

', Wind (M|inA properly defined lo be tht ftieam, orcurrent-af ibe air, and where tucb a current U perpetual, and fined in iti coorle, it ii necefluy 
ikM it,niBtiadinom apetmanent, naiatermittiag caoiit, wUch we conceive to be theaaionof tke fua beami upon the air and water, at he paAlu' 
MMyaay-oM^tkeOBMni, caofideiMlageiher wubtkeaatunof thefiul, and fitaatkn of the adfolokig contincnu : tkercfbre, firft, acctmlinr' 
wthelawioflblici,lhtairt which b left rarifiad or expanded by beat, and cOnfcqaently man poddtroni, miiA have a motion towenti thoio 

' ^arti ihereof, wkicb aia mora rarijied and left ponderout, lo bring il to an eqalUbriura ; aiid, fecondly, the prcfcnce of the (to. continnallylkifyiij. 
to the wailward)'<lkat part lowarda which the air tendi, Inr realbn of tkarani^ion made by hb great meridian heal, it wlik ^him cariM wcn-^ 
waid, and cqafewiaailylkaMdancy of the whole body of ika lower air b that way. That a noeral eaOcrly wind b formed, which being im. 
McAadupoaailiMairof •nAocain, the paru impel one another, 4ndfo keep moving dli ihe next return of thefltn, whereby fo much of thr 
motion at wat kiAbagain reAatd, and thu> the welterly wind it made perpetual. 

Wlthrefpaaia'tbdcomiBoillphainomentof windi, ike dry onei are fuck, aa carry ftw vaponn along with them, and therefore diliiroBf tbe 
mciA-partidea ftam.badiei ovarWhiUi they paft. That in Holland ihe.north and call windi, with the intermediate ^inti, are dryinfr, becaure' 
iJiceald northern fimyJaldt but view vipoori, in comparifon of thole which come from wirm«r parti of the ocean j ind from thence towtnli the 
aaf aM.vaA u*£U of land, where the heat at Midfummer b but very fmall. Bat the other windi, tCptaMy the wellerly, are moiA. bRaufe ihey 
ifae from warm and rapouroui Parti. Tlie Weftern Ocean feldom faib to (end ut rainy windf} kowaver, this property variei accMing to the' 
firiou fituttisn of eounbict. Such' windi gather doada ai blow from the ooarien wkcia thevapoan arife, which, in conjunAiOn with tha 
vnoara of onr own region, fill the air. X}n the other fide, thofe windi make fair weather, which bno£ little vapour along with them, and b ar' 
away ihatmbich kangi over at. 

When lb* air geuToorefrom-thole broken bubblei in whieh it watbefim impriroaed, that which happeni to be pent In betwixt the doudi b' 
aao^iiriiy eery much dilated by the igSannuble fubflancci, and tbenfare being heonnad in on every lide by thick cloodi, which contrary windi ' 
Iwap together round it, or by the falling in of one cloud upon aniMher, doer, by in expanfive force, burll its pnlTage through them with a vtotenl' 

' axpfofion, andcaufcs that crack or rumbling which we call thunder, Tka clap feemi continued of raiteraied by reafon of the found being leJ- 
flefied from the furfaoe^ different datadi, which canfti To manyrepeti.tioas orechoei,->Whena flaiki* projeaed through-e brge extent of air or 
feti fin ton uaifl Qf other infiammablematur within the fpheie of ill afiion, it ia what we call lightninK.—4f the ndgn;,*; ' cf Sci-y r^rrirjei' 
iAaing 6«m the bubblei of water upon the oollifiaa of two dsu;b bs T:«y •u>>>S> forming only a little globe of fitc, which ihoots onlf i,itu ^ 
ilMc trainot iightin the air, and ftfai^way diAippcari, tkb b wkai ik« ctmanen people call a nlling ibr, ' ' ,' "*' ■^ 

?■•-■•- • ■ ■ ^- - - tnti 







>• ihit in parte! 
kr<>> wken if 
''CT' 'i'he way' 
< alw«yt point 
tieg neriii .aj 


r wfich it ihb 
I r«n«. Tfc« 
Pwdiwd* for 
wkick being 

-• and la 
><« afoot 
, windi ai« 
Adaadc and 
o<«M pertly 
of fliktiBp, 
•caUii, a^ 

1 •nd fcith , 
•! ftiflieaf 
'kick chiefly' 
"■•i leai" ttpr 

•ch iMdcaly 
ipe. 4. ior 
><>Sl> Biirepv 

' l» nece/Taiy' 
** ke paAt' 
• ucordinr' 
""r* thoi; 

» "Wg Im. 

l^oir the 
'Ji becaufe 
ow»rd». the 
«»«fo they 
"'"g to the' 
n with the 
>> -and 

e cloudi h' 
wy wind, 

bdnj je^ 
!of «l^, Of 
i r^ftifiei' 






f ' * 


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:}'^' V.',; 




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t 1 

:^ , 


•' ',""J^!»J| ■' 







'///ff/t ^vA\ ^^p^^*^' ^' Hf'ft'fn/t/* 
of <"iKO*«ll.»l'll\- 



■ '^■•.'/i««WM!»' 




#■', , 





jtch firft came among 

>K- i/^'tt' t^Tible for any natioa 

\ ili,i ♦*T'Ki government (whid» 

'^Mni J, tat that vaft country) 

• ■^J^W'"'"'^ 3W| <;>».("■» republican one. 

'^./A^./ ^»>a'ls in Afia, a great 

V N--!»_ hometinifm, particu-' 

and Tartary i Aey 

empire of the great 

fm «n wliich, in feme rc- 

■ft^Ti— P"''"' Aoughb©thof 
j.JwiiirW' I their lawgiver, and 

_^ riUV**"'!^''' *"** praAice. la 

.. **;«<3«. iF . ^'•*nne moft extiwannt 

" '"^"isL^.f' "W2ulJ»^fliall haveoccafionie 

^pgtre, that their mul^ 

^rt*"'""^ ^fcmoniet attcndihg^: 



■'.< t.:-. 





^i • 


■ WS.'f , 

( 5 ) 


The new akd UNIVERSAL 





The whole WORLD. 

BOO k:"^ I. 


A S I A. 


O B N B R A L. 


(HOUGH it ii natural for the inhabitants of that 
X quarter of the globe in which we live, firom an in- 
nate fondnefs, to give die preference to Europe, neycrthe- 
lefs Afia is efteemed to be, in all refjpeAs, nie mtift con- 
iiderable part of the world, »nd is intitled to the firft rank, 
on account of its many fingular advantages above the reft. 
toT inftance, in a few particulars ; in Afia, the Creator 
of the Univerfc planted the delightful garden of Eden, 
wherein he placed the firft parents of mankind, front ifhom 
the whole race of human beings defcendcd. Aiii, whofe 
countries are iirft enlightened by the riling fun, became 
the nurfery of the world after the general dclugCi and from 
thence the defcendants of Noah difperfed their various co- 
lonies into all other parts of the habitable globe. In Afia, 
God nude choice of that fertile fpot Canaan, wherein he 
placed his favourite and antient people the Jews. Here, 
alfo, the great and ftupcndoua work of our redemption, 
was accomplilhtd by his divine Son i and from hence his 
difciples and followers diffufed the light of his glorious 
gofnel amongft the furrounding nations. Here, likewife, 
were founded the tirftchriftian churches; the iirft councils 
were held ; the iirft biihopricks erefted, and the chriftian 
faith miraculouOy founded, promulgated, and watered 
with the blood of aglorions armyofmartyrs. fnihort, in 
Afia the iirft edifices were reared, the firu cities built, and 
the iirft kingdoms and monarchies founded, at a time when 
the other parts of the world were the haunts of wild bealll, 
or but very thinly, if at all, inhabited. 

Befides tlie above-mentioned advantages, Aiia furpailes 
the other parts of the world in tlte extent of its territory, the 
richnefs of its foil, the fcrenity of its air, the delicious 
flavour of its fraits, tlie falutary quality of its drugs, and the 
fragrancy and balfamic nature of its plants, fpiccs, gums, 
8(C. the value, beauty, variety, and quantity of its gems ; 
iinenefs of its iilks, cottons, ice. tlic richnefs of its metals, 
befides various other excellencies ; all which peculiar ad- 
vantages, rendered it fo charming and delightful an abode, 
that it was fur a long feries of years tike reiiaence and feat of 
the greatcft monarchies iivthe world. Butfmce the Turks, 
who arc enemies to all plolitenefs and the fine arts, have 
ItofTcfreJ a confi(IerabIc part of it, much of its ancient fplen- 
(lor lias been entirely loft ; the looft fruitful and delightful 
fpot in all Afia, refemblcs a wild, uncultivated dcfert, and 
fince that time, is only remarkable for the rich commodi- 
ties it affcrd:, but i:'{iiU viiitcd and reforted to by mer- 
chants of other nations, on that account. Such, parts of 
t\m country as have cfcaped tlie barbarilin of the Turks, 

No. I. ' It. 

are ftill in a flourifhini; iUte, notwithftanding the inhabi< 
tants are juftly cenfu' cd for their indolence, eiieminacyi 
and luxury : fo that this advantage may be radier afcribed to 
the richnefs of the foil, than to the induftry of the intu'* 

Hiftorians in general, impace the eiTemiiMcy of IM 
lutivesof (his country, chiefly to the warmth of the eli' 
mate, heightened by cuftom and education ; coiiieqiientiy 
it is lefs prevalent, the nearer they are iituated to die north : ' 
lience the foutliern countries do itot produce fuck robtiil 
natives as the northern ones v from which it is inlettcji 
that thofe Afiatics who live nearly in our latitude, are, in 
this refpef), not much inferior to us : and that the nor- 
thern Turks and Tartars, particularly, are very ftrong and 
courageous. Wemuft, however, obferve, that theywha> 
live in the more fouthem regions of Afia, experience the 
deficiency- of robuftnefs in their betdies, to be in a great 
mcafure fupplied to them by the vivacity of their mind, and 
their ingenuity in various kmds of workmanfhip, whiehour 
moft expert mechanics have in vain endeavoured to imitate. 

We will not pretend to determine, whether the relledion 
which iscommonly caft on all the Afiatic nations, that they 
are naturally fordid admirers of monarchy, be tltogether 
juft i fince their princes have always kept them in fucti ab- 
jeA flavery and fubjeflion, that they never had the kaft 
opportunity of difplayihg thcit love of liberty, which we , 
may fuppote to be as congenial with them, as with 4^^ 
reft of mankind. It muft, howcN-er, be confeAixI, that 
many of thofe people, when the Dutch iirft came among 
them, could not conceive how it was poiKbk for any nation 
to live under any other than a defpotic government (which 
is the only one eftablifhed throughout that vaft country) 
or how that people could fubfiil under a republican one. 

A ftupid kind of religion now prevails in Afia, a great 
part of It being over-run with Mahometanifm, particu' 
tarly Tarky, Arabia, part of India, and Tattary : (hey 
profiifs the fame in Perfia, and the empire of me great 
Klogu', but are of the fe£i of Hali, which, in fome re- 
fpedts, differs'' from that of the Turks, though both of 
niem acknowledge Mahomet for their lawgiver, and 
the alcoran for tlteir divine rule of iaith and praAiee. ^la 
China, Japan, Siam, &c. they are, for tlie moft part, 
heathens and idolaters j have ftrange notions of tlie Uehy; 
or rather of their dritits, aod ufc ihe moK eXtrvraguMI 
rites in their worfhipof them, as we ihali have occafioatai' 
Ihew heieaiter ; but muft obferve here, that their mul# 
plicUy of idols, and fuperftitious certmoniet atieadlli|j' 





cuMMOy ins priefti, wEb 

amlSfj m Siia^ rSabttd by tlw prieftt, who art. 
Aereby oonfideraUa gainan t and whatever countenance 
«Mn of faDerior taientt andwittoipimy. icent t« gmrikf "* 
in outwara a{>paarance, thk^ art oi iMI°^ilbf<ri>hlie-a Urn 
of nund not to-defpife them in their heart*. There are, 
6tfidu, feveral leAt of the antient Perftci,' or follower! of 
oiffev mv4^ all«v«r I|(aii»fndrAlii,#hitf' 
-b* ani(a|jl^ie l^i^. ^nd if«ftil<tf «M 

SrlHtacH;. httaufc tM| pay Mei* adOteAs to ifuRdai 
fynwol of that element. 'I'hefe are avowed enemiet 
(o every ipcdct of idolatry, imagery, n^mfriet,. fee. whickt 
they conuder u unworthy the fupreme Beingr who, they 
affirm,, neither can, nor ouj^t to be reprefented by ima- 
ger, nor CMifintd in tniwieti. Tliefe feSs, aaion| wh«m 
arc included IhebraKinam or brachmmi, are reckoned (he 
moil coniiderablc,. and are alfo very humane and benevo- 
lent, leitd{Memplative lifei. feed only upon vegetables, 
and are fo far fronvktlling any living creatures for Uieir ufe, 
«r even poxieui ono in their own. de&nce, that they even 

Srovide lofpitals fof fnch ai ai# deieayed dirough age, aoct- 
eiK, or aay othdr iitfirmity i and befto# apeouliar digioe 
of attention and care on domeftic animals. 

Afia, as we before obferred, w«i celebrated for beoi^ tiic 
favoured quarter of the world, where the chriftian rebgion 
was firilplantedrfrom< whence it fpread with (iich amazing 
rapidity and fucctfi, that even in' the apoftolic age, it had 
Kached a: far as India, if not beyond, and was almoft uni- 
rerfally received and proMcd. But as the degeneraoy of 
thofe converts phxlulced tbat denuiiciation secbrded by St. 
John, Rtv. ii. 5.- the churches of A<ia' Minor were aban- 
doned to peifecution^aad at lengthalmott utterly deftroycd 
by the irruptioni of tlW northern barbarians, Saracens, 
Tartars, and Turiu t and although the pure light of the 
gofpel could, never be. totally extmguimed by Uiem, but 
great numbers of chriftians in different parts of Afia, con- 
tinued to adhere to it \ yet they have always been kept 
under fuch abjcA fubjefuon by the tyranny of the. ruling 
powen, and are fo to this day, that their prefentfituation, 
as they have neither eompaflion nor toieratioiv granted 
them, may juftly be de«med a (late of mifery andoppreffion. 
. The continent of Afia is fituated between twenty five 
and (fi» k«adr«d and forty-eight degrees of eaft longitude, 
firom London, and between the equator and fevenly-two 
^fCnw iMxtltUtitut^i esckifivc of the iflands which lie to 
d^ fouiik It is about four thoufand feren hundred and 
fiifty ntibs in length ftara, the Doadanelle* on the weft, to 
ibe ei^m lltore of Tartuy ; and about four thouiand 
thiM handrad and eiriity nulcs in breadth, from the moft 
feudtain put of Malaeca, to the moft northern cape of 
Nov* Zembla. It is boaaded- by the frozen ocean on the 
nordi{ and is fepaiated from Africa on the weft, by the Red 
Sea ; and. from Europ by the Levant, die Archipelago, 
tba Hellfi^nt, Propontis, Bofphorus, the Blaok Sea, the 
nver Don, and a hne drawn £rom it to. the river Tobal, 
and from thence to the Oby, which falls into the Frozen 
Ocean ; on the eaft, it is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, 
.and on the north, by the Indian Ocean. 

The moft coniiderabtR .<ionarchies or fovereignties of 
Aih, at prefent kuuwu to us, amoont to forty-'wo ; four 
•f tbaie are ftiled intiie empires; namely, PeHia, Great 
Mogul, China and Japan ; alfo Turky and Mufcovy, 
u^ch are partof two mote, whole moft confiderable ihares 
arc in Europe. 

Afia comprehends thirty-three kingdoms, twenty-fix of 
which are on Terra Firma, and the other feveik are infular 
ones. Of the former fort are, i. Yemen.; 2. Sartaeh, in 
Aral^ ; 3. Nizapor ; 4. Golconda i c Bifnagar ; 6. Ca- 
licut ; 7. Cochin, in the peninfub of India^ on this fide 
of the Ganges; 8. Siam; 9. Camboya; 10. Ava, alias 
Fegui ii.Acham; 12. Aracham; 13. Tonquint 14. Co- 
chmchina; 15. Jaos in die peninfula, on the otlier fide 
the Ganges; <6. Baxantola, alias Laflat i7.Neekbat; 
18. Coguot alias Gteat Thibet ; 19. Nanyu ; 20. Little 
Thibet ( 21. Kalghart 22. Corea; 23. Samaicandi 
94. Bedia, in Great Tattary; 25. Mingrelia; 26. Ime- 
letia, in Georgia. — The feven infular ones are, i. In the 
Maldivia ifles; s.Candi, in the ifle of Ceylon ; 3. Aehem; 
4, Materani 5. Borneo, in the idaods of thofe names in 
die Sound i 6. MacaHeri and 7. Ternate, intli* Molucca 

In addition to the above-mentioned fovereignties, we 
may reckon three eftabliflied here by the Europeans, as 
follow » I. Of the Spaniards, in the Philippine iflands { 
2. Of the Poctuguefe, in Goa, and other coafts of India ( 
■). Uf the Dutcli, \A Batavia, Java, Ceylon, and other 
ifles and coaAs^ A!f £; Hit Engliih £:ttlcni£riu at soinbay. 

FaitSt. Qtotge, Ue. lad the DanilUat Malabar, tin aoaii^ 
of Corontandei, &c. There are alfo I'ome independent, or 
vagrant nations, vvho have no fettled abode, the moft con.* 
fideifable of ihcfe (who live ijvkords, independent of eaclk 
•tfatt) are'the'trioet called Ben^cbres, ficdwiiis, and foine 
others in Arabia, and the Calmuc or ICalmac in Tartary ( 
ihefe move their tents firom place to place, as occafiMt 
oflWs, OB fimcy proMpt^ th<m. 

SotwiiMla%dmgti\« great nbmb^ of different torfde* 
■aMff diaUflV (iik>ke» itV ihi* vaA-ext«M arak-variei^ of^na- 
tions, we can, with truth affirm, th.t Alia has, by far, 
the fewtik of ah)! ptiier part of the world ; tliis is chiefly 
owing to the very extenfive empires coinprifed in it, each 
of which, ftrivs* to introduce 93^ ui^foituity of language 
aiam||thc fu^£ls of it The principal ohet are, the 
Perfian, Arabic, Tartitrian': Chincfe, Jnpanefe, 'Malayan, 
and Malabarian. The European languages, viz. the ror> 
tuguefe, Spanilh, Englilh, and Dutch ; the Greek and 
Latin among the chril\iai\s, and the Hebrew among the 
'$,, are only ufed by thefe foreigners who have>intro- 
tkm for their otfn convenielice, and are little 

lOWn (D the natives. ^ 

As Afia extends itfelf quite from the equator to the poUt 
circle, and even beyond, confe<^uently the climates muft 
be (b various, that a miiiute detail of them, and their pecu- 
liar products, would, in this pbee, be tedious, and lead 
us irOo too great a length, fince the foils muft naturally' 
vary, according to their difl^rent fituations. We (hall, 
therefore, only fay at ptefaut, till we come to doforibe each 
part in a more particular manner, tliat 'Afia comprehends 
all the temperate, the larger half of the torrid, and gicat 
part of the frigid zone ; (b that it enjoys no lefs than> 
twenty -four climates ; vet, upon the' whole, tlic country 
is rich and fruitful, and fome parts of it exceedingly fo, if 
we except fome parts of Arabia and. Tartary, and fome of 
the more northern traAs. 

In erdec to avoid as much as polTible the fcrupuloua 
niceties, and, in fome cafes, the miftakes and errors of 
other eeographen, we (hall, in our divifion of titis great 
part of the vtOrld, confider it with refped to die diSmnt 
dominiotu it it at prefent fubjcA to ; namely, 

I. Perfia. 

II. China, which is divided into north and fouth. 
IK. India, comprehending, i. The pcninfula of Indiai 

beyond uie Ganges, containing Cochinchina, Tonquin, 
Pc^tt, and Siam, the laft o£ which, is fabdivkled into 
MartdbiB, Siam, and Malacca, a. The pcninfula on thi» 
fide the Ganges, containing tHc £>tcan, Golcorxa, Bifna- 
gar, and Malabar. 

IV. Hindoltan, or the empire of the Great Moguls as, 
it is generally, though improperly, called in Europe-, the 
title not being afliimed by the emperor there. In this 
great empire, are many petty kingdoms, lately ereCled into 
free ftates, or fallen under the jurifdiAion of the Engliftv 
Eaft India Company. 

V. Great Tartary, Siberia, Samojedia, and Afiatic 
Ruflia. , 

VI. Turky in Afia, which is divided into eaftem and 
wcftern ; the eaftern contains Diarbeck, Tutcomania, and 
Georgia. The weftern comprehends Arabia, Paleftine, Sy- 
ria, and Anatolia. 

VII. The Afiatic illanda are divided into four dades : 
I . The illand, or empire of Japan ; 2 . The iflands of the 
eaftem ocean 1 viz. the Marian or Ladrone iflands, For- 
nio(a, and the Phitippiiie iflands ; 3. Thole in the Indian 
Ofsean, which are the Molucca's, namely, Tydore, &c. and 
the Spice iflands ) viz. Banda, Ainboyna, Ceiam, I'emate, 
Timor, Gilolo, &c. Celebes,. Borneo^ Java, Sumatra,. 
Ceylon, the Maldivia iflands, &c.. 4. On the coafts o£ 
A^ and in the Mediterranean, as Cyprus, Rhodes, Lef- 
bos, or Mytelene, Chios or Scio, Samos, Coos, and fome- 
others of lefs note, with the new difcoveries. 

Thefe laft divifions not coming iato any of the fbrmar 
daflea,. muft be fpoken of in feparate articles. 

It is not unlikely that fome may objeft here, that Tai> 
tary is not undet one government ; that India, beyond 
the Ganges, is independent of the Great Mogul, as Arabia 
is of the Turks ; and that Georgia, Mingrelia, &c. are 
fubjcA partly to the Turks, and partly to the Perfians, and 
confequendy that each of thefe fliould be divided into its 
refpcAive parts. But, in this introduAory part of out 
work, we think it more eligible to avoid clogging out 
readers' memory with too many diftinAions, which will 
be more properly introduced, when we treat of each parti- 
cular part. However, a clear idea of die continent and 
iflands. Sec. of this quarter of the globe, may be obtained 
from the feveral following tabks ; 


. ''V-^'^ '"- 


I of the 
Jtc. and 

aftt of 

I uiine< 


: Tat- 



|c. aie 

i, and 


If oin; 

|g out 


1 parti* 

,it an<t 






A Niw, CdHPLiTi, and OiKiKAL, T AftLE of the Cotltlnmi of ASIA. 






Mog«il Empire 



- < 



Mogulean - - 
. Independaiil 
•Arabia - - 

rioly Land 

Natolia - - 
Mefopot arnia 
Turcoitia nia 




















1 300 






Fiin<ipitl Crtiak Uittawce aw^ BewJilg trpn>Loi»dp* 

fptlun - 

■I >> I I 


Siam • 

Dehli -~ 


Chynian - 

Tibet - 


Mecca - 


Jcrttfalem - 

















Eizeruin - 











Malto i iS w iw. 











"Cht itt&Matr 


with Tome 

A Ntw and Co>mpi.bti TABI^E of the Islands, &c. of ASIA. 



U 4)' 


. ...'iff, 

■ Vivs' ■■ : 
The Molucca 

' larida ^ 















Andaman . > . 

Nicobar . . - 

CeyloR , - - . 

Maldivta - - • 

Bofflbajp . . • 

; New Holland 
New Guinea 6c Papua 
New Britain - ■• 
New IrdaAd • - 
New Hebrides - • 
New Caledonia 
New Zealand • • . 

■*■««• Fwnwily T Lately dif. 

Socielja.. S""""* 
Cyprus . - - .^.imjf\* 
Rhodes - - - • ?T. » 
LeflKM Of Mytelene - - 


Samoi .----- 

Niearia ------ 

Slanchio • - ' - - 

_ Usief 1 ow«i». 

^cddo '• -V, - t 
Guam * -'.,-. " 
Tai>euan'-foi4 - - 
Maitittar . - - 
Lautor . . • 
Ambwna - - - 
Macsfllair . - - 
Gilolo - -, - - 

■ i r.iUill 
V! ,1" • 

f.o'. '■• ■ 

Borneo, Acbeii, Bencool- 1 
en, Baiavta, and Bantam | 

Andtman - - - - - 
Nisobaf - - . - « 
Candy ------ 

Ckridon - - - - - 

Bombay - . - - - 

Notbinc worthy the name 

of a town. 

Nicofaa . . - . 

Rhodes - .• - - 

Ctftro •*{'..» -i" - - 

Sci© »?- '+ ■» - - 

Com - - - - . 
No town wordi naming 

Staaebio - - - - • 

Btlongiuft to,, qr trade with. 

Uuich ^ 


China .V. 






.,■.11 li.. ' i .'!■■ .1! ■ . 

All nations ; particularly 
the EngTilh Mul Dutch. 

All nations 


DtMcb V 

AU natwus 



.E .. 

O ff"-> 


A Gbnsral table of Ssas, Lakbs, Rivers, 


Seas and Lakes. 

Dead Sea 
Sea of Gslilee 



Volga. Chefel 
Oaus, Arbis 
Carius, &c. 



Taurus , 






Orminius Gilead 
Cadmus Mafias 







Picria* &e. 



Idolsion • • 

Mahomttans • 
Fire WoiiUppen . 

Jew* . - - 
Chriftians - • 




\ the Laws of 
I Mofts. 

rWbo profefs 
< the Dodrines 
Cof Chrift. 








Having tiiw jwIonteA M ttm view of oar iwdcn, a 
ftelBh ome pfau wc iwaii to mtfoe, in Ac dcfeription 
w« art about I* gi** of A» Awk Aominicint (in oeing 
whUth w« dull taileavow to be To clear and comMcbcn- 
Hn, ^ nothing matnial flull be mnhted^ite imll now 
' W gin a (Mtifd aif>e » » hiftorf and dei^ipiioa 

•f the kingdom of Perfia, a kingdom of very confidenUa 
im|iOftanai on which accownt, u welt at tbat we may not 
be-ihonght mere oapytft*. like former writcn on itiiilab* 
jeA, we give thafe cxtenfiTC and celebrated pnwineee, the 
lead in tile Afiatic part of owr work. ^ I 


_ CHAP. I. 

TH« new'h^t<>iiy AND'b^SCIlIP^toK 6r 





SECT, h 



' Cnttlrint « tItJiripi'iM rf ihtium; tttmiMn muftjumi 

fitHOtitilt prruiiuii, air, tlimati, bt*. fiat, rivtrt, hIi- 
UMid ijhnit, and ihtir truiiut, tftht tmfirt if-Ptrfia,- 
I, hithvAthrtffta ttitnmti4iuaiidprifmtjittf. ■ - 

T is highly probable that Perfa deirrci its name either 
from the province of Perfii, now called Fan, or from 
rfepoli* which wai anciently the capital city of this pro- 
vince, anti th4 feat of it* monarchs, when Alexander the 
Great cwquercd Darius, and fubdued the whole country. 
Some daflic writers deduce its name from Peifeus, the fon 
of Jupiter and Danae i while others take it firom Paras, a 
horreraan, becaufe the Perfian troops ferved on horfeback, 
and were fomous for their (kill in horfemanfliip. 
|t Though the boundaries of this empire will be better 
1 1 underfiood from the defcripltbli'of its refpeCttve provinces, 
, yetfome geographers affirm them to bo as follows- ; viz. 
; \ lndia» or the dominions of the Mogul, towards the eaft ; 
j ;the occaa, or Pctfian gulf, or Boflbra, towards the fouth ; 
' ' the Turkilh empire towards the weft ; and CireafTn, the 
'Cafpian fea, and the river Oxus (which divides it frem 
the country of the Ulbeck Tartars) tov/ards the north. 
We muft allow tliat this defcription would be tolerably 
juft, were die bounds of the Mogul's dominions on the 
!'eaft, and thofe of the Turkifli empire on the weft, once 
' fettled^ As leveral provinces of India lie to tho weftward 
I {Of Ipdus, and fome of the Turkilh provinces extend to the 
caftwvd of the river Tigris i conrequently diofe writers 
muft err, who make the river Indus the eaftem boundary, 
and the Tigris the weftem; to which we mayalfo fubjoin, 
thatJMit of the Arabian coaft, on the fouth of the gulf of 
Boflora, is fubjeft to the kin^ of Periia. 

The moft (buthem part of Petiia Iving in twenty- five 

degree* north latitude, and thcf mou iiorthem part in 

forty-five degrees, it may be juftly reckoned to be twelve 

hundred miles in extent, from nortli to fouth ; and as the 

* tweftern part of it lies in forty-five dcgteet of longitude, 

j ;calciilatii^ firom the meridian of London^ and tlie mod 

i eaftem paiit in fixty-feven, die length and breadth is nearly 

^ .equal ; and the foqji of tlirc«u(itry trOOld be almoit 

' fqoare, were it not far the Cafpien Cea, -which brides the 

north-eaft parts of Perfia 6om the noitfa-wefi. Tiiey are 

certainly egregioufly miftaken, wbo extend it thirteen de- 

' grcei faierond our moft accurate accounts i for by that 

, means, Uiey make it to contain diirty-five degrees of lon- 

■ girade, and the length greatly to exceed the breadth. 

The Perfian protriiiotc m»y all be comprehended in 

, twelve' diftriAsk in the following order j Chorafaii, Sa- 

bleoftimi Sigifbm, Mdieran,' Kermah, Pars, Chufiftan, 

Curdeftan, frac-Agem, Ghilan, Ad^rbcitzcn, and Shir- 

van.i We <hall fhcw tlK different names by which they 

were antiently, and are now called; and that the reader 

'may not remain in any doubt coiiceniing them, we Ikall 

. take carc' (where other ' writers n^e. two <kT: more, in the 

i bounds of one of thefe diiWifis) generally to mention 

'them both. ..... ' 

' . We Ihall defcribe the whole of this extenfive empire, in 
;lhe moft circumftantial manner, and arrange the feveral 
rovincct as tollow : ' 



.itiniO U) . 


I. Chomfail (tn mta^ SfiarabcJ o^ Rheman may ti 
included, thongh iiuse reckon them diftioA pakviace^f if 

I bounded, toMarai the eaftr br part of India; on the nonif 
weft, by IherivttOxu^ which divide* it from Ufbeck 
Tarury i on the ivoth, oy ther piovince of Sabieuflan ; pa 
tke.weft* \tf (^hikn -attd Irac-AgenH and by the Cafpian 
ieaoatfatfAo^weft. The chief (owns are Herat, Met* 
chid or Thus, Nicabour, Efterabad, Aria, Maron, Indion« 
and Zarshas. This province contain* part of the ahtieni 

II. Sahleuftan Cm wbach<3aur and Candakor may \^ 
comprehended) is bounded, towards the north, by Cho.f 
rafan; towards tl^e eaft, by the province of CaW, iii 
India ; towards ^e foudi, by the provinee of Sigjftan \ 
and, towards the weft, by the proviace of Itac-Agem. 
Gazna, Buft, Beckfabath, and Candahar, are the chief 

III. Sigiftan ; which is bounded, on the nokdi, byl 
Sablcuftani towards the caft, by the province of MultanJ 
in India ; on the fouth, by the province of Makeran ; 
and, toward* the weft, by part of die province of Kermau^ 
Sigiftan, Kobin, and Maftich, are the chief towns. Thief 
province is faid to be the antient Drangtana. 

IV. Mtkeran j whidi is bounded, on the north, hf 
Sigiftan ; . towards the eaft, by the provL'^ces of Buckor' 
and Tata, in India ; towards the fouth, b^ the ocean j, 
and towards the weft, by the province of kerman. Ma- 
keran, Paflir, and Gcft, are its chief towns. This pro-' 
vince is (bppofed to be the antient Gedroflia> 

V. Kerman ; which is bounded, toward* the eaft, bjr 
the province* of Sigiftan and Makeran i towards the 
fouth, by the ocean ; towards the weft, by the province: 
of Fan I and, towards the north, by a deleit in the pro.' 
vince of Irac-A^m. The chief towns are Kerinarv 
Chabis, Salem, 1 ubaran, Jafqiies, and Databegerd, wliiclk 
was the andent Pafliigardi. 

V). Fars, or Farnftan i wliich is bounded, towards 
the eaft, by Kerman ) towards the fouth, by the gulf of 
Perfia, called Boflora ; towards the- weft, by the province 
of Chufiftan i and ton'ards die north, by the province of 
Irae-Agem. The -chief -towns arc the fOlloM ing { 
I. SchTraS) ]which- lies in- thr- latitude of twcnty-nino de- 
gi ee s ;- fifty minutes, about thirty m les fouth-weft fronti 
Pericpolis, wtljofe magniticeiit ruins excite the admiration 
of travellers \ but of this we (hall have occafion to (peak 
hereafter, 2.' Lar { ^bout a hundred miles fouthward of 
Sehinw, Gombeen, or Bander AbalG, in twenty-feven 
degrees thirty tnitmits nordi. 3. Ormps 1 which (lands • .. 
on « ftmdl iflitndof the fame name, in the gulf of Perfia, , 
oppofite to Gombi^n, and a/bout fi:^ miles from it. , 
4. Bander Con^ 1 Which alfo ftand* o» the Perfian gulf, : 
about thirty miles weft of Gombron. It may not be- im., ! 
proper to take notice here, of a fmall territory bclongirtg 
to the kingdom of Pctfia, which lies on tlie Arabiaik t 
Ihore,. on the other fide of the gulf ; the chief towns of it 
arc Gatenfei and Bteatif. from Whence this fea foiuetimet ' 
takce the'naifiH; in tlie province of Fars, may bu cont-i i 
prchcnded the diftriAs, of Lar and Ormos. ' 

VII. Chufiftan j which is bounded, on die eaft, by 
the provinces of Fan ^d Irac. Agem 1 on the fouth,. by 
the gv.!f of Ps.' fit • oh the weft, by the territory of Boflbin ; 









he nottti 
iftan I on 
: Cafpian 
at, Meti 
, Indion* 
le antieni 

jr may *W 

by Cho-i 
CaW, ill 

Sigiftan i 

the chief 

r Muttuv' 

rlaVceran ; 

north, by 
)f BuckoH 
le ocean tj 
an. Mi-i 
[This prort 

le eaft, bf 
jwardi the 
le province 
the pio- 
:rd, whicK 

be gulf of 
lie provinca 
Lrovincc of 
ly-nino ae-\ 
l weft from i 
tn to fpealc 
Jathwara of 
' of Herila. 
from it. . 
fian gulf, j 
Inot be-iwii 
i belongirtg 
lie Arabiaik ' 
Itowns of it ^ 
\ fometime* ■ 
|y bt com- j 

llie eaft, by ' 
fouth, by 


.■-■ ' ■». 

- i 



.•,.,,. _^. 





■ s irt,. 

«ity tH«y havb a eonMec^le totrn, aAi W Manne-nnr^ 
Kreateft mrrcheRt: in the Pcrikn uouiiniont i and as they 
Eave their agent» and iaAota in almoft every {jace ttuongh- 
No. I. 

\fia, tltcy may With propriety be eftccBM^ 

rt in the whole world. 

lip of Perfu readies froiu the twenty-fifth 

degree of latitude, the lon^eft day in the 
1 hovn and an half i and, in the north, 
in t fo that it ii very natural to fappofri 
aft extent of country, the air and (eafoiw 
hich we find they i-eally do. Their winter* 

the kiiigdoui, bc|(in9 in November, and 
aKh, with I'rvcrc tiufts and Itiowi the laner 
1 great quantitiei on their iroantaim, but 
1 the.plaini. From March till May, the 
Illy high ) and from that time till Septem- 
acalti) ferene aunofphere, without fo much 
e heavens t and thouf,h it be pretty hot in 
le rcfrclhing bicczes, which blow conftantly 
and evenine, and at night, make the fum- 
pleafant, elpecially a> the nights are nearly 

The air ii very pure j and the ftat« Ihine 
;, that one peifon may know another very 
ghti and people in 'general, find it much 
nt and agreeable to travel in the night, than 

fddora any hurricanes or tempcfts in the 

|a, and very little thunder or lightning t nor 

f carthquaket) and the air is fo extremely dry 

ifon, that there is not the lead moifture 

thins that is laid abroad all night, or even 

andthey have very little rain in the winter 

a common obfervation among foreigners, 

clled to the heart of Perfia, that thoie who 

on their arrival thither, continue fo i and 

are fick, fcldom recover ; which is a mani- 

1 of the falubrity of the air and climate, and 
iri from the hale complexion of the natives, 
g and robuft, and generally enjoy a conftant 

thcrn part of Perfia, the air Is vtfry unhealth- 

iring and fall, particularly about Gombron { 

I factors never pnfs a year without a dangerous 

, which frequently proves fatal to them. At 

always expeclcd to happen, two of them com- 

that if one die, the fortune of the dcceafed 

to the furvivor. This is no great prejudice 

>m ; for if a leaves piivate tmftees, or 

impany his executors, the heir of the deceafed 

:r of tliofe cafes, meet with great difficulties in 

he effects of the teftator. The months of 

and Auguft, are pretty healthy, but fo very 

th natives and foreigners get upon the moun- 

time. The hot winds, which come from tho 

:r a longtrafl of fandy dcferts, well nish fuffb- 

and fometimes a peuikntial blaft finkes the 

d in an inftant. It feldom rains here in any 

rear ; and tli'; water tliey fave when it does, is 

\hjtae. It has been commonly remarked, that 

s near the tropics are much hotter than thofe 

ne ; which is accounted for, from the fun't 

anger near tlie tropics, than tlie equator i and 

ng of a greater length in fummer near the tro* 

inder the line ; which are certainly very fub- 

Fons. But a great deal muft be attributed to 

of the foil, and the fituation of the country, 

rinds blow over large, fandy, and fcoiching de^ 

:fpecially between die mountains, which refle£t 

m one ude to tlie other ) and there ate no re- 

xzcs or Ihowers to cool the air, as there ge- 

near the line ; fo tliat it is no wonder that thofe 

re much hotter than any that are under the 

thofe near the Perfian gulf certainly are. The 

ible reafon, therefore, that the antients never 

uiy cquittry in the fouthern latitude, is, they 

t> excelfively hot about the tropics, that they 

if they ftiovud proceed much farther fouth, the 

; have been intolerable ; and it feems to have 

:eived opinion among them, that part of tho 

; was not habitable. But we find, on the con* 

in many countries, which the antients wer* 

with, the luiats were greater than thofe under 

very incredible that all countries in the foathero 

le uninhabited till within fome hundred yean 

ally in Africa, where no fcas intervened to prevent 

^ m.^m' '• "U< it appears no lefs ilrange, on the other 

._ ,i if n«»)!e hsd crSTcltcu inio the fouthern parts ojf 

Africa, that none fliould ever return from tholb parts, to, 

give the antients aa. account of thcfe countries, and inforai 

C ihem. 


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Thb new and U( 


h ii 




KaTinc lhti< prrfantrd to the view o 
Letch of the pUn we metn to iiurfue, ii 
w« •!« about to give of iIm Aliatir dotn 

whicbt we Ihall ctidcivnur to he Co clear 

five, that notliing matirial Ihall br nmitte 

fta«e*«l to give a full aiui complete hiftoq 



/ '> 

' ' Cmltlnini » dt/iripilm tf llit namt, tmnJari 
JlluaiitH, p'tvintii, air, tlimale, Hi. fnif 
, ' irattJ ijhndi, and ihiir prtJytt, cflht tmpk 


ttti with rtjpill /< ill OHlitnl and prtfinl^aU 

i,TT ii higlily p 
I * I from the pro 
,1 Perfrpulii, wliich 

i I hielily probable that Perfia darivd iti I 

iioviiicc of Pcrfu, now called Kai 

ch wai anciently the capital city I 

(jvincci and the feat of iti monarclis, when Alt 

' I Great coiiquercd Dariuj, and fiibdued the who 

I Some clairic writcrt deduce it« name frnni I'crfq 

''of Jupiter and Uanae \ while ntheri take it froi 

liorfcman, bccaufe the Pcr<ian troopj fcrvcd on 

and were famous for tlicir (kill in horl'cmanfliipi 

I'hough the boundaries of tliii empire wij 

tmdcrftood from the dcfcription of its refpeflivel 
yet fome geographers affirm them to be at foltt 
India, or the dominions of the Mof;ul, toward) 

the occaa, or Pcrfian gulf, or BolTura, towards t 
the Turkilh empire towards the weft ; and Cir< 
Cafpian Tea, and the river Oxus (which diviHn 
the country of the Ulbeck Tartars) towards tb 
We mutt allow that this dcfcription would be 
juft, were the bounds of the Mogul's dominioi 
eaA, and thofe of the Turkilh empire on the \M 
fettled. As fcveral provinces of India lie to thct 
of Indus, and fome of the Turkilh provinces extdi 
eaftward of the river Tigris i conlequcntly tliof 
muft err, who make the river Indus tlie caitem bi 
.md the Tigris the wefiern; to which we may alf() 
that part of tlic Arabian coaft, on the foutji of tlH 
Soflbra, is f jbje£t to the king of Perfia. 
The moft fouthern part of Perfia King in Xm^ 
■ degrees north latitude, and the moil nortlicntj 
forty-five degrees, it may be jullly reckoned to ft 
Inmdrcd miles in extent, from north to fouth ; a$ 
weftcrn part of it lies in forty-five degrees of l<||i 
calculating from the meridian of London, and | 
eaflern part in fixtv-fevcn, the lengtli and breadth I 
equal ; and the tonft of the country would hi 
fquare, were it not for the Cafpian fea, which dili 
north-eaA parts of Perfia from the north-weil. "B 
certainly egregioufly miftaken, who extend it thii't 
grees beyond our moft accurate accounts ; for t 
, means, tliey make it to contain thirty-live degrees^ 
gitude, and the length greatly to exceed the breadi 
The Perfian provincet may all be comprehel 
twelve diftriAs, m the following order ) Cliorafa 
blcuftan, Sigiftan, Makeran, Kerman, Fars, CI* 
Curdeflan, Irac-Agcm, Ghilan, Adcrlxitzcn, an| 
van. Wc fhall fhew tlie different naine< by wliiij 
were anticiitly, and arc novt called ; -and that thdS 
may not remain in any doubt coiicerTiini; them, vM 
take care (where other writers napie. two or. more, I 
; bounds of one of thcfc diftrifts) generally to ml \ 
■tiicm both. ! I 

Vr'c ihall dvfsribc the whole of this rvte-iifive nnpi ■ 
the moft circuinftantial manner, and 3rrjii>>e the fcvern 

provinces as follow ki ■■<••'# 

! •.;i<»t£I-j;'i f ^. 

1 on the 


• mn 




ic feveflT,' -, ..^« oi rars and Irac-Agem 1 

^1* tTTe gi:;fofFc(ia; on the well, by the 
iis/lhli^/ " 

-.1 .:x.^ 

ibtith,, by- 

of Boflbra ; 

iea, ; 

4. T. 

ill to 

5 K 


gei Ii 

or \, 



the \ 

8. -Ii 



city t 


have t 


tA 8 ^ A.] 



nuth, by 
I Boflbia . 

tml, oi\ ilie north, hy «h« pro»mct ofC'urdcftan. 1 li« 
chief towni arCi I. Suffer, or Silwiurtcr, fiippofcd lobe 
•ifM llunni i Shiilhaii, wlirf^ AiiMutrui ini<fe thit ni*tf"i- 
ikmt fiftivll, nvuiinnrJ m Iciipturr, on hia m»rriaK« 
WithEfthri. 1. Kliliai'i i and {. iitlltlcrick, nowailiull 
town (Ml the !ca colli, Thii iirovince W4> cilletl lafitxi* 
by »he anilenM, 

VIII. Currfeftan ; which in hounded, on iha eaft, by 
Irai \|cm t orithrfoiith, liyChul'itbn i onihawel), by 
TutWilTi Curdeftani arul, on the north, by Adc;b«iUcn. 
Arnnvu and Comnii'hiiH arc the cliiel' towni in it. 'I hn 
province wa« iho Airyin of the antienti i the wrlktn piiil 
Ol it bclongn tu Tiitkv, and thcruAarn to I'orfia. 

IX. Ir.u. or F.rack.-A|jen> 1 which ii bounded, on the 
north, by ArUiVit/m and Ohiltn (.inticnlly called llyr- 
cmij) iiti till- r.ifl, by the jirovinio i4 CUoraf^n i on tho 
< Hitii, by Chutitbn and l-'uififluni and, on the well, by 
I uiJcdan. The chiit tDwni ill thii province arc, i. If|>a- 
luii, tho metropolii ol the kingdom, in thirtv-two decreet 
foity minuter north htitiule, and the fiftieth dcgiec oriou- 
gitiidc, n-ckoninn fnim the meridian of London, i. Calbin, 
or C.ilwin (w'licic the aniicnt Atl.itm ftood) iti tliirty-lix 
dcfjrcfs odd miniitoi 3. Com, litiinte in thirty-four de- 
greci thirty niiniiti-t. 4. Sava, ahnolV cxadUy Utween 
Calbin andC'om. 5. Ihinudan, .ibout a himchcd niilei 
north-wrll of Com. (>. C^Hlham, al>out fevcnty niiloi 
north of Ilpahan. 7. Ycld, alwiit one hun.lred and five 
miles to the eallwaid of Ilpahan. Irac-At,cm wa» the 
antiont Parthia, and i^ now reckoned the principal pro. 
vince of the empire, brina very extenfivc, atmolt in tlie 
centre of the Pcriiaii dominions, and tile province where 
the capital city ftand.<. 

X. Gillian, or Kylan, (in which \T,i».indcnin, or T»- 
brillan, ni»y be conipuhendcd) which is bounded, on the 
north, by the Hyrt.mian or Cai'nian tea ; on the ealV, by 
the province of Choufan, or Haftiiai on the foiith, by 
the province of Inc-AErm, orFaithiai and, on the weft, 
by Aderl)eit/.en. ItscTiief towns are, 1. Relcod. 2, Ghi- 
lan, iitiiate in thirty-eight degrees north latitude, and two 
hundred miles rail of lauvis. 3. Mar.aiulcran, one hun- 

• dted miles futtliereaft. 4. Aflicrol, within two niiles of 
the Cafpian fea. 5. Tabriftan i and, t>. I'er.tbat. 'I'hii 
pro\ince(:iswc hinted above ) wit antitntly called Hyrcania. 

XI. Aderbeit/eii, or Adirluion ; which i^ bounded, 
on tlir nfirtli, by the province oi'Shii van i oji the eall, by 
tiliilan aiul n:irt of the Calpinn fca j on the lonth, by Itac- 
Agem and Curdelbu ; and, on the well, by the river Aras, 
or Ariti'i, which li-pantcs it from part of CJcorj^ia. 'I'he 
foUowinj^ are its cliiel towni. 1. I'auris, or I abris, fup- 
pofnl to be thcaiilimt Kchatana, formerly the loyal refi- 
dence of the Median and Perlian monarchs, and eilcemed 
little inferior to Hibylon, eThcrfor its antiquity or magni- 
ficence ; it lies in lhiiry-tii;lit derrecs odd minutes of 
north latitude, and is ahout four hundred miles north-weft 
of 2. Aulcvil, or Ard.bil, Itandj about thirty 
miles eaft of TTOris. 3. Sultania, which is fix days jour- 
ney to the foutli-eart ot' I'auris, in thiity-fix dej^rces thirty 
minute', north latitude. '1 his province is tlic foutliein part 
of theantient Media. 

XI[. Shir\'an, or Schirwan ; which is bounded, on the 
north, byCircalFia, and the .Mul'covitc dominions ; on the 
eaft, by the Cafpian lea ; towards the fouth, by Adcrbeit- 
len i and towards the weft, by 'I'urkilh Armenia and 
Georgia 'J'he chief towns in this province, are, i.Der- 
bcnt, or Debircan, which fignifies an iron gate ; it is a 
very ftrong pafs between the mountains and the Cafpian 
fca, in forty-two degrees north latitude. 2. Schamachie, 
which is fituate about fifty miles to the fouth of Derbent. 

3. Baku J this town fomctiincs gives n.ame to the Cafpian 
lea, and a little to the fouthward of Schamachie. 

4. TalTlis, or Cala, the capital of eaftern Georgia i itftands 
in forty-four degrees of north latitude, and forty-eight de- 
grees of longitude, reckoning from the meridian of London. 

5. Krivan, or Irvan, lies in forty degrees odd minutes, 
upon the river Sargi, near the Ixirders of Armenia. 6. Gan- 
ge,« lies between Krivan and Schamachie. 7. Nackfivan, 
or Na/.iwan, is fituate twenty-one leagues fouth of Eri- 
van. This was anticntly the capital of an Armenian 
province, nnd the natives alEnn, from an antient tradition, 
lliat Noah built the city, when he firft came out of the ark: 
tl\c word " nackfivan" fignifying a ll.ation for (hip'i. 
8. Taiku, which ij the capital of Dagilhin. 9. Old Jul- 
pha, wlii-li is, at prefent, a heap of ruins; the Armenian 
inhabitants having been tranfplantcd to Ifmlviii, near '.vhieh 
city they have a confidcrable town, and are become the 
greateft merchants in the Perfian dominions i and a.s they 
Have their agents aiul factors in almoll every plttce through- 
No. I. 

out K^irope and Alia, they may w'lifi uiopilct) be eftttmc^ 
tilt giiiteft traders in the whole v uilj. 

At lU'i ki iitdom ul I'eifu irailici fnini the twrnty-fifih 
to 111* fuit\ lifth dcgiee of latitude, the lnn{;rft day in Ilia 
fouth ii thiiiirn huuK and an li.,lf , and, in the north, 
rfliovr rirtt-en hoiiri i fo Ihil it i, vrry naliiral to luppofr| 
that, ill fuch a vaft extent of rii iiitry, tlit air and frafotui 
greatly differ, whiih wc tind llir) le.illv do. Tlirir winter. 
Ill the middle (>l the kingdom, Im'.ihh m Novfinbcr, and 
contiiiuci till Mauh. wiihh'%rrr Ih'IIs tn,l liiow, the Utter 
ofwiiieli tails in uii'jt (juantitiet »n their mountains, but 
not lii much in tno plains. Iroin .March till May, tho 
wind Is commonly hi);h ; and from tliat time tilt Septcm' 
her, they enjoy acahn fetene alinofpherr, without fo much 
as a cloud in tne heivmi 1 and thou) h it he pretty hot in 
tlie day time, tfic i, fr>'lhin<; bice/r«, which blow conftantty 
in the morning and rvcniiiK, and at night, make the fum- 
nicr tolerably plcafant, er|iecially at tlie nights are nearly 
ten hour.! Ion,;. 'I'he air it vriy purei and the Oatt Ihlne 
with fucli luftre, that one prtr<,n may know another very 
wrlllythcii light I and peoul.' in*general, find it muca 
more ronveiiient and a;^ecablc to (ravel in the nii^hl, tliaa 
ill the day tunc, 

1 here me fcldom any hurricanes or trmpefts in the 
middle of IVifM, and very littln thunder or liglitniiig j nor 
li.ivelhey nuny carthijuakcsi and the air is fo extremely dry 
in the fine li-au.. , tint there ii not the Icaft muillurt 
tuund on any thing that is laid abroad all night, ur i .en 
on the grafs ; and they have very little rain in the winter 
fcafoii. It ii a common ob'bi vation among foreignen, 
who h.avc travelled to the heart of Peri'ia, that thole who 
arc healthful on their ariival thither, continue fo { and 
that tliofc who arc liek, ''Jdoi.i recover t which i: a mani- 
fclt indication of the faliihiily of the air and climate, and 
fuilher aji|Kars fioiii the halo complexion of the natives, 
who are ftrong and lubuil, and genu ally cnju; : conftr.nt 
fciies of health. 

In the fuulhcrn part of Peril, the air is very unhealth- 
ful ill the fpring and fall, pirticulaily about Gombron } 
the I'.uiopcan failors nevei puis a year without idangeroui 
lit of illnefs, which fni|ueiitly proves fatal to tlum. A» 
tlii.> event is always cxpctlcd t(j hapiieii, two of thein com- 
monly agree, if one die, the fortune of the dcccafed 
lliah devolve to the furvivor. This is no great prejudice 
to the relations ; fur if a man leaves private troftecs, or 
makes the company his executors, the heir of the dcceafcd 
will, in either of thole cafes, meet with great difliculties in 
recovering the elTcils of the teftator. The months of 
June, July, and Aug\ift, are pretty healthy, but fo very 
l,(jt, that both natives and foreigners get upon the moun- 
tains at that time. The hot wind^, which come from tho 
eallward over a long; trafl of fandy dcferts, well nighfufTo- 
cate them ; and fometimes a peftiUnlial bhft ftrikes the 
traveller dead in an iiiftaiit. It fcldom rains here in any 
pait of the year ; and the water they favc when it does, is 
vciy unwliolfome. It has been commonly remarked, that 
the couiitiic} near the tropics are much hotter than thofe 
under the line ; which is accounted for, from the fun'i 
remaining longer near tlic tropics, than the ei]uator ; and 
the days being of a greater length in fummer near the tro- 
pics, than under the hnc ; which are certainly very fub- 
ftantial rcafons. But a great deal mull be attribiitcd to 
the nature of the foil, and the (ituation of the countiy, 
where the winds blow over large, faiidy, andfcorching dc- 
ferts ; and efpeciallv between the mountains, which retlcft 
the heat from one fide to the other j and there are no re- 
lielhing breezes or Ihowers to cool the air, as there ge- 
nerally are near the line ; fo that it is no wonder that thofe 
countiies arc much hotter than any that arc under the 
ei|uaior, as thofe near the Pcrfian gulf certainly are. Tho 
moll pKibable reafon, therefore, that the antients never 
dil'covered any country in the fouthcrn latitude, is, they 
found it fo cxccHively hot about the tropics, that they 
inuigined, if tlicy fliould proceed much fartlier fouth, the 
heat would have liecn intolerable ; and it feems to have 
been a received opinion among them, that part of tho 
torrid zone was not habitable. But we find, on the con- 
trary, that in many countries, which the annents were 
aci|u.uiUed with, tlie heals were greater than thofe under 
tlie line. 

It fecms very incredible that all countries in tho fonthem 
latitude were uninhabited till within lome hundred years 
part, cfpecially in Africa, w l-.erc no feas intervened to orevpnt 
uilcovciies ; but it a^ipears no Icls ftrangc, on die other 
handv if people had travelled into the fouthem parts of 
Africa, that none Ihould ever return from lliofe parts, to. 
give thcaiuieuts aa account of thcl'e countijes, and inform 
C' them, 




,.; Ir 




• * 

il -• 


at Icaft, diat they were capable of being inha- 

wlicre it is nvift wanted ; andthey dig very deep and broad 
wells, out of which they draw the water with oxen, iit 

It is a received opinion among philofophers, that the 
wind is nothing elle but the air put ni motion, and the air 
inuft receive a great addition of heat from the rcflcflion of 
the burnin;^ fands ; tliis, therefore, being the cafe, it is 
not more furprizing tliat the wind thould blow warm at 
noon day, when it has pa(I<:d over a parched country for 
feveral hundred miles, tlian that thofe which Come from 
tho fea, or from fome frozen climate, Ihoiild prove cool. 
We (hall not dil'pute that feme people may have been fuf- 
focated by thefe hot winds, as travellers inform us ; but 
do not remember to have heard one inftanc? of it from 
thofe pcifons who have been feveral years in India, where 
tlie hot winds likewife blow annually in May and June. 
It is certain that the chilling cold winds thathappen in the 
night, fometimcs after an exceflive hot day, have been 
'■ very fatal to Kuvopcans, who have imprudently lain ex- 
pofed in the open air. There have been alfo iiiftances of 
people lofing the ufc of their limbs, and fome of them their 
lives, by a fudden pcftilcntial blaft, as well at fea, as on 

About forty years ago a gentleman, who held a confi- 
dcrablc port in India, under the Eaft India Company, 
the ufc of his limbs taken away in the following manner; 
a company of fix or fevcn perfons, of which number he 
wa; one, were drinking a glafs of wine en board, when 
two of them were fuddenly ftruck dead, and the others 
feized with a kind of dead palfy i and, for his part, he had 
not the leaft feeling in his limbs; but when he was carried 
on ihore, the Indian phyfician ordered him to bcftrctched 
out in the fcorching fand at noon, for feveral days fiic- 
cedlvcly, placing an umbrella over his head only, and 
two or three fcrvants were ordered to rub and pinch his 
flcrti in every part, for fome hours; and thou;5h ho was 
fo very bad, that when one of them flood upon his brcaft, 
he did not ti;el him at fiiU, yet, by chafing and nibbing 
him with oils in the fun, and bathing and pinching of him 
in this manner, for feveral days, his feeling at length re- 
turned, and the ufe of his limbs, except one hand, the 
Tjfc of which, he was in a great meafure deprived off. 

With refpciJl to the temperature of the air in the north 
part of the I'crfian dominions, we fliall here remark, that 
the provinces of Georgia, Sliirvan, and Adcrbeitzcn, arc 
very warm and dry in fuinmcr ; but in winter they are 
fubjeft to violent tempefts, and to as fevere frofts for fix 
months, as any country on the continent, in the (lime 
latitude ; but as this part of I'eifia is very mountainous, 
there is frequently a great difference bctw cen the air on the 
noitli and fouth fije of the mountains ; and, after travel- 
ling a few miles, people imagine thenifelves to be in a 
different climate ; but how cold focvcr the mountains on 
tlie north may be, they are extremely healthful. The in- 
habitants of the flat country of Glylan and Mazandoran 
(which lies upon the Cafpian fea, and was the antient 
Hyicania, in the funimer retire into the mountains, all 
the water thcv have being foul and corrupted in the hot 
feafon ; and it is faid that here, and in Chorafan, earth- 
quakes are very common. This part of the country is alio 
very damp, full of ilinking moralles, .ind unhealthful. 

Though Perfia exceeds moft other countries in the world 
in extent, yet there are very few navigable rivers in it, there 
not being one in the heart of the country, that will carry a 
boatof any burden i and, in fome parts, people may travel 
feveral days joHrnev together, without meeting with any 
water. The river Oxus, it is true, which divides Perfia 
from Ulbock Tartary, is a large ftream ; but as none of tlic 
branches of it arife in the Perfan do;.iinions, it is of little 
ufe to thcni. There are, however, feveral fmall rivulets 
which fall from the mountains, and aic conveyed by fuhter- 
raneous channels, or othcrwife, to their principal cities. 
The rivers Kur and Aras, antiently called Cyras and 
Araxes, which rife in the mountains of Ararat, and run 
through Georgia, Shirvan, and Adcrbeitzen, and having 
joined their ftreams, fall into the Cafpian fea, are much the 
moll confiderablc rivers in the Pcrfian dominions. 

As tlie government in Peifia have the care of the convey- 
ance and diflribution of the waters, they have appointed a 
great officer in every province, who has the charge of it. 
And as there is a great fcarcisy of this ufeful article in this 
tountry, fo there is no place where they are more careful of 
it, or have more ingenious contrivances to convey it to tlieir 
cities, and into tin ir corn fields and gardens. For the more 
copi;!us ?.'.\'l gcncirl fiinnty of water, the Perfians alfo turn 
their little rivulets a»id fprings to fuch parts of the country 

great leathern buckets, which they afterwards empty into 
ciUerns, and let it out for the fervicc of the country, as 
there is occafion. Subterraneous aiiuedufls are alfo pro- 
vided, throughwhich the water is conveyed tothediftance 
ofncar thirty leagues. Thelu are arched with brick, and 
are two fatljoms high; at the diilancc of every twenty paces, 
there arc large holes like wells, made for the conveyance of 
carrying on the arch, without working under ground too 
far, and for the more cafy repairing them. The liver and 
fpiing water is diltributed to different quarters of the town 
alternately, as occafion re(iuircs, when every pcrfon opeils 
the canal or refervoir in his garden to receive it; and for 
this benefit every garden pays a yearly Aim to the govcrn- 
I ment, particularly about lljiahan; and as it is very eafy for 
[ any perfon to turn his neighbour's water into his own 
channel, that fraud is very fevercly punilhed. Ai the 
fpring water is not found fo proper for the grounds, they 
therefore pay a higher rate for river water. 

Two fca.s, Ixfides the ocean, belong to PerCa ; namely, 
the Cafpian fea, and thegulf ofBolToia, or Perfia, one on 
the north, and the other on the fouth weft. The Cafpian 
ica is about a hundred leagues in length, from north to 
fouth, and ninety leagues in breadth, anli has near a hun- 
dred rivers running into it, of which the chief is the Wol- 
ga, at the moutli of which ftands Aftracan, but this fea 
has no communication with any other ; and though fo 
many rivers fall into it, the way by which it difclurges its 
redundance of waters is not known, for titey neither ebb 
nor flow, but are always of the fair.e l.eight. It is navigated 
chiefly by the Mui<:ovites, who live on tlie north fide of 
it ; and the late Czar was cutting a channel benveen tli* 
Wolgaandthe Don, or Tanais, whereby that monarch 
propofed to ojpen a communication between the Euxine 
and Cafpian feas ; but this projeft is faid to be at prefent 
ful'pended. As to the Perfians, they feldora apply them- 
fclvcs to navigation, and have few vcllels upon this kn j 
but they are not altogether fo negligent of the gulf of Bof- 
fora, upon acco .t of the pearl filliery there, whicli, be- 
ing reckoned the 'bell in the world, they arc very jealous 
Ci'. The pearl filhery lies near the ifland of Baharcm. 

Ormus IS the mofl famous of the reft of the idands in 
the bay ; it is fituatc at the entrance of the gulf of Boflbra, 
and is about thirty miles in circumference. While the 
Portuguele were poffelFed of this ifland, they commanded 
the pearl fillicrv, and all the trade of Perfia, and had built 
one of the moft elegant cities in Alia upon it. There is 
now only an indiflcrent cafllc upon the ifland, which the 
Perfians keep poffellion of, in order to prevent other na- 
tions from iiifulting them, as the Portugucfc did formerly, 
the u^dc being removed to Gorabron, from which it ia 
about two leagues dilUnt. The ifland itfclf never pro- 
duced any thing but fait, which grows in a folid cruft, 
two inches deep, upon the furface of tlic ground ; and the 
hiUs, at a diftauce, appear as if tlicy [were covered with 
fnow. The Portugucfc fetclied moll of tlie water they 
uled from the continent; for there is noih drop of water 
upon the illaad but what is prefcrved in ciflerns. 

The king of Perfia, by the afiilUnce of the fhips be- 
longing to the Englilh Eaft India company, reduced this 
irt^nd, about one hundred years ago, to his obedience } 
and ex|)eUed the Pottuguefe ; for which fervicc the Per- 
fians allowed the company great advantages in trade, and 
half the cuiSoms of Gombron for fifty years fuccefTively, 


amounting, it is faid, to forty thoi.tand pounds per 
annum ; but tliefe cufloms were afterwards taken from the 
company, whowerc allowed three or four thoufand pounds 
a year, as an acknowledgment of their fervicc at Ormus. 
1 he Englifh werr deprived of their fhare of the cuftoms, 
under pretence that they did not afterwards proteft th« 
Peiiian trade againft tlie Portugucfc and Arabs, as they had 
llipulatcd to do ; but tlie fuin of three thoufand pounds 
and upwards per annum, was paid till the civil war 
commenced. Several illands are difperfcd over this feaj 
but none of them arc of any note except two fnuU ones, 
the one called Kifmilh, and the other Lareca ; the former 
of which is faid to yield abundance of wheat, and tu be iU 
fruitful as Ormus is barren. 

-Jl.-lK^r SECT. II. ■;. - ,:-:^ .^ 

Containing a tircumflantial account of iht puhl'ic and tnvaU 
huilding!, chief placet, houfrt imJ furniture, Jlrccts, bridgts, 
fquarii, talacn ; alfo thijlaturt^ complexion, drtfs, food. 
Wr. of ih Pirfian,. ^ > J * J •>% 

PERSONS of quality in Perfia generally erefl their 
houfes ill the middle of a garden elegantly laid out, 
fo tliat they make little or no appearance in tlie llreet, no- 




empty iiitd 
couptry, as 
irc alio pro- - 
the tliftauce 

brick, and 
vcnty paces, 
nvcyancc ot 

grouiid too 
lie liver and 
of the town 
)crfon operts 
it i and for 
the govern- 
,-ery eafy for 
to his own 
:d. A< the 
sunds, they 

la; namely, 
:rfia, one on 
rhc Cafpian 
ira north to 
near a hun- 
is the Wol- 
but this fea 
d though fo 
lifeharges its 
neither ebb 
t is navigated 
north fide of 
beween tli« 
iiat monarch 
. the Euxine 
be at prefent 
apply them- 
lon this ica i 
gulf of Bof- 
whicli, be- 
very jcalou* 
the iliands !n . 
While the 
md had built 
L There is 
which the 
;nt other na- 
lid formerly, 
v^'hlch it >» 
never pro- 
folid cruft, 
nd ; and tlie 
covered witk 
water they 
rop of water 


he ihips be- 

rcduced thi* 

obedience ; 

ice the Per- 

trade, and 


pounds pev 

:n from the 


at Ormus. 

he cuiloms, 

proteft th* 

as they had 

md pounds 

civil war 

rer this fea i 

fnuU ones, 

the formct 

md to be as 

and pr'ivatt 
drift, food^ 

eredl thcif 

ly laid out, 

ftreet, no- 


tA S I A.J 





.tiling *beine feen but a dead wall with a great gate in the 
middle, and perhips a fkreen or flieht ere^ioh within the 
gate, to prevertt their being overlooVed. Ry their fondnefs 
lor privacy and retirement, they differ greatly froni the Eu- 
ropeans, who generally expofe their felts as much as pofH- 
ble to the view of the public, and fccm t* intimate, tlut 
they can enjoy no pleasure in the tiiteft palaces, but what 
refults from the admiration of the fpeAators that pafs by 
the gates. The Perfians alfo differ tiom us, in that they 
have feUlom more than one floor, which is difpofed in 
this manner : In the front of the houfe (lands the virando, 
being a large plaxza or cloifler, open before, where they fit 
and conduct their ordinary affairs. Beyond this is a large 
hall eighteen or twenty feet high, which is ufcd at great 
entertainments, or any folemn occafiohs. On the farther 
fide of thi: houfe is another virando, or piazza, with a bafon 
or fountain of water before it ; beyona which runs a walk 
of fine trees, as there likewife does from the front of the 
flreet to the houfe. At each corner of the hall is a par- 
lour or lodging-rooirt, ferving indifferently for both thofe 
purpofes : between thefe parlours, on the fides, there are 
doors out of an hall into an open fquare place as large as 
the rooms at the corners ; there are alfo leveral doors out 
of the hall into the virando or piazza, before and behind 
the houfe i fo that in the hot feafon they can fet open in 
the great hall nine or ten doors at once ; and they will 
have the benefit of the air, if there be any ftirring. There 
is a handfome bafon in fome palaces, and a fountain play- 
ing ill the middle of the hall, which adds ftill more to tne 
cooliiefs of the place. The walls of the houfes are of a 
confiderablc thickiicfs, and fometimes built of burnt 
bricks, but more commonly of bricks dried in the fun. The 
roof of the great hall is arched, and five or fix feet higher 
than tlie other rooms about it. The vaah ai the build- 
ings on each fide of the hall are flat ; and there is a pair of 
ftairs up to the top, where the Perfians walk in the cool of 
the diiy : they fof\ictimes lie there all night on a m.ittrafs, 
as there is a wall or baluftrades all round the top of the 
building. The kitchens and other ortices arc at a diftance 
on the right or left ; and it is obfervable, that all their 
rooms, except the hall, (lartdfcparatc, and there is no paf- 
fage out of one into another, except from tlic hall. In- 
flead of a chimney, they ufually have a round hole about 
four or five feet broad, and a (cot and a half deep in the 
middle of the room, in which a charcoal fire is made, and 
the place covered with a thick board, or table, about a foot 
high, fo clofe that no fmoke can get out. Over that table 
a large c.rpct is tlirown, under which they put their legs 
in cold weather, and fit round, there being a paflage for the 
fmoke by pipes which are laid under the floor. The doors 
of the houfe arc narrow, and feldom turn upon hinges as 
ours do J but at the top and bottom of the tioor ^ 
round piece left, which is let into the frame above and be- 
low, on which they turn ; and the very bolts are fre- 
ijuentlv made of wood. 

Their furnitWe confifts only in carpets fpread on the 
floor, with culhioiis and pillows to lean on ; and at night 
there is a mattrals brought to fleep on, .and a quilt or t\vo 
to cover them, but flicets are feldom ufed. T heir fervants 
lie aljout in any paflTagc on mats, and take up very little 

The floors of the rooms are either raved or made of a 
hard cement, on which they lay a coarle cloth, and a car- 
pet over it. The fides of fome of their rooms are lined 
with fine tiles, not unlike tlic Dutch tiles, about a yard 
hijh.and the reft of the wall paintedor hung with piSures. 
From the above defcription, the reader may form a tolera- 
ble ii'.ca of a Perfiin houfe. Thofe of the inferior clafs of 
piopic cannot be expefted to be like thofe already defcrib- 
cd ;:'. every particular; but they endeavour to imitate their 
fupeiiors as nearly as thev can. The"'p»l»ces of the princes 
fccm t» be built much after the fame mAimcr, only they 
are more lofty and magnificent. 

We proceed now to defcribe fome of their principal 
towns, the firft of which is Ifpahan, or, as it is commonly 
pronounced, Spahawn. It is fituated iii thirty-two de- 
grees forty iliinutes north latitude, and tlie fiftieth degree 
of longitude, reckoning from the meridian of London. It 
(lands in a fine plain, almoft furrounded with mountains, 
which lie about two or three leagues from it \ and the form 
is prcttv nearly oval. The river Sendcihout runs by it at 
al>out a mile dift.ance ; but their arc fcvcral channels and 
pipes above the town, which convey the water from it 
into canals and bafons, for the fervice. of tjii; court and 
city. 1 he town is w ithout walls, and about tenor twelve 
miles in circumference. Thofe who extend it ten leagues, 
take in the town of Julpha, and feveral otlicrs, for which 


we fee no manner of reafon ; for Julpha lies a mile front 
Ifpahan, and on the other fide the river, and can no more 
be reckoned a part of tlie city, than Cbelfea may a 
part of Weftininfter. Were we to take in all the villages 
witliin tlic weekly bills, the circumference of all London 
would very probably be little lefs than fome travellers 
reckon Il'pahaii'. Tnere were formerly tivclve gates to tlM 
town, but four of them are now clofed up, the others aro 
always open. With refpeft to the walls mentioned b]r 
fome gentlemen, it is probable tliere was formerly a mud- 
wall ; but a merchant who came not many years ago from 
thence affirms, that there is ho part of it vinble at prefent. 
There is indeed an old cafile without artillery, run to 
ruin, which is no better fortified than the town. 

Moll of the ilreets of Ifpahan arc narrow and crooked, 
and as few of them are paved, they are eitlier exceeding 
dirty or dully j and the paffilgc is rendered very unpleafant 
by the number of people of falhion who ride through 
tlicm with great trams of fervants, notwithffanding there 
are no coaches or carts. There are, however, feveral very 
fine fquares in the town, particularly Mcydan, or the royal 
fquare, of which we (hall now give fome defcription. 

Two of the palace gates open into this fquare, whicli is 
one third of a mile in length, and above half as r.iuch in 
breadth. On the fide of it are buildings refembling the 
Exchange in the Strand at London, with (Iiops on 
both fides, where every trade has a diftinft quarter aflign- 
ed ; there is alfo a fecond (lory, where the mechanics have 
their working iliops. There fcems to be little difference 
between the(e exchanges and ours; except that thofe at 
Ifpahan have no windows, but great openings at proper 
diilanccs to admit tlie light, and people ride through them 
as along the Areets. There is a market for horfes and cat- 
tle ill the middle bf the fquare, and all manner of goods 
and' eatables are expofed to (ale ; though tlie great Shah 
Abbas, who build this fquare, defigned .t for manly exer- 
cifcs, particularly thofe of horfemarifliip, and handling tlie 
bow and lance, at which no people are more (kilful than 
the Perfians. There is a fine row of trees planted, and a 
handfome bafon of water, on that fide of the fquare next 
the palace ; and fome great brafs gates, which were taken 
from the Portuguefe, icrve to make a fine fliew. A great 
mofque (lands at the fouth end of the fquare, and'aiiothcr 
on the call fide, over-againft the great gate of the palace 

Several (Ireets in Ifpahan are covered and arched over, 
which makes them pretty dark, and this feems to be pe- 
culiar to the Perfian towns. In the Indies, it is true, the 
tradefmeii have little piazzas before their houfes, where 
they expofe their goods to fale, but tlicn tlierc are wide 
(Ireets before them ; though in fome places there is no 
other ftreet than thefe covered ways through which people 
ride. Another peculiarity among them is, that their 
houfes and drops are never in the fame place, fo that it is 
very common for a tradefman to go half a mile in tlie 
morning to the hazar or market-place, where his (hop is i 
and at night they lock up their valuable goods in chefts 
and counters, and the meaner fort they leave packed up, 
fometimes in the open fquare ; for it feldom happens tliat 
any thing is loft, fo careful are the watch appointed to 
guard their market places ; or fo very little given to tliiev- 
ing are the people in this part of the world ; and no doubt 
the fpeedy and exemplary punifhments in(li£led upon 
pilferers, is one great means to deter them from it. 

Foreign merchants lodge their goods in the public cara- 
vanferas about the city ; which (erve them alio inikead of 
inns, for lodging and diet ; but there is this dilFerence be- 
tween an inn and caravanfera, tliat people find their own 
bedding and cookery in the caravanlerav whereas we have 
not that trouble in our inns. Two things, however, 
render z. caravanlera prefcrabl* to an inn ; one is, that a 
perfon is not fubjeft to the extortions of an inn-keeper, 
but buys his provifion at the beft hand ; and tlie other is, 
that let the merchants occupy never fo many rooms, he 
(hall not be dillurbed in them ; pays only a (iiiiall fum for 
his warehoufe or lodgings, and pays nothing upon the 
road. In Ifpalian there are one thoufand five hundred 
public caravanfcras, which have been built by cliaritable 
people, for the ufe of ftrangers ; moft of them are built 
after one model, and differ only in the dimonfions. There 
is a handfome portal at the entrance, on each fide of 
whicli are (hops, from whence you enter into a fquare, 
about which there is a cloifterr or pia/za, and within ar< 
lodgit^ rooms, and warehoufes for goods , there 
ccnveniciicics and tt.ibhng tor hortcs, aiiii other beafts, on 
the outfide, or they may be brought into the fquare, and 
faftened there, as is frequently done on the road, where 
there is danger of robbers. 





I* '.'■! 


I t 









Tlicre arc no taverns at Ifpahan, wine being proliibited 
hy the Mahometan religion ; nevertbclcft foiile of the 
Pcrfian'i drink pretty plentifully of it inmivate. TKere 
are, however, very handfomc coffce-houfcs in the princi- 
pal parts of the Wwn, where people meet and convcrfc of 
politico, though they have no printed papers in tlicni. In 
thofc arc to he met with, fome amufements peculiar to the 
co-jntiy, as the harangues of their poets, liiftoriaiis, aiid 
'pricfts, who frequently, by their oration.i, collefl a great 
numlnr of people about llu-m, and expert, for tlj=ir in- 
'ftrjftions, fome gratuiry from their audiencs 

The palace, with the buildings and gardens belonging 
'to ir, otcupy above a league in circumference. One of the 
gairi which comes up to the royal mcydan or fquare, is 
calloJ Alicapi, and tlic other Doulct Cuna ; over one of 
them ir. a gallcrv, where llic Sophi ufed to fit and fee mar- 
tial exorcifc pei formed on horfcbac!<. No part of the 
palace where the court refides, comes up to the royal 
'(juare i but within the principal gate there is a hall, or 
court on the kft hand, where tlm Viiir and other Judges, 
adminifter juftice on certain days ; and on tlie right hand 
arc Vooms where offenders arc allowed to take (ailfluary. 
From hence to the hall, where the Kinc; ufually gives 
audience, is a handfomc wlilk : it is a long room, well 
painted and giUM> and f\ippnrtcd by forty pillars i it is 
, 'divided into thrc;^ parts, one- a ftcp higher than the olhej, 
' "on which the great officers ftand, according to their rank. 
There arc no hereditary nobility in Perfia. On the third 
afcent is the royal throne, raifed abtjut a foot and an half 
above the floor, and about eight feet fquare, on which is 
ftvcad a rich carpet j the King lits crofs-Iegged here upon 
((dcmn occafions, having a brocade cufhion under liim, 
and another at his back. No perfon is permitted to enter 
the other apartments of tlie palace, particularly the htiram, 
or women's apartment, none bu^ eunnch's entering tliem; 
fo that they cannot be exaftly defcfibed, but we underlhnd 
in general, that they are compofcd of fcvcial pl'jjfurc-houfes 
difperfcd about the gardens, nearly rcfcmbliiig the houfes 
firft dcfcribed; their great tx;autyconfirti in tlu line walk;, 
fountains, and cafcades about them. The ladies Imnt and 
t ike their pleafure with the Prince, in a large park walled 
in, which is beyond tlie above mentioned gard.ns. 
" 'J'hcre arc upwards of an hundred and fifty Mahometan 
mofques, or temples, in this city, which are covered 
witli domes or cupolas, and, appearing through the trees 
that are planted almoft all over the town in the (Irects and 
gardens, afford a noble profpeft ; but the common build- 
ings are fo low, that they are hardly difccrned by a p-erfon 
who views the town on the outlidc. Chriftians are pro- 
hibited from entering their mofques, or even coming witii- 
in tlieir courts under fevcre pcniltics, fo that our readers 
cannot expert a minute defcnp^ion of them. 

The great mofqqe In Ifpahan, called by w.iy of emi- 
• ncnce the King's, or becaufe it Was built by one of their 
i Kings, has been viewed by travellers in dif^iiife, who in 
form us, that there is a gate which leads to this niofiiuc, 
covered wilh filver plates ; tlirough this you proceed to a 
icourt with a piazza or cloifter on each fide of it, where the 
■pricfts lodge who belong to the niofque. Oppofitc to the 
great gate are three large doors, which open into it • the 
five illes, of which the mofquc is compofed, are heauti- 
Hed with gold and azure : in tiie middle is the cupola, fup- 
portcd, by four great fquare ("liars : the ifles on the fide 
are lower than that in the middle, and borne up by thick 
columns of free ftone ; two great windows towards the top 
of the middle iflc gives light to the whole mofque : on the 
lefr hand, towards the middle, (lands a kind of pulpit, with 
> flight of rtone fleps to go up to it : there are no Icats, or 
pews, as in Chrillian places of worlhip, nor any kind of 
Imagery or pirturcs. The bricks and tile? on the outllde 
of the building are. painted with various colours after the 
Peifran manner, and the floor of the mofjue is covered 
■with carpets, all perfons putting off tlieir Ihocs as they en- 
ter it. 

'I'he outf de of the mofijuc at the fouth fide of the royal 
ineydan is (lone, and the form round, it is divided 
ifles: the walls are lined fifteen feet high with white po- 
Ijlhed marble, and in the mitldle of the fquare bcfoic the 
■ mofjue is a large bafon they wa(h themfclvcs l>efore 
they enter the temple, i'lvc mofques have moll of them 
cupola's with (leeplcs or towci-s, whither the Molla's go up 
to fiimmon the people to their devotions, but make no ufe 
, of l)clls ibr that purpofc. 

Another fubiert of the traveller's admiration, is, the nu- 
■incroiis bagnios, called hummums, in tliis city. Some 
of thefearc fquare buildings, but mod of them globular: 
tlie tops arc covered witli tiles painted blue ; and tiie (lone 

of which they arc built is ufu illy white, anj wfll po'.Ulied. 
Tlie infides are dividcil into many cells, or chambers, jbmc 
foi" pleafure, ar>d »)tliers for fweating : the floors arc laid 
with black and white m.niblc. As the Perfans el^ceni 
bathing to be extremely healll.ful, ami an cffeflual remedy 
for colds or aifics, and many utiicr dillcmpers, tliey there- 
fore repeat it almofl every day. 

The Charbag, whicli is a walk above a hundred yards 
wide, near lf|).ihax i- greatly admired by foreigners ; it 
extends a mile in Icm;;i1i, fitni the city to the river Zendcr- 
houd ; double row-, of treci ?.:; pLmted on each fide of it, 
and in the iriiddls runs a canal, not continued upon a 
level, hut at every furlong diilance the water falls into a 
large bafon, and forms a cal'cadc ; the fides of the canal 
and bafcn arc lined with liewn ftone, broad enough for 
feveral men to walk abreaft upon tJicm. On. each fide of 
this walk are the roy:ii gardens, and thofe of the |;randees, 
with plcafure-houlcs at fmall diftanccs. TIkIc, when 
viewed together, afford a very agreeable prgfpcrt to the 
fpeflator. At tMeciul of this walk is. a bridge, over the 
river Zciulerhoud, \yliich kajs to the town of Julpha; 
there Are alfo two other bridges, onC on the right, and the 
other to the left, by which thp ncii^hbouring villages ha.e 
a conmiunication with the city, though tliey are dillaiit 
about a mile from it. 

'J'hc aichiieflure of tliofe bridges is extremely remark- 
able, for on both fides, both above and below, are aichcJ 
paffages, throu?,h which people ride and walk, from one 
end of tlie bridge to the otliei- ; as in. tlie covered ftreets of 
the city, and at little diflant-cs, there are openings to re- 
ceive the light. The aichei gf thefe bridges arc not very 
high, there being no velllls to pals under them ; for this 
river is not navigable, any more than the reft in Perfu. 
At 'the latter end of tlic fu'iiiiner the channel is exceeding 
narrovv and Ihellow, infomuch that there is not water 
enough for the gaidcni". belonging to the city j to fupply the 
want of ir, they have abundance of wells about Hpahan, 
which cont:iiii very good water for nil ufes. But i." the 
fpring, on the melting of the fiKiws on the mountains, it 
make; a pretty good appearance, being almoft as broad as 
the Thames at Londjii. 

The town of [ulplia flands on the fouth fide of the river 
Zcnderhoud : it n inhabited by a colony of Armenians, 
which were tranfplanled Ijithcr by the great Shah Abba.s. 
This town is .about two miles in length, and not much leCs 
in breadih, being for l!ie ijipft part better built, and the 
ftreets wider than thofe of Ifpaiian, but tlie trees that are 
planted in the ftreets, and the large gardens they have near 
their houfes, give it more the appearance of a country vil- 
lage than a town, f icrgian.;, .•'Ji J feveral other Chriltiaiis, 
inhabit here, as well a; Armcniain j and there are fome 
convents of I'.uropcans, but no Mahometans. This 
colony his flonrifhed prodi.iouTly f ncc its fiift ftttleraent 
here by ,Shah Abbas ; the\ being now the inoft confidtrablc 
merchant ^ in the world ; and v,e meet w^ them in almoft 
all countries of Afia and Kurope. The King at iirft pro- 
vided theiu wilh flocks to traelc with, and partook of tlieir 
iiroiits, fo that they were little belter than the king's fartors ; 
but thev now onlv pay a yearly tax to the government. 
Tliey enjoy a privilege above all other Chriftians, being al- 
lowed to purchafe eflatcs. 

'] he fartors belon;;ing to the Er.ft India company have 
a handfome houfe in Ifpahan, the model of wliich is thi 
fame with the houlc firft dcfcrilx'd ; bat fincc tlie civil 
wars broke out, the ufuqie rs have fo haraflcd and oppreJTed 
them, the company have ordered their fcrvants to 
retire from tl.cnce : they have alfo withdrawn nioft of 
their fcnants from Gomhron, and made Boflbra (at 
the bottom of the gulf of the fame name) tlieir principal 
fartory on that fide. The city of Boflbra ftands on the 
'I'igris, two davs journey below Bagdat, and tlie territory 
is governed by its own prince, but tributary to the Graiiil 

Schiras, or Shcra?., according to the modern pronun- 
ciation, lies aUiiit two bundled miles to the Ibuthward of 
Kpahaii : it is fituate in twenty-nine degrees fifty minutes 
of noith latitude, and is ufually reckoned the fecond city 
of the kingdom, and is the capital of the province of Fai>:, 
or the antieiit Pcifia : fouie deduce the name froni Cyrus 
the Gieat, there being a tradition that he was buried there ; 
others fay it isderivcd from " (hcral)," which in thcPcrfiau 
tongue figiiificiia grape, bccaiife that fruit abounds in this 
place; and others from the word " iheer," which fignifies 
milk, 'J he town is featej iij a plcalant fertile valley, 
about twcntv mlies in ieiigih, arid irx in breadth : ;t hsr. a 
rivulet running through it, wlr. 'i In tlie Ipring appeals 
like a large river, and funietiiiie^ ii.wrcalirs to iuch a torrent. 



i"1 r; •rV -* 


jany have 

lich is tlii 

the civil 

k1 ());prcfl<;d 

llrvants to 

mod of 

Uoirora (at 

r principal 

Js on the 



[A S I A.] 

at to bear down the lioufes in its courle ; but in the fiim* 
mcr it is ahnoft dry. I'heic arc no walls about this plucc, 
which contains on! iliout four thoufanJ houres: the 
compafs of it is reci. <iicd to be about fevcn miles, but 
much tlie greateft part of this fpace is gardens. It is ob- 
iVrvable, tliat the Pcrfians let mod of their buildings run 
ruin i every generatioa choofing to build new houles, ra- 
ther than occupy tliofe of their anceftors. There is no 
place where the Mahometan fupcrftition prevails more 
than here, there being amofque or temple atmoft to everv 
twenty houfcs \ the domes of which, being covered with 
blue varnilhed tiles, make a pretty appearance among the 
trees : here is alfo a college, where the liberal arts are 

Schiras is mod remarkable for the fine gardens and vine- 
yards about it. The ftreets are for the inoft part narrow 
;ind dufty ; but tliere are fome broad ones with c.inals, and 
bafons faced witli (lone. The cyprcfs-trces witli which 
their walks are chiefly compofed, are the tailed and Urged 
of any whatever, and grow in a pyramidal form ; inter- 
mixed with thefe are Icvcral Ipreading trees, and all 
manner of fruits, as pomegranates, granges, lemons^ cher- 
ries, pears, apricots, dates, &c. Thefe are not ularited 
againrt walls, as with us, hut dand in the alleys, and fomc- 
tiraes are difpofed irregularly, as in a wildcrncfs. They 
have alfo abundance of fwcct flowers of variou* colours, 
but not planted in regular order as in the gardens of 
Europe. Their vineyards and wines arc preferable to any 
in Pei-fia ; and the canals, cafcades, fountains, and plcafure- 
houfes in their gardens, are not at all inferior to thofc of 
Ifpalian. The king's garden here is no lets than two thou- 
fand paces fquare, and furrounded with a w^ll fourteen 
feet high ; but the gardens as well as the buildings of Schi- 
ras have liccn much neglefted of late years. 

The iiobled ruins of an anticnt palace, or temple, that 
»ny coun_try can boad of, are now to be fccn thirty miles 
%o the north cad of Scliiras; even Rome itfclf, it is faid, has 
nothing comparable to thefe venerable remains of antiquity. 
The place is at prcfent called Chilmanar, or Forty Pillars. 
According to Ibmc, it was built upon a mountain of dark- 
coloured matWe, and the deps hewn out of the folid rock ; 
but others, who have viewed it more narrowly fmce, ob- 
fcrvc, that the deps arc compofed of large dones, fifteen or 
fixtcen feet in length, and of fuch a thicknefs, tliat fix or 
ilvcn deps arc cut out of one done ; the whole being fo 
Ikilfully joined by art, that they appear to be but one 

The ruins of this once magnificent palace or temple are 
featcd at the iiorth-caft end of that fpacious plain where 
PERSEPOL.S once dood, and arc generally held to be part 
of the paUce of Darius, who was conquered by Alexander 
the Macciloiii.iu monarch. The front of this palace dood 
to.vards the wtlf, and was about live hundred paces in 
length, llu; whole occupying near thrcefcore acres of 
ground. The afcent to it is by ninety-five deps, thirty feet 
in length, and twenty inches broad, but not.ibove three in- 
ches deep, fo thata liorfc may cafily go up or down them. 
The dair-cafe divides as you afcend ; one branch winds to 
the tight, and the other to the left, each having a well on 
one fide, and a marble ballufter on theothep both of the 
branches afterwards turn again, and end at a fquare land- 
ing-phicc, irom whence is an entrance into a portico of 
while marble twenty wide ; on which arc carved in 
bafs- relieve two beads as large as elephants ; but their bo- 
dies rcfemble tliofc of horfes, and they have the feet and 
tails of oxen. Ten feet farther dand two-fluted columns 
of wliitilh done, about fixty feet high, befides their capiuls 
and bafes, and as tliick as three men can fathom : a little 
failhcr (land two other pilaftcrs, carved like the fird, ex- 
cept that the beads on tliele latter have wings, and men's 
hciiu^. Boyoiul this portal, or hall, is another fuch double 
ftair-cife, leading to the upper rooms, twenty-five feet 
liroad, hut incomparably more beautiful than the former; 
for on the walls of it a kind of triumph is carved in bafs- 
I'licvc, confidingof a numerous trainof people in didinft 
ouipapiies, foiiic of tlicin carrying banners, and others 
offeiini'.s, and alter all comes a chariot drawn by fevcral 
lioilcs, with a little altar upon it, from whence the fire 
feruis to al'cend. On t!ie other lide are carved wild beads 
figliiiiig, and, among others a lion and a bull are cut with 
gicat (.Niftiicls, the done of which is fo hard, that tlie 
iiicell and mod cur;ous part of the workmanlhip is dill m 
fine prelciv:ttion. 

'IhviL- is Hiquaie ; . >cc on tile top of the fecond ftair- 
cafe, which has been' furrounded with columns, feveatecn 
of which Diily arc now d.anding, but there are an huivhcd 
pcdcllals : foiuc of tliofc that are Wt arc lixty, and otlieri 

^t I 





ffventy fe«t high, and twelve of them rtear tliree fathom 
ia eompafs » they are of red and white marble fluted. An- 
tiquaries fuppofe that thefe fupported the temple of th« 
fun. Near thofe columns, on the fame floor, is a place 
fifty feet fquare, inclofed with walls fix or feven feet thick, 
of a much finer marble than any hitherto mentioned, and 
fo wonderfully carved, that it would take up feveral days 
to view all tlie figures : which way fo ever,a man turns him- 
felf in this fecond floor, there appear figures cu tin bafs and 
half'telleve. Tn one place, are men fighting with lions ; 
in anothe., a man holding a unicorn by the hornt in a 
third, are the figures of giants ; and in a fourth, a prince 
is rcprefented giving audience to his people or to ambaflit- 
dors 1 belidcs a multitude of other fccnes. Here are like- 
wife abundance of infcriptions, in lading chacaAers, many 
of which have been tranfcribed, and brought into Europe, 
but fcarccly any of them are underdood at tliis day by tlie 
learned, any more than they are by tlie people of tlic 

Gonibron is a town and port the mod reforted to of any 
in the Perfian dominions. The Englidi Ead India com- 
pany have had a faflory here for upwards of three hundred 
years : they have a jud claim to half the cudoms of this 
place, by virtue of the before-mentioned treaty, inconfi.- 
deration of their having aflided Shall Abbas in the reduc- 
tion of Orinus ; but of late years thoy have received the an- 
nual fum of one thoufand tomans, or tliree thoufand thrpe 
hundred and thirty-tlwce pounds, fix fliillings and tfight 
pence in lieu of it. After the conqued of that ifland, 
Gombron received tlie name of Bandar- Abafli, or the port 
of Abbas (Bander fignifying a port) that prince having 
transferred the trade hither. Gombron is fituatc in twen- 
ty fevcn degrees thirty minutes nonh latitude, and didant 
about three liundrciiniles from Schiras. It is about thiea 
miles in compafs ■, and dands on a level ground clofe to 
the Ita i tlie country at mod every way rifing infenfibly for 
fome miles, without any confiderable hill, except towards 
the north : .near this town is tlie narrowed part of the Per- 
fian gulf, or Boflbra. The coad of Arabia lies oppofite to 
It, at about ten leagues didance, but does not feem to be 
farther aciofs than from Dover to Calais. Befides the 
natives, it is inhabited by Englifli, Dutch, Portuguefe, 
Arabs, lews, Armenians, Banians, and feveral other na- 
tions, of which the two lad mentioned are much the greateft 
merchants. Towards the land it has a wall, which is in 
a ruinaus condition ; and towards the fea there are three 
finall forts, mounting five guns each, and a platform of 
eight. There is a cadle mounted with thirty-five guns» 
for the fecurity of the road. The people here have tlie 
fame humour as i:i other parts of Periia, in letting the 
houfes of their anceflors drop, and erefting new ones for 
theinfelves ; for they have adopted the fuperflitious opmion, 
that if the pcrfon who inhabited the lioufe before was 
deemed unhappy, they are apprchenfive that the Uke ill 
fortune will attend the pertbn who next occupies itj ia 
that the houfes in many of the dreets are tumbling down, 
and others going to decay. Their bed houfes are built of 
done brought from the iflands of Kiftimee, or Larrak, but 
they arc for tlie mod part built of bricks hardened in the 
fun. They confid fomctimes of two dories, and have a 
wooden contrivance on the top of the houfe, to force the 
wind down into the lower rooms. Thefe machines are 
about ten feet high, and at a didance look hkc towers. 
The houfes belonging to the Engliih and Dutch Ead India 
companies are as well built as mod in the town. 

1 auris is the next town of note. It is called by the 
Turks and Perfians Tabriz, and was tlic metropolis of 
Media. It is fituatc in thirty-eight degrees odd minutes, 
north latitude, and is fuppofcd to be tlie antient Ecbatana. 
Some of tlie antients were of opinion tliat it was founded 
by Semiramis, who with incredible labour brought tlte 
water thither from the mountain Orontes, a branch of 
Taurus i but a celebrated Jewifh writer adiires us, that 
it was built, or at lead a royal palace in it, by the prophet 
Daniel. It was bed known formerly by the name oftc- 
batana, and was then in its greated fplendor. The an- 
tients obfervc, that it was fittren miles in circumference, 
and had walls feventy cubits high and fifty broad, with 
many noble palaces ; but there is now little or notliing re- 
maining either of the walls or palaces. However, Tauris 
is dill a confiderable town, being about five miles in cir- 
cuit, populous, and a place of very groat trade j but it is 
not near fo well peopled as^mc late accounts have msds 
it. The inhabitants, incKiding men, women, and chil- 
dren, do not e."ceed fourfcore thoufand, though their num- 
ber has been exaggerated beyond all credibility •, for during 
the late civil war neither the prince or ul'urp'er Iwve been 
U . abi« 








aUa n> Iwy tt imjr ef fotty ihiM&iid men, not»»ifhfliiMti 
htg th* ne«r»-writtrs have latrly found in thi* ci^MW 
hundccA' thoiirand men capable of bearing arms. Hen arc 
fevwnl' nttblc me^ndans, or iiiuarcs, one of them almoft 
•fMi tb lit* reyal meydan of Ifpalwn : dioy have alfoi their 
flM«i*d4tMti, •remnnget, viiiei e abunda n ce of rich mer. 
•btiidMrtt tmoM to &>• i and their mofoues and bagnioi 
r«flMiMsikawii((M)»r«itie(, of which we tiavc made men* 

Tlwoitf of Taoria, Kke moft other* in Perfia, ttands xA 
• plain fMrrowAded by mountain*, from whence tliere hil% a 
ftnaK ft teaw , ivkick' ruaa thnoogh die middle of it i but, on 
the malfia* of the fiiowi, it i» increafed to a mighty tor. 
rent. Tnviity hot often chang^ its matter, having been 
fometimm fttuKeA by the Turk, and at others by tlte Per- 
ian : but aa the citisetis fcem chiefly incli ned 00 the Pev- 
fiani, the Ttwk* lunc feveral times burnt and plundered it 
#ith(M]t mercy, but the great Shah Abbas, upwards of a 
hundred years ago, drove the Turks out of this part of 
PMnr, from Which time Tauris reraaiiMd in the peaceable 
>eAefl(on af the Ferlians till a few years ago, when the 
Turks again fnrprized it, exerciiing their ufual cruelties on 
the* niiferable inhabitants. I'lie caravans ufually travel in 
ibur and twenty days to and from Ifpahan to Tauris, which 
lies abont four hundrad miles to the northward of the 

W« harealrrady obferved, that Tafflis is the capital city 
of Georgia, but fubjeA to tiie Perfians, and inhabited 
chiefly by Chriftians ; intbmuch tliat there is not one Ma- 
hoitietnnF mo<<]ue in the place, except that of the caftle, 
though there an no lefs tlian fourteen Chriftian churches. 
It ii fituate in fourteen degrees of nortli latitude, on the 
MverKur, or Cyrus, at the foot of a mountain : k is not 
of ve»y large extent, but elegantly built. On the fouth 
iide, en the declivir/ of the niounuin, flands the caftle, 
which Was ones a ptaoe of firength, but is hardly tenable 
M prefeiit, and therefore liable to be feized by the' next in> 
vadcr, whether Turk or Mufcovite, if they are not already 
poUeffed of it. It is a biihop's fee, and has a handfome 
cathedral, built in fbnn of a crofs. The other churches 
belongpartly to the Georgians, and partly to the Armeni- 
ans. Thefe, u well as the other public flruAnres, are buik 
of (lone, fuch u their baaars, caravanferas, bagnios, he. 

SEC T. m. 

CntttMiig afmtiitr atutmt tf tin Pet-^ni, miith ufftQ h 
thiir diJMait* ami nutttal ^ualilies, tlri/i, ftaturt, ftaft, 
and nm knint ; toietbtr vmlh thtir Jiit, liqiurt, fuilit ant 
prhtali Jivtf/Uttt, ruratfitrti, and arimeiiiti,faiutatiiiiSt 

■ gaming, (Jt, alfi tf ihiir travtlUng, carriagis, roads, and 

IT is nniverfally allowed, that the Perfians are in gene- 
ral endowed with bright tarts, have abundance of viva- 
city, are fond of glory, and furpafs their neighbours of 
India in point encourage, infoniuch that the Great Mogul 
prefers tnem to thegreatcftpoftsbothin hit court and army 1 
and as they were oMerved to be of all men tlie moft civil 
and oU^ittg, they retain the fame difpofition to this day ; 
cTpecially towards foreigners', who caitnot bM admir* their 
hofpitality and benevolence. They are far from being 
guilty of that brutifli hehaviour-wiikh is fo common among 
Sic Turks ; they are, however, moft juflly and univerlidly 
Charged with vanity and profofeneft in their apparel, equi- 
pages, and number of fcrvaAti. Voluptnoufneu in eating 
and drinking doe* not appear to be their diftinguiihing 
vice, at leaft the European* are much more addiAed to it ; 
for the greoeeft part of their food is rice, fruit and gardeii- 
iliilF : mey have not any g>«at variety of Helh, neither havt 
they many way* of dreffing it : pilo feemi to be the ftand- 
tng diih, even among thiofe of the heft quality. And 
as for fireng liquors, though they drink them now and 
then by flealtfa, yet dnmkennefs is very far from being 
common among them ; every man may retire from an «n> 
tertaiiimcnt without ceremony, when he thinks proper, 
without a breach of good manners ; no perfon being urged 
to take more liquor than he finds convenicm and agreeaMa 
to hinifelf. 

It h univerfally allowed, that the ?erfians have a genio* 
well adapted to poetry, infomuch that a poet ii intnxluced 
at every fi;ft':val or entertainment, and is defired to oblige 
liic companv with his cempofition! - snH thefe oerfons are 
frequently found with a crowd about them in coffee- houfc*, 
and otiier places of puUic refort. Thoagli the Perfians are 
by fome people charged with being very covetous, thi( muft 

Certainly be underftood with refpeQing tlie acquifition of 
riches { for as to keeping and hoarding up money, they aT« 
generally abfolved from it. They only get that they may 
fpcnd I and when theyjiave fumifhed tlicmfelves with an 
equioage, houfc and ganms, fuitable to their mind ; they 
chufe rather to lay out tmir money in building caravan- 
ferits, moli]ue3, tad on other public occiifioiis, than let it 
lie by«tbom i fo t&al fome travellers obferve, that no people 
in tKe world take- leli thought for tomorrow. A man, 
for inftance, who ha* lately come to the poffeflion of eight 
or ten thoufand pound*, will in a few weeks lay it out in 
purchafing wives and fTaves, clothing and furniture, with- 
out confidering where he fhall meet with a fupply in future, 
and in two or three months afterwards he will difpofe of 
them again (or fubfiftcnoe. 

The Ketiians have a great command of their pafReni : 
they are not enlily provoked to anger or refentment 1 ani 
when they are, it never proceeds to a duel, and very feldom 
to blows. When angry, they generally call each other 
Jews or Chriftians, and their quarrels commonly terminate 
in ill language, which is fometimes intermixed with hearty 
curfes. Few Europeon nations are in general more polite, 
they being of a veiy engaging addrefs and moit obliging 
behaviour : they are alfo meek, peaceable, mode(^, grate- 
ful, generous, enemies to fraud, and courteous and uTable 
to Chriftians as well as others > are moreover fair and 
punSual in their bargains, and treat foreigners with great 

I'he ftature, (hape, limbs, and featuret of the Perfiam are 
agreeable and well prtxiortioned. In Georgia, and the nor- 
thern provinces, they have an admirable complexion } to* 
wards the fouth, they incline to the olive : but tlie great 
men havine had their wives and concubines chiefly from ; 
Georgia and CircafTia for an hundred years paft, the breed 
is very much mended in the fouthern provinces. Their '• 
eyes and ia\x are generally black, and they wear'only one 
cock on the crown of their he.ids, like other Mah'ome*- 
tans, by which they cxpeA Mahomet will lift them up . 
to paraaife. The kuig, great pfficers of ftate, and foldiery, 
wear only long whifkers on the upper lip, which, joined to 
a tuft of^hair on the upper part of^ their cheeks, grow to a 
very enormous fize, infomuch that fome of them, it is faid, 
an near half a foot long. The common people clip their 
beards pretty fhort ; but none of the Perfians fuffer anj 
hair to grow upon their bodies. Their mollah's and reli- i'^', 
|ious people wear their beards long, only clipping them ; -. >, 
mto form. -^* 

The large turbants, which the Perfians wear overtheiv ' 
heads, are fome of thera white, and others flriped with red V' : 
or other colours, ar.d the great men have flowers of gold 
and filver woven or worked in die cloth. They have alA * ' ■ 
a Icull cap under their turbatit, and nil together does not 
weigh lef* than feveii or eight pounds, foiivetimes a great '•.. 
deal more. They wear a kind ot fhiit of coloured fillc or 
callico, ucnerally olue, next to their fkintt> which they feU ;||(^ 
doin wafh white while it is fit to wear: tliis Ihirt hasati 
open bofom. but neitlier neck nor wrii\bands, and is made 
ciofe to the arm : they have alfo a pair of breeches, or ra- 
tlier drawers, clolc liefore, reaching half down their leg*. 
Their llockiru^s are made of woollen cloth, but not at all 
fhaped to the leg : over the fhirt they wear a waiftcoar, and 
upon thefe a coat witli lleeves, and buttons &nd loops be- 
fore, tied with a (alh { this is wide at bottom, and hangs 
like a bell a Uttle below their knees . Belides this, thcy put 
on another coat frequently without Iteeves, the uppennoft 
coat being (horteft ( over all thefe tliey have anntner loofe 
coat, lined with fun. Infteftd of (hoes, tiiey have peeked 
dippers turned up at tlie toes, and made of Turkey leather, 
which are neither tied nor buckled ; and whe^ tliey ride, 
they have boot* of yellow leatlier ; their bridles, laddies, 
and houfmgs are inunodcrately fine ; and almofl covered 
witli gold : the houfing is fo large, that it almoft hides the 
hinder part of the horfc ; and whether on foot or on horfe-, 
back, they wear a broad fword and crice or ptyiiard i the 
latter of which, it is faid, the ladies alfo wear; 

The drefs of the women nearly refembles the men's, ex- 
cept tliat they neither wear turbants on their heads, nor 
fames about their waifts 1 and their coats, or vefts, reach 
almoft to their heels. When they go into the ftrcets 
(which women of quality feldom do) tliey arc covered from 
head to foot with a white vail. The girls wear a ftiffcned 
cap upon their heads, turned up like a hunting cap, with a 
heron's feather in it, their hair being made up in trefle*, 
and foiling down their backs to a very great length : the 
quality have pearls and jewels interwoven with their hair. 
The flurried women comb their hair back, and, having 
bound it about with a broad ribbon, or rich tiura fet with 


t i'i;A™i^^:r-'i,'i.''*rf-f ■'■• 

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I not 

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tkve peeked 
ey leather, 
{&. covered 
t hides the 
I on horfe-> 
jiiardi the 

nen's, ex- 
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lefts, reach 
khc ftrcets 
tertd from 
la (tiffcned 
pap, with a 

I in treflet. 

ngth : the 

iiic'if hair. 

Id, having 
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jsweb, which looks like • corontt, fat the idt of their hair 
£ili gncefully down their ihouldert ; which it a very be- 
coming ind. Both men and women hove a great minjr 
rings and bracelets on their arms and fingers i but neither 
of Utaoa wear gloves . 

Blacli hair is in greateft eftcenl, beiiig the moft comnwii, 
and the thtckaft and broadeft eve brows are thought die 
fined i the women will dye their eye-brows, if they ate 
not black, and it is verv cuftomary with tliem to paint 
their ficet i they alfo niD their hand* and feet with an 
oran^ coloured pomatum. Some have feathers fet up- 
light in their tiara i and othcn have a ftsing of pearls, oi' 
ytedoua ftona iaftBrnid to it, which bangs oown be- 
tween their eye- brows : they likewife wear jewels in 
their ears, and rows of pearls h\k down their tiniples 
as hnr as the neck \ and in fome prowinees, which are 
en the oonfinet of India, they wear jewels in ilieir noftrilt, 
which have a very difagrteaUe appearance to Earopeafls t 
fat as they hang down lo the mouth, it makes them look 
as. if they had hair lips : butthr kdie* of Ifpahan never 
wear nofe-iewe)i. Tneir ncckiates GUI upon the bofem, 
and have aWrayl a littte golden box b*nging to them, 
-■whicb a filled with fragrant and reviving pmnmet : thefc 
necklatca are eitlier gold er pearls. 

Drefs is no inconfiderable article in FcHIk ; fbr tile 
dothes of both men and women confift of the richeft flow- 
end and brocvled liUu ; and people of mean fbrtuhcs en- 
deavour to V, . vith thc'qaalitT, and will have fine ckHhdst 
though they . int food. The purchafe of an ordinary 
tnrbant, itifrfaid, anaounts to ten peaiMb^ and they fre- 
quently coft twice at much i and thev inuft alfi^ have a 
eariety of them, icU, at ^ proverh is, dicy ihould be 
known by their clothes. . 'I'httr fiiilies alfe are bretiaded, 
and coft from twenty to an hundred crowns ; and over this 
they have frequently anodter efcamrl's hair, which colls 
nctiriy the ikilie fumi on account of its <!urious werkKan- 
ihif. Thofe who wear fable<i, which they are Very eager 
to obtain, feldom pay lefs than a liundretl sounds fbr a 
clofe-bodied coat ; all this, with the rich fiimitare and 
equipage they have when they ride out (which they do al- 
moft every day, if they go but a very little way) mud 
amoifnt to a very large fnm ; and it is judly obferved, that 
tiiis keeps them emieedingly poor. Hovtrever, as there are 
in no country more handfome and comely men, finer 
horfcs, or richer equipa^s to be fecn, the Periians are al- 
lowed to make as fpleiulid a figme Is any people in the 
world : though poverty may prey upon them at home, they 
are generally loaded with gold and jewels when they go 
abroad : as they enjoy almod continually a clear fun Ihinei 
and a bright element, a more than ordinary luftre is caft 
on their perfons, and their elegant drefs appears to the 
greated advantage. Our European merchants, tn order 
R> preferve their credit, and conduA their afliiirs fnccefs- 
fiilty, are under a neceflity of conforming to thefe expen- 
live cudoms at Ifpahan ; and the accuftoming themfelvet 
IP fb much expenfive gaity nikht prove of ill confequence 
tti them when they return to Europe, were it not that they 
nfually acquire fortunes in this country, fuf&cient to fnpport - 
ta equipage in their own. 

We now proceed to give fome account of tHe food and 
hquors of the Perfians. They commonly drink a difli of 
come early in the morning \ and go to dinner about eleven 
6'clocl(, when they eat melons, ftuit, fweetmeats, cheefe- 
curd, or milk ; but their principal meal is in the evening, 
when a difh of pilo is always ferved up ; this confids of 
boiled rice vsell buttered and feafoned, with a fowl, apiece 
of muiion, or kid, accompanying it : they have an excel* 
Ittit way of boiUng tlieir nee all over the coad : the water 
is (luite dried away by the time the rice is enough ; af^ 
which, they feafon it with fpiees, and mix faffWm or tur- 
merick with it, giving it a yellow, or what other co- 
k>iir they pleaife : but, as we have already obferved, there 
h very hrile variety either in their food, or the manner of 
drefSng it. If they have a large joint, it it baked, inflead 
of being roaded ; out tlieir ufual way is, to cut tlwir flelh 
into fmall dices, and fpitting, or fkewering them togedier^ 
road them over a charcoal fire : and, whether they Mil or 
foad, it is always done to rags -, as tlie phraie is, or h 
would be impoMUc to pull the meat to pieces with their 
hands, » they do ; tiling neither knives nor forks. Pork 
is never eaten here, nor veal ; neither do they eat hares, 
or other animals prohibited to the Jews ; and ocef is eaten 
but feldom : they do not deal much in venrfon, fifh, or 
wild fowl : they drefs only plain dlfhes, being Orangert to 
halhes, ragouts, and other compounds : and feldnm have 
ai>y other lance than a flice of' lemon, or fome pickles. 
Theyeatth^ bnad, which is made in thin cakes, the 

it A. ij 

■ioflNnt it it baked ; but eat mucli more rioe. They 
ifii no beeten peppery only the whole fort i and not mock 
Ml in their icafoningi nor it there any bronglit to table i 
thtir meat is never lalted before it it dretled, at with tw. 

They generally kill their Meat and fewlt the fiuae day they 
nfe them ; and (et by no(hiiu| dll the Heat, to be eaten 
cold t atid if any meat it left, they give it to the peof . 
1'hcy fit down croft- legged at their amb, having a cledi 
fpread upon the carpet : then fome petibtt, who hat die 
provifion before him, didribotet rioe and fkfh to die c«a^ 
pany. J bev ufe no ^Moni, except for foitp and Uonidt i 
ml take up weir rice by handfolt, like the people in India. 
Thev iiildom fit above half an hour at their meali : bdbec 
wbioi they wa(h, making uCt of then' handkerdhieft tt 
wine on, indead of a towel. 

' The common people of Ifpahan feldom dteft thcit 
food at home; bat when they have fhut up their (hope in 
the evennig, go away to, the cooks, of which there art 
great numbers in that city, and buy pilo for their fiimilier. 
The oooks have ketdes, or coppers fixed in brick- work in 
their fllept and doves^ over which they drcls mod of thclt 
meat, feldom making any ufe of chinuiiet. 

To the commetWation of the Perfians, we huy ob> 
ftrvei diat they are fo fiir frem fhiltting their doors at theit 
neah, that they invite every one to (.vt with them, who 
happens to come tothelr houfes at that time : they remem- 
ber to this day, and imitate, the hofpittlity of Abraham; 
obfervlng, diat if l,ehad not been or that communicati\e 
iMpofition, he had prebaMy miOed the honbur of tntet*- 
tainirig three angels 

When .my of the Ferfiani aie diipofed to make an en- 
tertainment, it is generally in the evening; and though a 
flipper, the guells ufually comeat nine or ten in the morn* 
Ing, and fpcnd the whole day at the ptace to which they 
are invited. They dlfcourfci fmcke, eat fweetmeats, and 
pafs away the time with a variety of anmfements ; fome* 
dmes they ate entertained with heroic poems, repeated in 
honour of their prince i fometimes nnging-women are 
introduced, who fing, dance and pUy, and exhibit a thou- 
fiind antic tricks to divert the company , and if any of the 
gtiefts are difpofed to withdraw with any of thofe dancing 

S'rls, they are fhewn into a private room , and when 
ey return riot the lead notice is taken bf it. When fuf ' 
peris ferved up, the fon, or fome rebnienof tlwinafler of 
the houfe takes the management of the fieeft upon him, 
luid helps the gueds to their meat: they generally provide 
a variety of flKrbet on thefe occafions. It is the employ* 
ment of great numbers of people about Ifpahan, to culleA 
vad quantities of ioe together in the winter feafon, and 
keep It in repofitories under ground all the fummer, when 
they fell it to greet advantage i for the ufual drink of the 
Perfians is nothing but fair water, which they drink with 

We haVe already obferved, tint wine is made in feverai 
provinces of Perfia ; but it is chiefly ulW by the Armenians 
and odier Chridians. The officers ef the army will indeed 
fometimes indulge themfelves with this liquor, and other 
people drink it as they pretend for their health ; but that 
It feldom done : the greated part of it it fent to die neieh* 
bonring countries, or drank by thofeChriftians who are dif^ 
perfed throughout the Perfian dominions. Thofewho abdain 
from wine for coiilcienee fake, bccaufe it is prohibited by 
law, exhilerate their fpirits witli opium, bang, poppy-feed, 
and other intoxicating ingredients ; it being almod uni- 
verfally allowed, that diey cannot fudain the cares and in* 
quietudes of lifir, without an expedient of this nature. 

The Perfians, like other eaftem nations, take pillt of 
opium, which fome of them gradually increafe to Kich a 
dofe, as would dedroy half a doaen Europeans. In an 
hour afier they have taken the pill, it begins to operate, and 
a muhitade of romantic fcenes prefentthemfelves to their 
imaginadon : they laugh and ling, and repeat abundance 
of humoreus exmeffions, like men intoxicated widt winc| 
but after the efleft of it is gone ofF, they find tlieir fpirits 
exhauded, and grow penfive and melancholy dll they re- 
new the doie : fome, we are toM, have made it fo necef- 
iiuy to them, that they cannot live without it. A decoc- 
tion of poppy-feeds is fold in mod cities of Perfia ; and in 
thefishoalet you will fee people ading and talking as ridi* 
cuoufty as men ufually do vnieii they are drank. Surely, 
if there was any reafpn for prohibiting the ufe of wine, it 
mud have been, in order to prevent people's playing the 
tool, and dedroying their healdis, which we perceive can 
be at effisfbially done by an opiate : ' but as long as they 
keep to the Icitcr of the few, and amtain from Wine, it 
matters not how much they diforder themfelves, fiac^ thief 
thhdt they nevet flull be accountable for that. 



V. I 

mi' '.i ■ 

*'-t r' 

\ ' 

jift The new and » N I?E RRS AL'18 YaTE Nf of GEOGRAPHY, 

,' Theyfongtetntlemen of PcriU in geiicisl, ui wtll M ' 
itfttt pfowibcc inhabited b/ tlic ddccndanti of tht intalat i 
;?trthini8, codcavour with ercat diligeiice, to MComottfll • 
,«tieinfelvaiji the u(c ol'tlicbow and noH'ctiianlhipt wnidi • 
•ra exeicil'ei thuthe Petliant m extremely fond of nt tliit ■ 
dwf. Their grettdl kiiiK> have'condefceitacdto come into 

the fneydani btfon the inlaoc, at certiin tiincb in overjr 

week, to be.witiiifti oMhe ajkireft and aQJvity of their 
iilbje£ki« and ifin>|«f ntly theiitfilTo coiitendetl for the 
^i«. They bii^ with teaching the young pupil to bend 
,the bow, ftrft tweaker, and then a ftront;er : he it ifbr* 

wardi Mugbtto Ihoot forward)^ backwards, fidcwayn, and 
<«ln>«ft in evety pofture : they are eaerciicd for fume tinic 
in (hiwbng upwards intotlie air, to try which of them can 

Ihoot liighctt'i after this, they are iimrufled to Ihoot at a 

nurk, tuul to deliver their arrows fteadily without Ihakin^. 

Tlw arrowi for tlielc exercifcs have blunt iron heada | but 

thofe for fcrvice are (haped like the point of a fpcar. They 

next teach the pupil to mount a horfe with dexterity, to 

have a good feat, gallop with a loofe rein, ilop Ihort, and 

fum fwiftly to the right or left, upon the leail fignal, with* 

out being difordered in their faddw. They are alfo taught 

to play at a game aimoil like bandy on hori'eback : every 

gentleman ha* a Ihort bat in hit hand \ aiul a ball being 

ttii'owa anior^ft tliem, they ride after it, and (looping 

aimed to the ground, llrike it in a full career ; and he who 

fUikc) it ofteneft before it comes to tlie end of the inall, 

wins the prize. They arc likewiTe taught to manage the 

iabre or back-fword, and to throw the laiKc : the ftaff 

tliey throw by way of exercife is witliout iron, and about 

five feel long, and witli thele they engage on horfebaek i 

and though Uiere be no fpear at the end, they frequently 

give one another very dangerous wounds. 

When they have«one Uirough their exercifcs, they are 

permitted to fhoot for the prize in tlic royal mcydan, be- 

fore thf kiiM and court. Inthisfuuare is ercAcd a high 

pole, hke the mall oi a (hip, and upon it is fet a cup, 

fometimes of mafly gold, efpecially if^ the king and neat 

officers -tefiiin to fhoot at it, as they frequently did, tul of 

late. Thofe who contend for the prize, ride full gallop 

witli their bows and arrows in their hands ) and when 

^ley are got % little beyond the pole, without ilop|>ii>g or 

turning their horfes', they bend tbemfelves backward 

fithertothe tight or left, and let fly their arrows at the 

cup, and Itc who brings it down grxins abundance of lio- 

jnour. As the Perlian troops arc thus conilantly prsAifed 

in fhooting backwards, they may poflibly take their aim 

better this way than any other : it is therefore no wonder 

that the Perfian troops luve been a* much dreaded wheii 

they retreat as when they charge. 
The rural fports and manner of h^ntine, or ntber 

pouffing, 9f the Pctfians,.feems as remarkable as tlieir 

martial exefcifes. Their greyhounds very much rcfemble 

thofe of the Iriih \ but the ilags and antelopes they hunt, 

•re fo very fleet, that the dogs cannot come up with them 

without the afliftance of tlieir hawks : of tliefe tliey have 

various kinds brought from Circaflia, Mufcovy, and the 

northern pait of the empire: tliefc hawks are taught not 

prdy to ny at partridges, quails, rabbits, hares, &c. but 

even at deer and wild beaAs \ and, in order to uain tliem up 

to it, tliey take tlie (kin of one of thefe bcalls, and haviiw 

ftulTed it, faAen a piece of flelh on the head of it, with, 

which they feed the hawk, drawing the Aufted tkin along 

upon wheels at the fame time, to ufe tltem to fix tbem- 
felves on the head while it moves. When they have ufcd 

the young hawk to this for foine time, tliey carry him to 

the (port with an old (launch hawk that i; uled to the 

game : the dogs being let go, the hawks are foon after 

thrown off, who Men upon the nofe of the deer, and 

flriking their taloiu into hit flelh, keep beating their wings 

about his head, fo that he cannot fee his way ; which give 

the dogs an opportunity to come up and fcize him ; the 

fcntlcmen ufually carry a little kettle-drum at their (addle 
ow to call off tlieir liawks ; iame of them, it is (aid, have 
formerly been tauglu to fly at men. The governor of 
.Tauris ufedto divert himfelf with this fport, not fparing 
his^ fiiends fometimes ; and one day lettinjg his hawks fly 
at a gentleman, they tore his face and eyes m fudi a man- 
ner ^t he died of it \ but the king being informed of it, 
lefcnted it fo far, tliat he was turned out of his office. 

When a grand hunt is ordered by tlie king, at wliich the 
great omrahs are prefent, the country-people for ten or 
fifteen miles round, are ordered to drive all the wild beafts 
and game into a certain place, which is furroundcd with 
ilrong nets and fences i and when they have tlius inclofed 
ihsui, every one of the company (hoots at which he pleafes, 
and tliey make a terrible flaugliter of then ; there are often 

fcveral hundreds killed at one o^ thefe hunting-matchen i 
but they ufually (lay till the nun of th« heft quality in the 
field cnines up and ditcharges an arrow, after which every 
one difcharfres a* £iil as he can, tlicre being generally a 
. Arange variety of deers, antelopes, wild tu>gt, wolves, 
fwes^ harcf, &g. aUdtivtn tofethar in a crowd. They 
fsoqncntly biitM up the leopards and panthen to hunt 
tlie game, or nSbrit fiarprife it ; for tliey creep fttim one 
eover to anotWf till they can jump upon tlieir prey, as a 
cat doM Mon a aiwile, out never run after it in a conti- 
nued oourfc. At for hounds, and hunting by the fcent, 
thev know nothiitg of it t and indeed thr^ir coaiitry fcer 
to be too dnr for this liind of tgott, if tbay liad dogi 
which were fit fbr it. 

l°h« Pcrfiant are not much addided to ganing, and 
fome of the moft (brupulttvu look upon the garnet of 
diance to be unlawful : liowevcr, fome of them play at 
card*, dice, tables, chefs, and other gamei not in ufe 
among u«. Thekiitg and people of quality ' alfo fome- 
timet divert themfelvci with tlie ligfatt of wild btafli, at 
it pmAiftd in India. The common people alfo amulis 
themfclvct with jnggUrt, tumblers, and rope-dancers ^ 
but as their tridu nearly reiemble thofe piaAiftd in Eu- 
rope, it it needleft to take up our reader* lime with a re> 
hcarlatof them. 

In Perlia, they ufually falute eadi otiier by bowing the 
body a little, and clapping tlie right hand ta tlieir breail; bqr 
they never Air their cap or turbant -, they how their facea 
three timet to tlie ground when they approach tlie king, 
the viceroys of provinces, and other great men. They 
expcA from Europe.-AS, the fame reverence they (hew t» 
men of quality in their own country ; and if they are not 
clothed in the Perfian drefs, they look for the motion of 
their hats, as a token of refpefl. 

Tlte Perfiana do not fail to vrlit each orher, and people 
of condition always exneA the compliments of their Jepen- 
denta, onoccatioiK of mourning or rciuidn(>. They ar« 
introd-Jced into a large hall, where coffee aiiu tobacco are 
fet before them, with which they amufc therafelves till the 
great man appears ; as foon as they fee him, every man 
rifos up, aiid Aandt in his place ; he bows to them, and 
every one bows much lower to liiin again as he palTet by | 
and after he has taken his feat, he makes a fign to the com- 
pany to fit. If th«mafter of the hi>ufc be already in hia 
ball, the vilitor comet in (bftly, and, ilepping to the next 
vacant place, Aands gravely with his feet clofe together, 
and his hands acrofs, till the mailer of tlie iKivifc bcckona 
to him to (it down. But if a perfon receivts a vifit fronk 
his fupcrior, he rifes as foon as he {t:cs him, and meets 
him lulf way ; and foraetimet receives him at the gate, if 
he ha» iMtice of his coming -, and, in fiiort, the refpeft 
(hewn it generalty proportionable to the quality of the per- 
fon, as it it widi us ; but they differ m this, that they' 
place thofe on the left hand for whom they have the gieiteu 
rel'peft. They have frequently (luols oroiigh* for Eu- 
ropeans, who vifit them, to fit upon, but die Perfian* 
tlicmfelves fit crofs legged. 

I'he people in this country travel upon camels, herfev 
mutes, or afles, as they have no wh>,-el-caniagei. That 
women, who are always concealed as much as polTible, 
are put into a fonare wooden machine, one of which the^ 
hang on each (iae of a camel ) they are about three feet 
deep, and juft large enough for one to fit down in ; uid 
over-headare three or four hoops, like tLofc which fup- 
uort the tilt of a waggon, with a cloth dirown over them. 
Their aflet, it foenis, are much larger and nimbler tlian 
ours, and will trot ten milevat a pretty good rate ; but 
they ate very obAinate and unruly, and frequently throw 
their riders. 

A coiiunon method of travelling ir< Perfia, is with the 
caravan, confifttng of four or live hundred came't, be- 
fidet other beafta ) and there is no place where thev travel 
with greater fecurity aiid left expcnce, there being cara- 
vanferas at proper a-fiances, where they have their lodg- 
ing gratis, and purchafc provifion at tKe bcA hand i and 
though tlie roads are frequently ftecp and mountainous, 
yet fuch care is taken in laying bridges and caufeways, and 
to level atul enlar^ tlic ways, tliat a traveller feldom meets 
with any dilEculties but what areeafily furmounted. 

Here are no general pofls , but if a perlbn has letters 
to fend, he diipatchcs a (hatir or footman with them oit 
purpole, who will travel a thoufaiid miles in eighteen or 
twenty days : fome families make tliis their only em- 
ployment i and breed their children up te it,pra£lifing 
them to run from their infancy. Thefe perfons carry 
witli tlieni a bottle of w^'ter, and a littlt ba7 of oruvifions. 
which fervcs tltcm tt^Kty qr futy houif.; tl^cy g«;icrally 
3 leave 


his t 
he i 




chm t 
n th< 
h\ly a 
I hnnc 

, M » 

1 dogt 

net of 
play at 
m ufe 
afli, aa 
nccTi I' 
in Eu- 
h a te- 

ng the 
ift ; bqr 
:ir facea 
le king. 
ihew tO' 
' are not 
otion of 

r depcn- 

rhey ar* 
acco aie> 
:s till the 
ery mui 
em, and 
ifTes by | 
he com- 
iy ia his 
the next 
ifit fron» 
gate, tf 

re 1 pen 

tile per- 

that ther 


or Eu- 


herieiy % 


ch they- 

•ee feet p^^ 
lich fup- 

er them. 

ler than 

te i but; , 
ly throw, 

with th« 
ne'», be- 
lev travel 
ing carar 
it lodg« 
^i and 
vays, and 
oro meett 

them oit 
htecn or 
nly cm- 
ons carry 

ILo IJioinifed to aflemble their troopsr _ 
, Re enterprize ; but the city of Candahov being 

Tontier towards India, and a confldcrabic body of troops 
(juartcrcd thereabouib, he was in doubt whether he Ihould 
be able to carry the place by force ( whereupon he had 
rccourl'c to the following ftratagem : When he received 
his tirnian ur commilVmn for reindating him in his com- 
mand, he pretended alio that he had received a commif- 
fion to fucceed the Governor ofCandahor in that province, 
and accordingly marched t^hat way with his troops. When 
he came wittiiii a iiiilc ur two of the town, he lent to the 
Governor, to apprile him of iiis pretended commiffion ; 

No. 2. 

in his 

event had pr 

fatal to the cautc, 

if not fuperior to himfcll 

Mahamood, the fon and ,^ 
confcious of tlie great reputatior. 
tlie furprife ofCandahor-, «nd the vi-. 
though't tk to conceal his death, ana 
in his fiithcr'i name, till his own rci 


L.i^J,» • 

' ■•:i ■ f 


f"' N 

I'' ' 

•• • ' .11 ; - ^ . " '^ 

'. ■ *• 


*i of it, 

Aing, at which the 

^•ftry-peoplc for ten or 

. lo drive all the wild beafti 

.c, whicli is furrounded with 

.d when they have tlius iiiclofcd 

.ompany (hoots at which he ple.ifes, 

jic UAugliUr wt uiciui ilicic 4ic uiicii 


^ ^th'e roads are frequently tteep -~. . 
/Stfuch care it taken in laying iKtdges andcau?cW4)., 
to level and enlarge the ways, that a traveller I'eldoni inect^ 
with any difficulties but what are eafily furinounted. 

Here are no general polls . but if a peribn has letter* 
to fend, he diipatches a Ihatir or footinan with tliem on 
purpofe, who will travel a thoufand miles in eighteen or 
twenty days : fome families make tliis their only em- 
ployment i and breed their children up (e it, pra^ifmg 
them to run from their infancy. Thcfe perlons carry 
with them a bottle of water, and a little bag of provifions, 
which icrvcs rucm th^y or turty houif,i t^cy geiieraiiy 
3 leave 

, . ^M( I /•IWIWB'** 

[A S t A-l 









1cm oil 
l:en ot 




|c:ive the liit'h roaJ, ind crolt over the enuiitiy the nc»rtft 
w.iy, F.ach of tlicin cImrRci no mora iliiii twrnty-psciie 
or two Ihillln^i a (I'ly tor hli trnuhle. The K'u\^ «nj *ll 
the great men have feveral of (ticfc Ihaliri or footnien in 
their retinue. 

Before a man can l>e ailmitlcrl one of the king'i foot- 
men, he nuiU Rive a very extraordiiury pioof that he 
neither waptt heeli nor breath i for he mini run from the 
great gate of the pnlace, called Alv Capi, to a place a 
league and a half from the city, twelve limei in one day, 
and every time biinj; an arrow slong with him, which i» 
delivcTi'd to him liv tliofc who ftaitd at the end of the race, 
to Ihcw he hai rtni tho whole coinfa ; and ihit lie performi 
between fun rife and fun let, ii> thirteen or fouitern 
hotiri at mnft, being no left than one hundred and eight 
milei. Tliit honour ii alwayi bcflowed upon fome fa- 
vourite fcrvant of the king. 

On the day of trial, the clephantt and horfenlen al'e 
drawn up in tnc royal fi|^uarc, with the nuilic, drums and 
tiumpetfi founding, as it it wai fome feftivali all the great 
men make prefcnti to the (hatir (fome of whom have ob- 
tained above athoufand iKiundt on fuchanoccaAon), and 
i'everal of them ride the courle with him, to ingratiate 
thcmfelves with the Prince; and the populace attend him, 
every time he reiurns, with their Ihouts and acclamations. 
The Chami and Viceroys, who admit of a (hatir into 
their fcrvice, make him run the fame number of milei, and 
they are carcflcd, and prel'ented by all their dependents in 
the fame manner as the King's Ihatirs arc, though, wt may 
well fuppofc, not to the fame amount. 


CintHixIng a r/lalitn tf tht civil war in Pirjia, which Itr- 
minoledin ihi dtfoiiiig ef Sultan Htjfiin bf AiahmoiJ, uiht 
k/iirftJ ih* fivi.'tiiKty. 

SHAII Sultan HolTcin, the late Sophi, fucceeded his fa- 
ther Sultan Solym:in. This Prince chofe to pafshii time 
in an indolent, ind inaflivr manner among his women in 
the harnin, leaving the adminillration of the government 
intirely to his miniAers, who promoted and difplaced 
whom they thought fit ; opprcding the fuhjcdts with taxes 
and impolitions, though in a time of profound peace, and 
letting every thing to falc; fo that a general corruption 
fpread itl'elf through the whole magi(lrncy,and jullicc was as 
often bought and ibid as any other commodity -, the public 
buildings were ncglcftcd( and even the ordinary excrcifes 
of the young nobility and gentry, which ufcd to be per- 
formed in the royal prefcncc, were difufed ; hunting and 
all rural (ports were laid afidc ; and fo unive.fal was the 
degeneracy, that while one part of the people, following 
the example of their Prince, fpci\t ilieir whole time in the 
harams with their women, others were employed in de- 
vouring and preying upon their fcUow-fubjefls. 

The famous Merewcys was one of the pcrfons, among 
others, who were difcarded for notofTeiinga bribe, or prc- 
fent, as it is called in Perlia, fuitable to the expefkation of 
the minillry. This gentleman was a Tartar by dcfcent, 
or at lea(\ commanded four or five hundred men on the 
utmolV bounds of the Perfian empire towards Ulbcck 
I'artary, where the PciTians live in nords, or clans, as the 
Tartars do on the other fide of the river Oxus, moving 
from place to place with their ten s, as they can find 
provifion for their cattle. Mereveys, underilanding 
that he was removed only t.> make room for another 
who had procured to himfelf .i preference by prcfents, ap- 
plied to all his friends ; and railed fuch afuro, as in a (hort 
time cauCed him to be reinllatcd in his comra.tnd. He 
was however, fo impoverifhed by this laft prefent, that he 
found himfelf in very uneafy circuniftances ; and taking 
advantage of the fupinenefs of the government, and his 
di(>ance from the court, he determined to I'cizc on tlie 
neighbouring province of Candahor, and let up for himfelf. 
Accordingly, he communicated his dcfign to his friends 
the Tartars, who promiled to aflemblc their troops, and 
ulTift in the cnterprize ; but the city of Candahor l)cing 
a frontier towards liulia, and a confidcrablc body of troops 
tjuarteicd thereabouts, he was in doubt whether he (hould 
be ahli' to carry tlic place by force ; whereupon he had 
rccfiurl'e to the (ollowing ftratagcm : When he received 
his finnan or comuiiflinn for reinftatin^, him in his com- 
mand, he prctcndi'd alio that he received a commif- 
fion to fuccccd thcGovernn ofCandahor in that province, 
and accordingly marcl'.eJ that way with his troops. When 
he came within a niiic .>r tuio of the town . he lent to rhe 
Governor, tu apprll'c hiin of tiis pretended conimidion ; 

No. .'. 

well knovting that the Governor, *< was in ftich 
caies, would come out to meet him i which he accordingly 
did. Aficr fome compliments between them, Mareweyi ' 
who had polked his men Co ai to prevent the GovciikmI 
retreating into the town, fell upon hit guards, and cut 
tlirin to pieces t after which, beloic the city Could be in- 
formed of what had lutp;Ti<-il, he marahcd torward tu 
Candihnr, and had the trites immediately opened to him. 

Merewrys hud no fa ther views at this time, th« 
ercJIing the province o. C'andtlior, which had formerly 
belonged to India, intr an mdcuciidcni (late . but tliis he 
could not expe>^t tn a.coinplilh, without forming foma 
powerful alliances : ir ordei, therefore, to protcO liiinlelf 
againll the lurccs of the i'erfians, which he had rralbn to 
expeA would be luddcnly biAught down againi\ him, h* 
difpatchedan Oinrah to the Mogul's court, to give ndvico 
of his fuccefs, and tu propofe an alliance againft I'crfM, 
the antieiit enemy of India. This in'elligence was joy- 
fully received by the Mogul, who began now to entertain 
hopes of recovering the province of Candahor, and re- 
ftoring it to his dominions, which would be no hard matter 
to effieA, if he could make Menwcy] dependent on him. 
He therefore ofl'ered himwhat number of^troops he thovight 
fit to demand for his funport, giving him the title of 
Prince of Candahor, which he then afpircd to ; and more- 
over fent him all imaginable aflurances of tiis affcAion 
and elleem. 

Advice being received at the Perfian "tourt, of the fur- 
ftiie of Candalior by Merewrys, the minidry detached a 
tjody of four or five thoufand horfe to endeavour to reduco 
himi but Mereweys (being joined by the Ulbeck Tar- 
tars, and fome others, who daily flocked to him in hopes 
of meeting with abundance of rich plunder in Perfia) did 
not (hut himfelf up in Candahor, but attacked the Per- 
fians in their inarch, and defeated them. This fuccefs 
induced him to extend his views, and he fcemed nov/ to 
aim at a revolution : to this end he diliiatchcd his cmilTa- 
ries into all the pioviiices, and even to ICpahan itfclf, who_ 
complained loudly of the perfonal vices and indolence of 
the bophi, who, he infinuatcd was unworthy to govern 
the true believers, -•■' remonlUated ap-'inll the male-admi- 
niilration of public affairs, through . corruptioni and 
opprelfive condufl of the minifters, 

Ihe late tranfaflir is threw the miniftry into the utmo(\ 
confternation : but they had, by their paft behaviour ren- 
dered themfelves fo obnoxious to the refentment of the 
Chanu and Omrahs, that they knew not whom to confide 
in. Should tl/ey order them, withthdrtiuips, to allemble 
and make head againfl this formidable rebel, they were un- 
der appiehcnfiuns he would recei-e additional Itrenph by 
their joining him. or that they would at lead cxpole their 
adminiilration, if not demand their heads as an atonement 
for their crimes. Ifon the other hand, they fufFercd him 
to m.iich forward without oppofition, they knew tlic con- 
feijuence would prove no le(j fatal. They therefore dif- 
p.itclK'd another general, whofe fidelity, and (kill ia milita- 
ry affairs, they had a great opinion of, to watch the motions 
of Mereweys, and awe the country at lead, that they Ihould 
not go over to him, or funply him with provifions ; but 
this detatchment fucceeded no better than the former, being 
furprifed by Mereweys, and mod of them cut to pieces. 

In confeouence or tlicfe two engagements, Merewayj 
furnilhcd his followers with arms and accoutrements, who 
were atfirft little better than a defencelefs rabble. He be- 
gan alfo now to talk of advancing to the capital of Ifpahan; 
but as there was a vaft extent of country between Candahor 
and Ifpahan, and his troops did not yet amount to more 
than eight or ten thoufand horfe, he thought proper, firft 
of all, to ftrengthcn himfelf with an alliance with the 
Grand Seignioi, and put llie city ofCandahor into a condi* 
tion to r«fil\ any attempt that might be made upon it in his 
abfencc. His negotiations at the Porte fucceeded to hil 
heart's defire ; and the BaiTa of Bagdat was immediately 
ordered to alTcmblc an army, and march to the frontiers of 
Perfia. Mereweys now began to throw o(F all difguifes, 
and ftyle himfelf Protcflor of the kingdom of Perfia, and 
to prepare for his march to Ifpahan ; but in the midd of all 
his projefls, and while he was grafping at the whole world 
in his imagination, death put a period to his view*. This 
event had probably difcouraged his adherents, and proved 
fatal to the caul'e, had he not left a fon behind him equali 
if not fupcrior to himfelf, in every lefpeft. 

Mahamood, the fon and fucccftor of Mereweys, being 
confcious of the great reputation his father had gained by 
the furprifc ofCandahor, and the viftories he had obt2;.''.ed, 
thought (it to conceal his death, and to tranfaft all affairs 
in Ills fathcr'i name, till his own reputation fhould be 
£ eftabliflicd 

., ■■!•,■ 



■ *■;• 

tflalilifhcJ. AccorrtltiRly, ill lhing« w«m on w i^Vfer*- 
wcyi lutl hccti mil alive : the prriiarilioni fir marching 
lolfp han wcrccontiiuiril, iirw ulliiinceii mtrr cuilivalrd, 
liiil iii-w force* i.iH'rd. Knr ilnl tiM Turkt iiid Mulco- 
ti»e« niTjkiJ lo improve ihcfc diflraAioni iit Herfu lo their 
own advaiiML^r. The Mulcovitct furpiixcd Deilxnt anil 
t'iirkii, wliiili !.iy iwxl to them on the wtM tide ol the Cal- 
pi^iii fca i and .ifti:rw.irda rxti-mlrj tlieir Mnu into (ihilan, 
Ml aloni{ the luiith oiaft iil the l^n <■ Ira. The Tuik, 
M> ihc other luiid, (onk pullciritin of llamadan, and 
fevrral nthrr iVoiitier placea tindiiiK ''"'* '"' "" np|M>liiiiiit. 
The I'lTfiwi miniOry were now teriihiy alatinrd, tmt 
knowlti;; wlut nwaliim to putfue , and, lo add tu their 
iniifortuitei, the trealury \ni* intircly cxhautted. 'I'hey 
came, howerer, at Iriinih to the icfohition, to let the I'roii- 
ticii Ihill for lltcmfdvci, and tn aflemhle an irniv ol eight 
or ten thouraix) horic in the neighliuurhond of Hpahaii, tn 
oppufe the UI'uriKr, of whom they received repeated ad- 
Ticci. thm he wai in full march for that 

TneKii)K,sThcii lie uiidcrftood tlutthcl'fiiiper'a army, 
nndcr the cominaiid <d Mahainood, wm appro.ichiitg hi< 
cipital city, and that the jwople were iiV)',eiK'ral difcnntent- 
rd with the admiaiUratioD, propofrd to hit Omrahi to 
rel!j;i> his croWn, and fet hit cidelt Ion upon the throne. 
Tliii was generally approved of i hut the poor young gen- 
ricman, who had iievci hrrn out of the lcra|;h(>, and wa* 
fulhriently tenificd with the reprcreiitation the eunuch* 
ni.ulc of the Ihength and power of the Ufurper. declined 
the offer, l>eing apprchenfivc th;it he wjs only let up to ht 
nudeal'acrificc to tiu: race of a powerful enemy. 

Sultan Th.imas, or 'I honias, the King's fccond fon, wai 
not a"ageth<-r of fo pufillaniiuous a Ipiiit; hut was con- 
tented to fucceed his father in the throne, and put himfelf 
at the head of the army, which ciuam|ied in that fine walk 
called the Char Bag, hetween Unahan and Jiiluha or /ul- 
plia. Here the army continued Ionic time, ann an engage- 
ment hetween the Royal troops and the Ufurper was daily 
ex[>cAcd. Shah Tttomas, in the mean time, endeavo\ir- 
ed to difcover how the men and officers ftood affcft- 
ed to his caufe ; and, anion;; other', he fcnt to the Knglilh 
fafloty, remiiidini; them ot the privileges they had enjoy- 
ed in Ferlia under his aiiceftcis, and let them know, that 
he expc^cd all the alClf ance they could give ; and in ihort, 
things bore fo favourable ari afpcA, that it was expcAed 
he would have driven the Ufurper from the neighbourhood 
of Ifpalun ; when news was brought one momine, that 
Shah Thomas, with foinc few of his friends, had left the 
army the night before, and had Hed, nobody knew whi- 
ther; whereupon the officers of theRoy.-U army, as well as 
die citizens, thought of nothing elfc hut making their 
peace with the Ufur|)er, and inviting him into tlie town, 
which he foon aftert«ok pofleflion qI, making the old King 
and the whole court hii pi ^loners. This Mahamood aifefl- 
ed with fo linall a force as lix or fcven hoi-fe. 

Mahamood, finding an empty trealury, and being, under 
a neceflity of raifiiig more forces for the fupport of Ins utur- 
pation, coniifcatcd the goods of all thofc who were not in 
nis iiitcreft , he alio cut off the heads of the prime niiniftcr 
and his adherenti, who for fever.^l veais had been flcecinig 
rile people, whereby he rcpleiiilhc'l ' coffers, at the fauK 
time that he gained the applaufeot the people, who feldom 
confider the juilice of the caufe on thtf» occafions. but 
never fail to rejoice when they lie their opiiuilcr'. punilh- 
ed. The Ufurper, having lent the King uiidcr a guard to 
Candahor, took polFeflion of thcKuyal paJice ; money was 
extorted from the foreign merchants, (l| p< li.lly the En^lifh, 
infoniuch that the faftory was, in a mariiicr ruined 

Sultan Thomas, with his few friends, having quitted If- 
pahan, took the road of Tii iris, where he affembled a body 
ot horfc, and made a Ihrw of oppofing the Turk, whicd 
drev/ over many of the Ferdaiis to hi; intf.eft ; but the 
Turks were fo much fujicrior to him, thnl he could do 
little towards flopping the progrefs of their arms ; and the 
towns, being for the molt part witliout walls or garrifons, 
became an eafy picy to ilie Grand Seignior's forces, who 
foon afterwards took 'I'auris, and put the iulubitants to the 

■ ' S E C T. V. 

OfthiPfrJian htm 'i-ade, mtchanic arti, and maHufalturts ; 
alfo tf thiirforti^ tradt, navigalion, pear l./ift>friei, Enilijh 
trade in Perjia, j'lt^ht tj goods frtm Gomir it Sural, 
price o/gttds at ijemortn, pttldutiet, wtighli, and coins. 

•nd order* Tclattn|f lo ttie protvlfion are duly ehfcrved. 
When any pcrlon intends io let up a trade, hr gori tn the 
warden, and rcgiftcn hu name and place of abode i and 
iiociii|uiiy ia made who wa» hin nuflcr, oi whetlitr he un- 
drrltands the bulinrli, or not, nor is there any rcflrainl 
laid upon them, that (hey Ihall not encroach upon anyothti 
protcirion , thus, for inltaiKC, the l>ra<icii are at liberty 
to make lilrcr vellblt, as they li«i|ucntly do, without lieiiig 
in daiinr of a nrolerution Iruni the lilver-huillM. Kvery 
tiadc almoft ii Imund to woik for the King, whrnever he 
rei|uirei it i and thole who arrexempird, pay an annual tax 
lu ihc governnKnt. 'I'ladeliiicn do not take apprenttcet 
lor a term of vears . but hue thrir Icrvanii, and allow them 
waves from the firit day they entertain them. 

It ii obferved, ^hat their carpenteis are hut very indif- 
ferent attifti \ and the rrafoii thcrcol may be, that thara it 
not much timber in Hcrlia, and hut very little is ufeU in 
their buildings. Joiiwrs and turner* aic more expert in 
their profeirion, and they lay on their lacker very nicely. 
TIk braziers and tin-men work well with their hammert, 
files, and turning inlttumeiits. '1 hey have neither iron, 
brail, nor pewter In their kitchen furniture, niuft of the 
vellcli and implcmenii uled in their kilclieni being made of 
copper tinned. 

l'h« broad-fword blades, made by their armourers, are 
very good, and ihcy damalk them ai well at any European. 
I'he T>arieli of their iire-armi are not aniifi ; they make 
them very Mrong, and as thick at the muzxie ai the breech. 
Their ftockt are but ill-contrived, being thin and light at 
the butt end, and not At lo clap to a man's (houldcr i ai 
for locks to their guns, or any locks that have fptingi, Ihey 
do not pictend to make them, any more than they do 
watches or clocks, which they riilier putchafe abroad, or 
employ Kurojpean workmen lo make for ibem. Kiiivci, ralbri, 
fcilfari, and fome other cutlery ware, they make very well i 
and little i\eel mirrors, which they ufe iiiftead of looking- 
glallet : ihelic are almoft all convex i and the air is lo per. 
feAly dry, that they leldom ruft, or grow dull. They do 
not underftand the art of making looking-glalTet, but have 
them from F.urope : they have, however, a maiiulaiiture of 
glal'f, which lerves for windows and bottles. 'I'he uIl- of 
ihe bow being what the Ferfiaiis greatly value thrmlclves 
upon, there are no where belter bows made than among 
Ihem : the chief materials are wood and horn, with liiiswi 
bound about them: their quivers are of leather, embroider- 
ed or worked with filk. The bow-ftring ii of twitted lilk. 
oflhebigneff of a goore-<]uill, Their howi ate painted 
and varnifhed, and mads as fine as polTible. 

The Periians are at well verlird in embroidery ai in any 
art whatever, efpccially the gold and lilvcr embioidery, 
either on cloth, filk, or leather : they cover their liiddlci 
and houfinct almoft with embroidery, and the ftitching of 
Ihe leather by far exceedi any thing done in Europe. Their 
fiddles are madi after the Klorocco mo<lel, the ftinups of 
which are very Ihort ; they have a kind of breall-plate to 
Ihem. Feiloin of quality have gold about their tutnilure 
where wc ule brafs. 

Wh It is called in Europe Turky leather, from in com- 
ing th ough that country, it uiually made in Perfia. Tha 
fhagr en alfo comes from thence, whidi . e aie told it made 
of the flcin of an alt's rump. Tanneri ufc fait and galli in- 
ftcad of bark, and dreft their coarle flcins with lime. 

Earthen, ware it another manufadurc the Peifiant excel 
in ; it it much beyond any thing of ibis kind made by the 
Dutch i lome affirm, that it is armoll equal lo china-ware. 
It it chiefly made at Schiras, Metied, Ycld, and Kernun. 
Mending of glafs and earlhernware it a particular trade in 
Perfia : they will drill holes through them, and fatten tho 
piecet together fo, that a brt ken bowl or plate will hold Ii- 
quids as well at before it was broke. 

Gold wire-drawers and thread-twitters may alfo be rank- 
ed among their moft ingenious artitts. They will draw ■ 
piece, weighing a dram, to the length of three liund:cd Per- 
fian tilt (hve and thirty inches making an ell.) 

Their lapidaries, wc are afTured by a pcrlon who was a 
jeweller, underftand the grinding of loll ftones, and can cut 
tbem pretty well. 

Their dying is preferred lo any thing of that kind in Eu- 
rope. This it rather afcrilied to the drjnef's and clearnefi 
of the air (which givet a livelinefs lo the colours, and lixea 
them) than to the Ikill of the artilt. 

Taylort work is done very neatly liy the Perfiant ; the 
men's cloathi, which arc made of the i ■.licit riowcted and 
brocaded liks, are fitted cxaftly to their liodies without ilio 
leaft wrinkle) and their lewinj; is incomparably bevoiid 
that of our workmen -, as the hnc materials thcv work on 
require it fhould. They woik flowers alio upoi' their car- 


[A S I A.) 


! A. 


li in any 
ir laddlci 
ilclilni; of 
iiups of 
■ plate to 

lis com- 
fu. Til. 
Id ii made 
galli in* 

funi excel 
idc by llie 
r tride in 
faften the 
II hold li- 

> be rank- 
'ill draw » 
d:cd Per- 

Im was a 
id can cul 

)d in Eu- 
I clearnefii 
I and fixe* 

lam i the 

lered and 

Ithout tho 


' work oa 

I their car- 

|)cti, culhioni, and wln<)«w-euriaini fo v«ry nicely, thai 
thry look at if ihey weie paiiiltd. 'I'hrii barlxri aie no 
Ufi cactllcnl in their way i for ihty will (have ihe had t\- 
moft ai ball a doacn lltukci, and have lo light • hand that a 
perlbn can li-arce Ircl them. They uk only cold water, 
and hold no bafoii under your chin, ai with ui i but have 
their water in a cup about the biKneli of a little china dilh. 
Alter ihey have Ihavrd a man, they cut the naili of hii fret 
and haiidi with a liiilc iron inftrumciit like a bodkin, Ihaip 
at lh« end I then they flrelch hit arma, and rub and chafe 
hit llelh , which, in Ihefc hot couiiirirt, it an operaliuii 
very plraliiiK at well to the Kuinprani at the iiativet. 

'I'hcir Koldlmiihi are in genrtil very unlkilful and auk- 
ward workoMii i what thay prilorm hcl), it in the tilligreen 
way; they alio make Kone iiii:<!«, and gngrave pretty well, 
but do not underlland cnanielliii);. Any ivork which re- 
<|Uirea fpriiip, fuch at watchei, Ace. Ihey are totally unac- 
quainted with. 

The principal manufaQure of the counlrv are Hlkt i fuch 
at tafFtliei, labbict, ftltint, and filk niiaed with cotton or 
canM.1 orgoat'a hair, brocadei, and uuld tiflne. There arc 
an hundred lorti of the liiiv',le brocade : the double are call- 
ed duroy, or two facet, hecaufe both fidet are ecjually good ) 
they aie the richeft that are to be met with anv wlicte. 
The gold velvet, which It wrou);hi in Perfia, it admirable. 
All their rich (lufTt havethit good pro|ierty, that they are 
very durable i the |;old or filver doct not wear off" or tarnifti, 
while the work laili, but kcapt in colour andbrichlneri. 
The fineft loomt for Ib-fe Dufft are at Ifpahan, Cafhan, 
and Ycfd : thole for caipeti '<rc chirHy made in the province 
ofKeritin What arr nrually called Turky cnrpelt, arc 
indeed I'erfian i but obtainrti that name from lieing brought 
lu UI by way of Turky. The camel-hair ftufTi are made 
in Carniaiiin : it it exceeding foft and fmootli : but the 
Uuffi thty nuke with it arc not Ifrong. Camlett and (ilk 
and worlfcd diuggeti ate made in the lame province. Ooati- 
bair Ituft'i are made in tlyrcania, and near the gull ul Hcf- 
Ibra. 1'here it I'omecallico cloth made in Peirii, and they 
know how tu paint and ftain it ; h-Jt the Indian callicoct 
are far prrlciable. 

In Pcrlia, the profefTion of a merchant it reckoned very 
honuuijhie ) and the rather, at there is no hereditary no- 
bility, which devolvei from father to Ion. With refpcA to 
ihofe in great pofti, their honour* and profiit terminate 
with the olKce i and their livet and fortunet are in perpetuiil 
hazard, efpecially under a weak or cnic! Prince. Tne trader 
feems more independent than any other fuhjett i and, not- 
wilhdanding the governn.' nt is del'potic, they are ufually 
encouraged, bccaii'' j,ey hn ng in a conliderable levenue to 
the crown ) ?i may add, the greatcll niinifters do not 

think the H>it> lit of a merchant degrading to them : even 
the Kih)i I hi« had his faAors and agents in the neigh- 

Wjuring k . .nut exported filki, nrocadci, carpets, 

and oili . I ch ^nodt ; and his .igcnts at the Mogul's court, 
and('i> «hrt<v when their bulineli was chiefly trafiick, have 
fi ' had the character of Ambafladortconfcired u|«>n 

r..iiKert and ftockjobbert, who are a very cunning aiul 
fuUtle daft nf people, generally carry on the trade in Perfia. 
After they have talked over and Icttlid Ihe matter atthe felki's 
boufc (for lliere is no exchange for the lendetsvoui of mer- 
chants) thev agree about the price upon their Kngeis, put- 
ting their hands under a cloth j the hngets' end, it feem , 
Aandt for one, the bent finger for five, and the ftrait for 
ten, the hand open for a hundred, and, if (hot, a thou- 
fand ; and it is impolfible for a by-Dander to gather anv 
thing from the circumftances, becaufe they retain foeve-i 
a countenance all the while thry are tranfaAing the affair. 

'I'he Armenian Cliriftiant, and Baiiiani of India, have 
by fiir thegrraleil (hare of the trade, notwithftanding the 
Mahometans are the governing part of the country. The 
Mahometan Pcrfians trade from one province of their own 
country to another, and to India not a little) but the Ar- 
meniani manage the whole European trade : one rcafon 
whereof is, that the Mahometans do care to eo into 
Chriftian countries, becaufe they cannot there oblerve the 
cufloms their religion prefcribet i for their law, it feemi, 
forbids them to eat iiefh killed or dreflcd by a man of a 
different religion, or to drink out of the lame cup with 
bim ; and even prohibits the touching of perfont in fome 
circumftinces, whom they look upon to be polluted. Ano- 
ther thing, which is a difadvantage to their trade, is, that 
the taking up money at intereft it unlawful, though they 
are at liberty to make what advantages they can in buying 
and felling. But the hu6n?r. ef trade never entered into 
tlie tlioughtt of their lawgiver, he lived in a part of the 
(•ttiitry wbcry they dealt chiefly in herds of cattle, andh* 


did not forafte the adviitla«M hit dtCciplei might make by 
fcreign trade and merchamine. The governnMnt, there- 
fbrr, find ihcmrelvet under a neccflity of protecting tn4 
encouraging their Chiilliaii lubjc^ they value their fo- 
reign trade, and the trvcnua it luingi in i andCliriftiani« 
it itoblitrved, live muclieali<r and happier under lb« Per- 
lian gnvernnicnt, than in many Chiiuian countriet, where 
the people ate of diflerrnt (tl\t and perfualiont ; and, at a 
coiilcrjucnce of tliii, the Chriltiani of Peiru,afpcciaJl¥ to« 
wardi Georgia, are a very confidcrable body t the CtirH- 
tiani alio are the only fort of people who inhabit the great 
town of Jul,>ha near Ifpahan. 

>'<ilk, faioth raw and wroug'.il, it the ftaple commodity of 
Perfia i great t|uanliliet nf thit are exported *o InJia, 
Turky, and Mulcovy; and the Enghfti and Dutch for- 
merly took a great deal oS their haiidt, but little or none 
at prefcnl. They fupply India with abundance of fine 
horfei, at a very great rate, forty or fifty poundi being bul 
an oidinary price for an horfe there. They export alio ca- 
melt hair, goatt wool, leather, wines, diftiiled walcri, 
dried and prefcrved fruitt, piftachio nuts, dales, lie. 

We cannot learn that there it any confidcrable quantity 
of pearli to be met with in Perfia at prefent, though the 
country waa once famous for them, '('here was, it is true, 
one of the fineft pearl lilhctics in the world in the gull of 
Pcida (ome few years ago -, but the Perfiani have loll the 
dominion of that fea, and of all the iflandt in it, except 
Ormus, and that wai vigoroully attacked by the Arabs, who 
conijuered the reft, 

Alioul the year 1718, the Perfiant made an attempt lo 
recover Ihelie idands, and, in order Ihereto, procured the 
Viceroy of Goa loaflift them with four men of war 1 but 
the Pcrfian general, it Terms, wasbiiliedby the Arabs, and 
had nearly lietiayrdthi Paituguere (hips into their hands; 
and tliough he failed in that, yet never providing any land- 
forces to afTift in that exprdilion, the Arabs remain in pof- 
IrfTion of tholir places, and, with them, of thepeailfifheiies. 
'I he Portuguele l<|uadron, however, came to an cngage- 
mem with the Arabian fleet, and it proved one of the 
moft obftinale encounters that has been fren in that part of 
til" world : one of the Arabian (hips was funki and tbof« 
of the ''oituguefe were fo (battered, that they were glad 
to retire to their ports, and appeared no more in that iIm. 
Some of 'he Aranian men of wax are very large, carrying 
no lefs than lourfcore guns ; and they are hid to have 
(hips of the greatcft force of any nation on the other fido 
the cape of < ■ mI Hope. 

The Engl ih baft India company trading to Perfia had 
before the civil war, two confidcrable faAories in that king- 
dom, one at Ifpahan, and the other at Gombron in the 
mouth of the gulf of Perfia or Boflura, the head of each 
faQorv was called their agent, and lived in as great ftate at 
a nolilcman, Tht agent at Ifpahan had with him at that 
timr three or four Englifh faAois, and a retinue of no left 
than thirty or forty fervanls, natives uf the country : their 
houfe was elegantly built, after the model of the Pcrfian pa- 
laces, aiulftood in the middle of a garden. Their horlef, 
lirrvaiits, and equipage, when they went abroad, were equal 
to an Omrah's : their furniture (hone with gold, or rather 
was covered with it. The ftate of the Gombron agent 
wat not altogether (o grand ; bul hit advaniagea wer« 
equal, as will appear hereafter ; bul before we give an ac- 
count of the privileges of the fervanti of the Englilh 
company, it will be necelTary to treat of their ttadc which 
hat very much dwindled of late yeart. 

Englifh cloth is almeft the only commodity the com- 
pany carry to Perfia, nor does thit turn to any great ac- 
count, the Turky company being able to ibpply that part 
of the country, where itii chiefly vended, ata much cheaper 
rate. In return for cloth, the company bring back wool, 
at it ij commonly called, which is the foft down that growi 
under the hair next the (kin, and is chiefly ufed by hatters : 
the company bring away every year about a thouland bag« 
of this, each bag weighing a hundred weight; and if they 
do not meet with a fulficirnt return in this, they take the 
balance inaba(res aiul chequeeni, or elfe in gold bars, of 
which great advantage is to be made ; and as they have 
not funicient freight of their own, they take in freight 
of the Armenians, Banians, and Moors, and other pri- 
vate traderi, when they return lo Sural, and generally t 
great number of pafTengers for that country. 

The Perfiant have not a (hip in the gulf, or indeed any 
where elfe, bul freight all their goods for India in Engliin 
or Dutch velTels, and thr csptsins and oSccrs were for- 
merly guilty of great extortions : for they would make a 
merchant pay a confidcrable fum for a place on the deck 
to (leep on ) the room between two guns they let out at 







thirty or forty rupeo (valoed at two fliillings and fix-pence 
each), ind the maket \»buld have two or tliree hundred ru- 
peei each for their cabbin, which are but juft big enough 
for two or three people to fit in; bat the company have 
taken that ntattcr under their cotifideration, and regulated 
the pricf to the iatiifaAion of the meichanti; and, ni pur- 
fuance to their dircAioni, the chief and council always 
agree with the commanders before-hand, for fuch conve- 
niences as the merchant requires. The great eabbin, in 
a fliipof four hundred tons, is ufually let for a thoufand 
fupees, which, being occupied bv twenty or thirty mer- 
chants, is not thought much, and is indeed a trifle com- 
Caredtowhat ufedto be extorted from them; even the long 
oatitfclf uledto be farmed out formerly. The fearching 
the paflcngers litilc parcels on their going afliore, was 
another thing that ufed to difoblige them highly { and 
which the Dutch, who were confiderable gainers by 
tranfporting Ihefe merchants and their cfFeAs, never con- 
cerned themfelves about { which made them better aitisded 
to the Dutch than the Englifli. 

We cannot foibear reflcfling here on the inlblence of 
fome of our fea-officers, even towards gentlemen of their 
own nation, who happen to be paflehgers on board thcra ; 
and as for a Moor or Banian merchant tliey refpcA^hem no 
more than dogs. 

Nothing furely can be more barbarous than the ufage 
ofthefe people to the poor lafcars, or Indian failors, who 
ailiil in bringing their (hips home, when they have loll 
their Englilh failors by ficlcnefs or defertion. One of the 
captains beat and abufed the lafcars unmercifully ; and 
when they reprcfentcd to him, that this treatment would 
not pafs unpunilhed in the next world, however it might 
in this, he would laugh at them ; and by way of jeft, when 
one of thefe poor fellows died, ordered a letter to be 
written, and put into his mouth, direfted to fome of his 
friends, who had gone before him, wherein he endeavoured 
to (hew his wit, but in fuch a ftrain, as made all men 
abhor him. Another great haid(hip thefc lafcars are li- 
able to, is, that when they have brought an Indian (hip to 
England, care is not always taken to fend them back again 
to their own country ; but they are feen, through extreme 
iiecc(rity, !>egging about the Areets ; and as they come from 
a hot climate, many of them probably peri(h in the winter 
feafon. Such praAices as thefe are dilgraceful to any na- 
tion, and give more caufe to Indians to brand us with the 
epithet of favages, than we can have to give them that ap- 

The gains made by the Englifh Eaft Iniiia company, 
in carrying the eiFc£ts of the Armenians, Moors, Banians, 
tic. from Gombron in the gulph of Perfia to Surat in India, 
is one grear branch of the company's prolit ; and they 
rarely fend a (hip from Gombron to Surat, but (he is as 
deeply laden as (he can fwim, full of palTengcrs, and (he 
has a vail quantity of treafure on board, fomctimes to the 
value of two or thrcehundred thoufand pounds ; infomuch 
that the Englilh (hips going from Per(ia to India in Oflo- 
ber and November annually, are fuppofed to be the richcA 
VclTels in that part of the world. 

I'he orders and regulations the Eaft India company 
made, in relation to this voyage, about the beginning of 
the prcfcnt century, were as follows ; viz. " That as often 
a$ any (hip of ours is let to freight to or from Perfia, our 
council on the place take care an agreement be made before 
them (of which they are to be judges) that it he reafonable 
«\hat the captains (nail be allowed for the paflagf and ac- 
commodation of fuch Armeniani', Perfians, or other paf- 
fengcrs ; and to that end they are to fend a proper perfon 
on board each (hip, to fee their accommodations be as they 
ought. That when the paflcngers return, the faid council 
enquire whether the captain has complied with his agree- 
ment i and if he has failed in any part, they muft take 
care fuch palTengers have juftice done them ; and that the 
council on the place from whence the (liip proceeds, advife 
thofe, who refide where (he is configned unio, with the 
terras of fuch agreement. If, when this is done, the cap- 
tains (hall treat thofe padengcrs unrcafonably, or will not 
do them that Judice which the council (hall award, let the 
council protelt agawift fuch commanders for their injullice 
and failure ; and therein fpecify the damage liic company 
fuflains by the lofs of freight, occafioned by I'uch difcou- 
r.igemcnts to the freighters, or their vakeels or fervants i or 
the hazard that may in probability happen thereon ; and 
the council have then fo far done their part ; and wc (hall 
upon notice which muit be I'enc us irom time to time, 
do the reft. Although wc muft farther put you in mind, 
that you have, by charter-party, liberty to difplace com- 
mandcn when jim tcafou offcrti and if their oppreflioni 

4 P 

are fevere, we know no better realon to difplace them, 
than the curing fuch a growing evil." 

The weights ufrd by the company are maunds only, and 
thefe dKFcr according to the nature of th« commodities to 
be delivered by them. 

All bargains at Ciombron are made for (habees, and the 
company keep their accounts in them, reckoning theiti 
worth fotu-penceeach, though that coin is rarely met with, 
but in its flcad coz's and mamooda's are. current every 
where. Horfes, camels, honfes, &c, are generally fold by 
the toman, which is two hundred Ihahees, or fifty abalTees, 
and they ufually reckon their eftatcs that way : luch a one 
is worth fo'mahy tomans, they fay, as we reckon pounds 
in England. Tht (hahee, in the company's accounts, is 
reckoned worth four-pence Englifh money. 

I'he company do not at all interfere in the trade between 
Perfia and India : this they leave entirely to their faAors and 
fervants, and to fuch country (hips and private traders ai 
put themfelves under their protcAion, and are content with 
paying the port duties. Eor ilie better regulation of thii 
trade, orders are hung up in the confultation of Gombron. 


Givitg a McriftUn oftht ttunlry la gtniral, and thi quality 
efthtfiili alfi ef ihiir hujbanilry and gardinlng i includ- 
tng graiHt fruit, trni, Jinutrt, plants, drugs, (3ft. alfi 
an acctunt »f thtir animals and miniralt. 

PERSIA abounds with mountains, but has very few 
rivers : fome of the mountains are fuppofed to Ije the 
higheft on the face of the earth. Mount Taurus, which 
frequently receives different names, as it branches itfelf out 
intodiirerentprovincet,runs through the country from weft 
to eaft. The lofiieft of thefe mountains arc Ararat in Ar- 
meriia, the five mountains which tcparate Media from Hyr< 
cania, and Parthia or Irac. 'I'bole which divide Ears or 
Perfia from Carmania are exceeding high, the moft (amout 
of which is called mount Jarron ;but they are generally dry 
barren rocks, without trees or herbage upon them, except 
thofe of Ghilan or Hyrcania, and the mountrins of Curdef- 
tan, which are covered with woods, and very fruitful where 
they are manured. There are vaft fandy deferts feveral 
days journey over in this kingdom, where there is fcarce ■ 
drop of water to be found ; and the land in general upon 
the frontiers lies uncultivated, to difcourage their enemies 
from invading them j for there is not the leaft fubfiftence 
to be met with for feveral miles, in travelling into the king- 
dom either from Turky or India. There are, however, 
fome fruitful plains and vallies, in which their principal 
cities ftand, which yield plenty of grain and herbage : and 
no country is more fruitful than the provinces which lie 
upon the Cafpian fea, as we have already obferved. But 
Hyrcania is very unhealthful in fummer time, which fome 
apprehend proceeds from the multitude of fnakes and in- 
fcfts which lie rotting upon the ground when the waters are 
dried up, as well as from the (oulnefs of the water itfelf, 
which at that time of the year is fo thick and muddy that 
it is unlit for ufe. 

Though there is not a tenth part of Perfia cultivated, at 
prefent, y>.t when greater care was formerly taken to turn 
the waters into thofe vallies which now produce neither 
grafs nor grain, thefe were extremely fruitful. In fome 
provinces there arc hundreds of fine aqueduAs choaked up 
and buried in the ruins ; fo that it is not fo much a defca 
in the (oil, as the want of people, or at leaft of hulbandmen 
and tillage, which renders Perfia fo barren. 

The foil in fome parts is a hard gravel, and in others a. 
ftiff whitid) clay almoft as hard as a ftone ; but either «f 
them are fruitful when well watered, and will bear oitcn 
two crops, and fometimcs three in the (pace of a year. If 
wc give credit to antient authors, there was not a more 
plentiful country in the world than Perfia i the reafon of 
this alteration fome afcritie to the different dilpoiitions of 
the people who have inhabited it. I'he antient Pcrfiana, 
the fire- worlhippers, it is faid, were obliged by the precepts 
of their religion, to cultivate the ground, and it was bjr. 
them accounted a meritorious ilX to plant a tree, to bring 
the water into a field, and make a barren fpot of earth pro- 
duce grafs or grain : while the Mahometans Iccm to have 
no genius for improvements, or even to prcferve what their 
anceftors have built or planted, but let every thing run to 
rum ; liOWcvcf, oriv fcMion oi iliis iivgiCv% Susy uC, that ths 
property of the people is not lecure to them ; (o that it is 
no wonder they have but little inclination to make iniprr ve- 
ncnts, when they can have no ceitainty of K*ping any ad- 

'■■JJJPWWI*'""'-* ■'■■ •*«"M^«l- 

tA 6 I A.j 

^P-':: jl|.,; /H.-^A^iJ :t'.' : -A.. 

'■.tf4 aVr 


ling run to 
be. thst s!i5 
fu that It ii 
leimprf ve- 
)ing any ad- 

irnwtiJD tioito tlwm ^ ifiifti •iijti nij^nraly itiiuaa an 
A Wttily for ibfM guwntioiU; 

Near Brett ;»;«ni they inmMVi tbeW gntindi with tli* 
dang and itti oHbe ftreeratnejr carry out ; bm at * giMter 
diilaR&a they thnnr their fi»ldt into l|ttl« level fi]tunt, 
Which thcv banic ^tiwat, efiit thert hirfi the mie'r int^ them, 
letting it ftand In t^ $eld all night i which having foakcd 
it, the water ii Im oat the fiuit mortiing, and the (un ihin- 
ing with alinoS pbrpdidicnlar rayi upon the moiii earth, 
renders it fit for' t|ie pradnCkion of any fort of ^r8ii»«r 
planti. When the ground ia light, they plow with two 
or three oxen or buffidoe* ; but in Ghilan, and other cbun- 
triet, where they meet with aitiflrclay,m(l tbtf loiighib«<- 
ipg very larjge, it ii u mua!! m eight or tm pxen can do 
to draw them. 

' The princiMl, anJ atnbft the only kin^ of gruni prci* 
auced in Pcrfia, are rice, wheat, and barley ; they have rto 
«M)ts, and very little rye. Their fcafoni are not the fame 
in the noith u in the fouth i but when they are fowing in 
Ane part of the country, they Mt reaping in another, (fid in 
ftiffle p^ce* it it nw more inan thice montha helween the 
i^-time and the harveftt Tbair land i^evcr lift fallow, 
but it fbwn every year at letft, it It I9 nM^orated and en- 
riched by being flowed, and the heat of tfie ran,alfterwardt 
«tot\ing on the mud, that it it never ont of heart at ourt 
it I and though we have not fo warm a fun, yet if we were 
to overflow lome of our ammit at they do, it would be a 
vaft improvement, ^fpeciSliy wltcreduiig ana other manure 
it wanting. R,ice mu(t be eooftantiy lunnlied with water 
fill the harveft, but the land ia only flopcd before the fow- 
ing, to render it prolific fat Other'kind bf eraini 

Mod of the roott and faDMt We have in England, grow 
In great plenty in the kitchen girdrnt in Perfia : they have 
no left than twenty (fcveral forti r,'t mcloiit, during (the fea- 
ibn they laft, which it abov* four montht { the common 
^ple make them their cb'iftant food : tbow Which come 
to maturity firft in the fp ring, are round andfmall : ibofe 
Aat are ripe in the latter part of the fcalbn are the beft and 
lareeft ; fome of them weigh eight ur ten poiihdt, and are 
■1 fweet at fogar : at the tables of perfont of tjuality they 
have them all the year round, there being a way to preferve 
them under groonid till the (nfon returns. The bed me- 
loni grow in Chorafto and Tartary, and they are carried 
•a far as Ifpahan for tht King's ufe, and as preJentt to their 
ireindt. Cucumbers are another firUit much eate^t by. the 
common people ; otie fort of tHem hat fdi'roely any fecdi in 
it, it eaten without paring ordrcffing, and it not reckoned 
tinwholcfome. Some perfont will eat eight or ten pounds 
of melons at a meal, without being lick. 

They have feveral kinds, of grapes in PerliS, fome of 
Which are fo large, that a finele grape is a moufhfuL The 
(vine at Ifpahan is made of kil'mith s, a little round grape, 
ind without any flones that can be perceived ; but the beft 
w ics are nSade at Schiras. They keep their grapes all the 
winter here } and let them hang a confiderable time on the 
vines, wrapped up in linen bags ; the air is fo dry, that they 
can for a very long time preferve all kinds of fruit without 

Themoft delicioUi food in thin countrv are dates 1 thefe 
are no where fogood as in Petfia : the pulp which inclofes 
the flone it a cUmmy fubftance as fW^et as honey : they are 
hid on heaps when thev are ripe, and melting they candy, 
or preferve themfelves without fligar. Foreigners are adviied 
to eat moderately of them, becaule they heat the bloodi and 
occafion ulcers in thofe who are not ufed to them, and 
Ibmetimes weaken the iigbt, but are obierved to have no 
ill effcAs upon the natives. The tree does not bear them 
till it is fifteen years old. It is flender, but very tall, and 
like other palms, has no branches but on the top, and 
the fruit grows in clufters of thirty or forty pounds 

Moft of the fmitt eaten in Europe mar be had in Perfia, 
and would be there in much greater perf^cKon, if they knew 
any thing of gardening} but they niKKrfUnd neit h er gr aft ing, 
nor ionoouhting, or iiianMing dwarf trees t all their trees 
grow to a great height, and art loaded with wood. Their 
neAarioM and peadies weigh fiateen or eighteen ounces 
a |Hecc : there it an apricot red within, which it called the 
ecg of the fun 1 thefe are dried and exported in great quan- 
ttties t they are boiled in Water, which is thidKned by the 
juice of the fruit, and makes a pcrfcA fyrup without (ugar. 
They have iieveral kinds of excellent apricotSi Which are 
in feafon one after the other. 

In the north part of rei€a, applet and peart chiefly 
grow : they have alfo pomegranates of fevtral kindt, alio 
oranget, qoincet, and prunes : thev have fuch agreat variety 
of fruitt,thU4bot»iny di(ftt«m wm hart beat ftcnat an 

No. a. 

eB^tainmenttfome of which glc* a| die difiaUti Df thart t^ 
hnndrad kagoea. -'1 '^^ 

OlivM grow ii> Hyrcania, htar the Cafpian fbl j hfl Aief 
neither know faow to pcefenra them, or extract the oiL 
They have alfo plaittatioi|a of ^<! ond tobae^O'^. Pilbi^ 
chio nuit arealmod pectihu iff Rf fit, and are tranfpoite4'r 
all over the world. Here arO: tikawife fmaU nntt, fiUietd^i' , 
and almondt. 

The cvprcfs, palm, and mulberfy, in Among other 
trees in their gardent. There are large plantations of tha 
Utter for their filk-womu i thefe treet they do hot fnflTat 
to grow up to a great fixe, becaufelhe leaves are befi when 
the fhoota are young: therefore they,g|rob up the treea 
when they grow old, and plant their ground* agaiia. But 
the irefe which is in as ^leat efteem as any in Peim, is tho 
fetiba : the body of this tree is very large, an^ ordinatilj 
forty or fititv feet high, and ftraight u toe maft of a fhip«. 
having no branches but on the head of it ; the bark is of a 
bright grey, and the Wood ferves them to make doont raf>, 
ters, and for other ufes in buildifigi ,, 

The trees that are moft cemanon in Pertia, are tde pltnt 
tree, the willow, the fir, and the cornel tree. The Peififna 
imagine that the plane treeisa-prefervative upittft the plaguo 
and t^ber contagious diilcmpers ; aiid oSferve, that the- 
plague has never raged in Ifpahan fince this tree was planted 
in their fireets and gardens. The tree alfo whicn beara 
the gall-nut is very common in many parts of Perfia ; and 
thete are trees Which yield gum< maftic, and fdipkiraenlis ( 
that Which produces fraokinoenre veiy much relcmolesa 
pear tree, and is found chiefly in Carmania. ' .' ■, 

Thei« are trees in Perfb whioh produce mannai9l(icveraV 
forts : the heft manna hat a yellowidi cal^, a large coarfa 
griin, and comes. from ChotalaH or Ba Aria ; thoe i* an- 
other fort called tameiiik, becaule the tose it draps i^om ia 
fo named, an|d is feund in large qokntities in the pravinco 
of SuGana: and there is a thirdfortgatlwred about Ifpahan* 
Which fallsfrom a tree much like the tameriiki but]arg|sr» 
The leiives of this tree drop liquid (D^nna in fbmver-tima. 
which the natives uke to be thq fweat of the tree congMed 
Upon the haf: it has as fweet a tafie as other manna. In 
the morning the ground under the tree is peiii^y fat anil 
greafy with the droppings from it. The cotton tree is com- 
mpn all over Petliai and they have another little trntahtch 
yields a kind of filkeii down ttled for oullting aitd n^mng( 
of pillows. There it Hlfo aplant called hani\^, ^tb^a, 
a 'feed which they beat to poWd^r and colbur their handa 
and feet, and fometimet rub over their facet with it, appte-' 
bending it keeps their flcin fmooth, and pieierve* tneir 
complexion ; they bmctime* put the kavaa of i^ wbcit' 
brUlfed, (o the faibe oft. , , . ' 

In the delerts of Carmania kije tonrA hfo little fhrubi ot 
a poilbnous i]ualily i the fird it called galt^ famoor, 6t 
the flower that poifons the yvjnd 1 fonts people imwinii)({ 
that this occafions thole killing winds which blow in tbia 
province in tlie hot leafon i the other fhrub is tilled ker- 
zebre, the trunk whereof is about as big as a man's leg, 
and grows about fix feet high : its leaves are almoft round, 
and Tt bears a flower like tlw fweet-brier. 

Thet« af6 fcaToely any trees to be found on the moun- 
tains, or Wild fields in I^a < tbaiit are, foir the moft part, 
deflitute- of all manner of verdure 1 while in their citi^, 
and the villages for three or four leagues round them, fli« 
ftrcets and gardens are foWell pianfed, that the hodfts ant 
hardly to be dilcerned at a diftanca. After ttattUinslbme 
few leiguci, indeed, there is neither hisuft, trees ot ibrab* 
for many milcS, but all looks like a ba^n dedirt, not« 
Withftanding which great part of ^is feemin^y barren 
foil, were it watered and cultivated, it Would be at fruitful 
as the other, as it aiitiently Was, when a more induftriotta 
people poflellcd the couritry. 

Flowers are found iit great variety In fome of tbe pro- 
vinces. The fouth part of Peiiia has the fewefi, the ex-* 
cefllve heat beiitk there as defbuAive to them at fever* 
cold. But ihe fields of Hyreinia are beautifled and en- 
riched with whole groves of oraii^ trees, jefliifflins, and all 
the flowers we have in Europe. Matenderan, which it 
the eaft part of the Countrv, is one continued parterre front 
September to April, ana at (bat time it covered with 
flajwrrt i and though tbit be their wiiMR Woft, it it, ne- 
vehheleft thebeft time fer frnitt ; in the otha^ lAondlt tb« 
neat it exceflSve, 'and the air fo unheihlifnl, dutt the aadvat 
find ibemfelvet Under rileitooeflity of nx\nn% «b tbaMitm>* 
tains. In Media th« &*d! prsdscc tsiigs, Ssut S iifi n, 
and ranunculnfet 1 about Ifpahan and fome other town* 
jonquilt grow wild 1 they have alfo daffodils, liliet, violett, 
and pinkt in their fealbn, and ibme perennial flowert t but 
they have the greatcft quantity of uliei and lofet. i'bey 

«fc- The NtW and tJ^I Vfefe SAL f YSf E IVt^'oF GEOCJRAPrfi^. 

ta^fm i b Mii W WM tif Ki(t WAerto ottierenMhniet, tn Ae' 
fpringtiiere ii plenty of yellow and red eill^-fletrers j and 
■iiomcr ^ed (tower, which reftmbin a clove, of a beautif\il 
fear)d| eolouri every fprig bear* thirty of theft tlower«, 
'vrbMh-^ortn • fine head ai hiVe as a tennii ball, 'i'heir 
rbfiif^fe-t^hitc, yellewr, «nd rcfd ; and othets, white en one 
Mir, ani yellow vti thebther'; but, notWithflxnding all 
this great variety of beautiful flowers, their gardens are not 
cbltipiirible to' thbfe of Eltirope. Flowers are very little 
ripitdtd by them ; fo that they are often inttirmixed with 
f7uit trees and rofe buflies, without any order. No bor- ' 
4ers, or knots of i(owers, are to be feen in their gardens, 
bat large walks planted with trees ; fountains, canals, caf- 
CJid^, and pletmre houfes, are all that muft be expeCted 
ih''thtir ftneft' gardens ; which being fo comnTori, the 
PbH^mrtake no' pleafure in walking in them, any more 
tKi^iV 'they do in the fi81,ds s but place themfelves in fome, 
akove, or fnmmerhonfe, as foon as they come into them, 
Kgardlefs of that exquifite yariety that every foreigner is 
enaipou^ed withv ^, ' " 

■ This cfountr^affbtdsereit plenty of phyfital drugs, as 
cMi>,' fenna, aminion^t'iitix vomica, gum armoniac, gal- 
bajjium, ial armoniac, and ^ kind of rhubarb, with which 
they purgc'their cattle : the be(t rhubarb comes from China, 
or* rather from eaftern Tartary, which lies to the north- 
Ward of it. Perlian poppies are in gieat efteem, from the 

. ^antity^.of'jui9e they yicW, and ^he ftrength of it : they 
erow fbar'fect high in fome places, and have white leaves. 
They draw the juice from ttrtm i^i Juhe, whan fh<y are 
rjpe, by making little' ineifibiii in the head of thepbppy ;' 
md' ^thkk liquor ooies f^om titein, which is gathered 
before ftin-rife. It is faid to have Tnirh an efTcff on the 
people Whb are emptbjred ih this work, that they look as' 
if fnbjr bad been buried and taken up again, and their, 
l^b^ t/^Wble as ^ they had iheptiirv. The liquor which 
h iSkt^afied from the poppies, in a littlt tihie grows thick, 
and ii made up into pills : the Perfians give it the name of 
arfion, andf We call it opium. The<i^h bakers Hrew 
{Kippy-feedon their bread, which Inclines thofe who eat it, 
tb fleep ; and the eating it is not reckoned unwholfome 

. stfter their meats t the common people eat the feed almoil at 
any tin));. , 

Ji*ii grows plentlfolfjr in Perfla, and altaftetida it to. 
HM.iCmoft every 'wiert, which is admired by the na- 
tives' of l)ii<:, country as Wel^ii^India^ and frequently eaten 
with th6;'t'roo(l : fh«; Wji'iCh fO us' is the nioft oflTenfKe of 
all fceiits, is by them eftftmed a moft refrelhing perfume,, 
and at leafl;' e(i<^al to m'uf|!. ''Ainafoctida is a liquor which' 
iiiftilts froiti tlite plant calleillliltot} it thitjkeil^ after it is 
dr^awp, andgrjows ai liardas^um: tberc is thi whit*, and 
theblaik klndi of it, of Which tht white is reckoned the 
behlo cat. .Thi.fitrttl.oif this drug is fo very ftroiig, that 
if ii(iy goods in A *hip lien^iit' >t, the fmcll is communicated 
to them, how clofe foever they are wiapped up, and it is 
almoft impofliMe to clear them of it ; nay, it effrfl^ the 
colour of them to fuch a degree, that fome rich fluffs of 
gold arid filver (the latier of which ,are turned pcrfcflly 
blafkl.have been fariiifhcd.with it, not\«ithftand!ng they 
w^ere iacjorcci jn c6ttoU', , a]|id C6yer(d with* (cvcriil fold; of 

tn the fapds.of Cnorifan 6r the antieht BaAria, mum- 
inv is freqnsr)tly.fp,und. This is human flefh enibnimed, 
W^ch UwUTn fc'veral ages in dry earth. Some of the bo- 
«IifS, itjs'fa'd arciip liltlijltcred, that the feature; may b« 
plaiply, djHinMi.W«f5.,. ' ftclTJes this, common mijm.myi' 
tli'ere is a preciou^g}ini>^'hi<^i diflilsfrom a rock, to wluidi. 
thvPerii'ans gi|Ve the nanpe dit mummy. This is faid. to 
perform miraculous cures ; and is reckoned to he fo' valu- 
able, that the Governors of the prpvlnces where it is found, 
fend it to court under (beir fcals, and the King engrofles 
moft of it,. 

. TIxe l*?pjwilo'ne of TerCa has fcvef al thm .f oats over It ; 
it is foimdjn. the bodies of goats aiul other ahiiptis ; it is 
ip mqcK Gigper eflccm th»n tnp Indian hczoar. 

Several Kin^ of beafls. birds, fifties, and infefts, are 
fpund in Perlia. Among their cattle, the mufl fcrviccable 
jue canqcU, horfes, mules, aflo, oxen, and bulTaloes ; but 
theca,mcl, for a, bead of buiden, much excels all the rell, 
whethcj; we conuder the weight he catTtics,, the difpatch he 
i{iakcs|, 01 the little.pharge iakc^piiu; liim. Of thefe^a- 
ip^ l]|f re areJevcral kinds ; fomp of thcnx have two bun- 
ches lufc^u tlicu; backj, and others but aiip^ I aud tliereisa 
tbirdlort, engendcied between a dromedary or camel with 
two buijCu£3, iuu « fciTmic Willi uiic, \vuiCii arc cuccmcu 

njiuch the beft, and are fold for twenty or thiity povndi 
a pit^e, for tUcy are fcldpm tired, and wilj carry nine 
lUindfcd or one thoufand Weigl^t. Tlwfe which travel 

befvrteA Wie Peiflim^nff IhiillJMtefff, ar'ebt' a much lift 
fize, V\d do not carry above five or fi» Hundred weight ; 
yMxhefirare al'ipoft as ferviceable i% the others, for they 
aie niueh fwifter. and will gallop like a horl^, whereas the 
othtffi feldoihexceetjafoot pace ; thefi; fw.ifl camels ^'re,kept 
by the KinJ; iii)t!^ip«f meh i thipy ftrve t|> fcttnvey theff wo- 
men from place ■ tb place,' And earrj^ tWeit , baggige : thef 
ar^ ufualiy addn^ed with eii)bfdidcred 'dtUhs, and (ilver' 
bells about their necks 1 aftrfiigipf 1?* . ;■ ftVen of (hem are 
tied together when they travel, end i^jveined by one man: 
they ufe neither bridles nor halter to hold them in, nor 
whips to drive them i but tliey attgoyerned by the driver'* 
voice, 'who fih(|s bt* plays to tl^em as they trkvet : it is iit 
vain to beat thWl if n>«y titfe, 'they vi^ill go never the better 
for it. VVh^n they are totake.up llieir butdtS, the drivel* 
I touches their'knees, whereupon kbey- lib tkmnj'on theic 
* bellies till they are loaded, groaning, however, ahd giving' 
; ligns of uneamiedi, under a feniis of the fatigue they sr6 
about to undergo. They let them grase by the road fidd. 
^ with their "biir^ns on their Irtijks, on '.vieds and thiftles. 
\ and fometinlcs th^ feed 'them with balls compounded of 
, barley-meal and cnafF made up. into a pafle, with whjcli 
: they ofhn litix the Cotton feed'; , b'llt fa'e is the leaft' feeder of 
any beiiif, conlidefin^ his bulk. Iris very happy alf'o thai 
the camels irill live without \Viiter two. or three day.s to- 
, ^her, there being fcarcely any to be met with in thofe de- 
lerts the caravfiis ate forced to paft'. They fhed all thcit 
hair every ^ring; and arepcrfcftly naked. Thef? crea- 
tures are vtr^tame and tt;attable, except when the luflfuf 
fit is HipDhtlliim, which hifti thirty or forty days, and.thei> 
they arp very tinruly, '^^hlcJiL lUltkeS their drivers iucrcafe 
their burdensa^ that time to keep,tbcir flefh under. VVhejij^ 
once the male has covered the fdrnile, he grows fluggilh,| 
ahd does ftit out Of the flahlf . They copulati| 
as oth^r fouHbbtcd animals dpi except that ilic female lUi, 
do^^n on bet b<:'ll^. as Ihe dbes to re'cejvcheir bucden : tfaej; 
do not ehgendtfr backvvardii, as loitie.n'nters have et>o>; 
nioufty aireitcd. They go wit^i yoiing devcti, or, ai^ 
fome ray, twelve months. 

Oxen, buflfiiloes, alTei, and mules, aroufed indlflxrently^ 
for carryiiig of paflengers or burdens.; and theirland be- 
ing ^lbwcdT)VbuiS&loes and o^teri, there beafls ' are vcxjl 
fetdo.m killiU fof fbod. Th'e ai^s'.of Pcrfvi are mucfi 
largir and fwlftcr tff/mQurs, and will pcrfouu a j'lurneji', 
very well. But th^.lincA bcafi's afe Jlicir libri'es : xU'rfe an 
beautiful creatures, and no Virhcre oettcr,^ed than in 
Perfia. They liave fine foreheads, and are exuAly well 
proportioned, light and fprightly, but only fit for the laddie, 
or at leail not uTed lor, any other purpofe. They aie ni:\er 
gelt, and wear (heir uils at the full length : but lUuu^ 
they are lovely creatures to look on, Ihey aie neither I'a 
fwift as the Arabian h'orfcs, nor fo hariJy as tliufe of rac- 
taryi and the King has always a flalile of tbt; Aiabian 
breed. Horfes arc vary dear in Perfia, fjiuc of tiieui being 
Ibid for two or three hundred pounds, and I'eldom tor lelii 
than fifty. The felling fuch number of ihcm, to India 
and contributes more lo'enhance the price, llian 
the Icarcityof them. Their oiujes (^arry very wetJ, and Ibine 
of them are valued af thirty ocifony pounds a pic^sc : fome 
alTes arc not valued at much Irfs, after ' thcjr have been 
taught to pace. The oidirury food for horlcs is barley 
ana chopt ilraw ; theyluveno mangers in their AabJes, 
but give thcit horfes tlicir earn. in. bags, as our liackucy* 
Qpaphiuun do. In tlic fpringthey.qut^fruengraiii for theic 
hnrfcs, but never make ajiy into hay to be catea drys 
Iqmetimcs tlicy feed tU^irliorfcs with balU made of barley» 
meal, as in Indian Iit(tci>d. of litccr, tlicir own dung i» 
diiod and beaten tb powder, aud Laid a foot deep foi? 
them to lie on ; and it any of it be wetted, it is dried in 
the fun the next day. 'Fhcir horfes hoofs are mucU 
founder and harder thaa onrs.^ and Utey are Ihod with 
tliin plates, as the oxctf a(c alfu^ . o» accpunit of tbei' tra- 
velling ovcr'thedoayioountajB^. ,tn W4ater« tlicy daub 
their Itorfcs witli a ycUow herb caliini' lj^nnah, and foiuei 
times anoint their bodies witlf il as high. as tltc kreafl, to 
keep out the coldi but it i'cems ratlierta be by wry of or^t 

Large flahlcs of hurfes belonging to the King, aredif-^- 
perfcd througliout tlie kingdom, tor the public l'crvii>. A 
horfe is feldom denied tu any inan wliu demands one, if 
. he will keep him i but fuch wfluius are accuunt4bi9 to the 
government for thtm when tiiey ihall be called out , bu( 
they have the liberty of riding them in the inimn time. 
Thci'c troopers iiorlcs are tontetimes quartered upon peo- 
ple againft tlieir content, wuo would gladly be uxLtiled 
from the tru.ublc and clurge of keeping t^wm; and if any, 
horfe dies in tlicir hands, oath inufl be made tliat |ie 




are dif-^- 

|vk>. At 

oue, if 

>1« to the 

>ut, bull 

an time, 

oil pco- 


J it' any. 

that |ie 


[A sr A.f''"^^ ■ ' ^ t K 

was well treated, ani tHA not die for want of com of look- 
ing after, Tticir horfes are fubjcdl to many diilempen : 
fometimes their legs fwell, and a humour riibs on the 
bre;ift, which it is faid proceeds from eating too much- 
barley : in this cafe, they clap a hot iron to the fweliing, 
or laitce it, and keep the fore open, by running a yellow 
twig tlirougb ft i but for lame or diftempcred horfes, a hot 
iron applied to the pan is the moi\ general remedy. , 
. There are great plenty of flieep and goats in Pcrlia ; the 
natives fcldom eat any other meat. Their fheep are large, 
and remarkable for their fat tails, which weigh eight or ten, 
and, accoidingto fomc, above twenty poun^ weight. In 
fome parts cf Pcrila alio they have more horns than ours : 
fonje (if their Jhpep have fix or fcven horns, fome projcft- 
iiig ftrait from their fbrelieads, fo that when the rams en- 
gage tkcre^s eeneraliy a great deal of blood fnilt in |1ie 
battle. The Periian goats are not only valuable for their 
^elh, buttbc fine wool they yield, of which great qoan- 
t^iesare.exportcdfrom Carmania annually. . Ac the Ma- 
hometans, who are tlic governing part of the country,, 
nave an averfion to hogs, thcii Chriftiaii fubjefts do not 
«:'ndeavour to.encrcafe the breed of that animal, unlefs to- 
M[ards Georgia and Armciva, where the Chriftians are n»- 
raerous ; fo that it is no wonder, there are fcarccly any to be 
met with. 

. Thcte are not many wild' be'afts either in tlie mrddle or 
Ibuthern part of Perfia, there beiiiR no cover tor thcip. They 
have fome deer and antelopes, which are mudt of the.fanie 
nature, except that they are fpottodi and have finer limbs.. 
InHyFcaniaandCuTde{un,the woody parts of tlie country, 
wild beads abound, fuch as lions, tygers, leopards, wild 
hogs, jackalls, &c. In Media and Armenia there are 
abundance of deer, wild-goats, hares, and rabbits ; and 
there are fome, but not many, fout)d oa the mountains in 
almoft every pari of tlie country. * 

In tl»e heart of Pcrfia which is very dry, they are not 
il>uch troubled with infcds, uniefs it be witli fwuiqs of 
locuft.?, whicji fonietinus vifit Aem, they fly iiifiiift num- 
bers, that they appear like a cloud, and p€j-fc£lly obfcure 
tlic fun ; and dcllroy the fruits of tlie earth, wherever 
tlicy fettle > but tlierc arc certain birds which generally vifit 
the country about tl^c fame time, andpreyqnt.tlie ruinof 
dwhuibandman, by.wting.up.tlie locuus. , 

There, are great nunibfers of ferpents, toads, fcorpions, 
and other venomous reptiles, in that part of the country 
which lies upon' tlic Cafplan or Hyrcanian fea i but many 
o/them die iafuinincr time for want of water, and in- 
fijft the air, rendering that part of the country very un- 
htalthful at tliat time. The fcurpioiis arc of an initnnde- 
ratc^ze, and tlieirAingis mortal if proper remedies be 
JVOt imnjediately apphed J and a perfoii Itung by one of 
t£ipm is in fuch toi tui'c, tliat he becomes raving mad for 
lome time Mufloctoes, or mats, are very troubleforae 
i6 the Hat county near the Cafpian fea. And tliere is a 
white fly in Pcrfta, no bigger than a flea, which nukes no 
iii»ife, wliofe fting is like the prick of a pin. 'I here are 
alio the millepedes, ahnoft Ukc a cateriiillar (the Pcifians 
calLtlieai liciar-pai, or a thoofajid feet) } their bite is as' 
{u^nuc'ipiu aS' the {ling of a fcorpjon. 

Tame and wildfowl,, fuch a^ geefe^ hens, duckt, par- 
tiidges, foipcs, i(c. are almoft an the fame plenty and va' 
rlety in Pcrfia as in Europe ; but more oi them in the 
north tlian in the fouth part of the country. Turkeys 
Iuv« been imported, to Ifpolian, but they do not thrive^ 
there. They take all imaginable, care to encreafe and pru- 
pOute the breed of pigeons on account of their duns, 
wiui which they raife their melons. Their dovehouies' 
are five times as iari;e as ours, of a round figure, and hand- 
fomely built of brick ; it is faid there are not lefs than 
three hundred of them in the city of Ifpahan only. The 
lUuig.b uluaily fold for four-pence the billy, or twelve 
{HJUuds weight ; and the government, it feems, lays a tax 
upon it. '1 heir partridges are rcckor.ed the lar^ieil and heft 
tiilWd that are any lyhcre to be met with. 1 he pelican, 
which the Periiauh c;dl tacob, or the draw -water, is, as re- 
iMrkable as any of their fowls,' for the body of it is faid 
tg be as large as a fhecp, and his head is at the fame time 
L'xtrciiicly fnull ; but it has a Large bill of (ixteen or eigh- 
teen inches lung, as big as a man's arm, and under the bill 
there is a largi- hag, which, travellers tell us, will hold a 
|i4tl of wiif^r : they build tlicir nclU in the del'erts for their 
ilcurity, n lieie tlicru is neither water nor inhabitants : and 
f^^qucntly go two days journey for watpr for their young 
onesi but thcv bring enough, in the above-mentioned re- 
ceptacle to lal\ a cunliderabtc time. In the province of 
Clioralan tluit; is auuthcr extraoidinaiy bird, which has 
fi|Lhaaa£^utitc towatds llic water of a ccitain fpiing in 





that eoutitrv, »nd fo much fagwity in difcorering it, that 
they will follow any perfon that carries it in a bottle ieveral 
hundreds of miles. We (hall pafs over in filence many 
extravagant and improbable ftoriei related by travellera n 
this bird. 

No country in the world abounds more than Perfia 
with eagles, hawks, falcons, and other birds of prey, nor 
are, the^ any where better inftniAed to take thtir prey. 
The King has eight hundred or a thoafand of them } and 
no man of the leaft diftiniSion is without hit hawks and 
(idconers. The Perlians breed up their very crows to fly 
at the game. We have already taken notice of the dexte- 
rity of their hawks in flying at birds and beafts, &c. under 
the article, of rural fports i to which we refer the reader. 

The fame kind of linging-birds are to be found in Sttr- 
fia as with us, fuch as thf linnet, chaffinch, nighfingde, 
lark, &c. fome birds arc alfo taught to fpcak; but we can- 
not learn that there are parrots or perroquets on thisfidai 
India. There arc, however, feveral parti-coloured birdSi 
to be fcen in Perfia, with a plumage of blue, green, an^ 
yellow, beautifully mixed. There arc fuch number.s o| 
fparrows here, that they are very troublefome to tlie hufr> 
bandmen; who are forced to place their fervants i|i th» 
fields all day long, to keep them from their corn, when thii 
harveft approaches. 

There are fcarcely any fifli to be met with in the heart of 
Perfia, tfif few rivulets they liave liardlv fupply the country 
with water for neceflary ules, and in the fummer they are 
for the moft part dried up : even the river Zenderhoud, tO| 
which the governmental a prodigious expence, have joined 
other ilreams for the fupply of the city of Ifpahan, is per- 
ft&ly loft in the fandy delerts about twenty leagues from. 
tliencc,and it is more than probable there is not one ftre«m» 
that rifes in tlie middle of the kingdom, which ever reaches 
tlic fea in tlie fuinmcr i though m the fpring, when the 
fnow melts on the mountains^ they may make a confider- 
able appearance. Some writers affirm, indeed, Init with- 
out the leal^ colour of proof, .that the river Zenderhou4 
though it difappears about twenty leagfoes from Ifpahan,, 
rifcs agun in Carmania, and falls into the ocean. There 
is great plenty of fea fifh in the Perfian gu.'f and the Caf- 
pian fea : the rivers Kur and Arras alfo, fhich fall intoi 
the Cafpian fea, are well ftocked with river Bth; but u^ 
thcfe lie at too great a diftance from Ifpahan to fupply tha^ 
city, tliey are confequently deprived of that delicacy. 

Among the many vau mountuns in Perfia, we; nuy, 
reafonably fuppofe that there may be fome mine» of gold 
and filver; but it feems there are none open, neitlier have 
tlicy any account tliat ever any were wrought, unlefs their 
lead mines may be denominated filver, whidi yield an in- 
confiderable quantity of that meul, as all leaid m :sdo» 
but not near enough to countervail the charge of extraftuig; 
it. They have, however, good mines of iron, fteel, copper, 
and lead : the iron and fteel mines are in Hyrcania, Me- 
dia, and the provinces of Irac and ,Chorafan ; their 
fteel is fo full of fulphur, that if the filings are tlirown into, 
the. fire, they will give a report hkc gun powder : it has 3lj 
fine delicate grain, but it is as brittle as glafsj and the I*cf;-^ 
fian artificers, who do not undcrftand how to give it a duitf 
temper, cannot for that reafon make wheels or fpriAgs,^ac 
ahy minute pieces of workmanihip. Moft' of uicir cop*^ 
per-mines are near Seris in the mountains of Mazenderan ;' 
they mix it with Swcdifti and Japan copper, and the pro- 
portion is one part foreign to twenty of^ their own mctah 
The greateft quantity of filver is found in their letd mineii^ 
moft of which arc near tlie city of Yefd. 

In tlie mountain Damaverd, which divides Hyrcania 
from the province of Irac, fulphur and faltpetre are dug. 
Antimony is found in Carmania, but it is a baftard fort. 
Emery is had near Niris : tliey liave no vitrol nor meT<< 
cury i and their tin is imported from abroad^ There afe 
two kinds of faltin Pcrfia, the one unonthe fhrfiice of the 
ground, and the other dug out of the rock : the fait is fo 
luuti-infome parts of Carmania, that th« poor people tntkr 
ate of it initeadof ftonc to build their cott^es with. Then 
are plains often or twelve leagues over, quite covered wit& 
fait, as others are with fulphur and alum, 

The Perfian marble is either white, b'ack, or red, and 
fomc veined with white and red : it is dug near Hamadan, 
and in Sufiana: fome of it will break iiuo large flakes or 
tablet, like flate ; but the heft comes firem Tauris, which 
is almoft as truifparent as cryftal: this kind it white 
mixc-uwiili green. In tile country about Taurit aUb it 
found the mineral azure ; but this is not fo good a* that 
which comes from I'artnry, as it lofes its colour by degrees. 
In tlie provinces of Fars and Shirvan tlicro is fouitd abund- 
ance of bole armonioc, and a marie which tlic country 
, ~ people 



jMople ufe inftetd of fonp. There tn foifle mineii of 
ifiiig-glafs in the fame coumry. In fcvenrf-JMntj of Prrfut 
wt meet with naphtha, both white and black, it \i tifed in 
painting and vamijh, and fometiitie^ in phytic : there ii^ 
oil extrafted from it, which is ntade nfe of on virions ^c' 

Thoft mind !h IVriii, vrhere the ttiquoh ftone) we 
found, are the moft valuable ; there Is one of them at Ni* 
fapour, hi the province of Chorafan, and artother in a 
mountaift between the province of !rac and Hvrcariia : 
there has of IMe yesn been a third difcovercd, but theftones 
Are not ib fine and livelv as tholi; in the old mines; All 
that come out of the old rock are preferved for the King; 
and when he has taken thofe he likes beft, he orders i£e 
reft to be fv»ld to the mercl^t^ts, or dthers who chvfe ttr 
pilrehtie them; 

There wis ftn -Jy the fined pearl -fiflierv Iri the Wtfrlif 
irt the gulf »f Ftr>;«. We are told by a judrcioUi and cu- 
rio«t traveller, that it did not produce lefs than the value 
of a million of livrti one year with mother, and that he 
kimrelf faw a pearl taken out of it that weighed fifty grains, 
and was perfeAly round ; but the largeft that were afually 
met with in that fea did not weigh above terr or twelve 
grains^, all above that weight the fifhermen were obliged, 
4inderthe fevereft penalties, to lay by for the King. But 
whether the peari banks are now exhaufled, or, in the late 
indoleni reigns, the people are become as inactive .as their 
governors ; or, laftly^ whether it is that the Arabs, having 
made themfelves maflera of this fea, and moft of the iflands 
)n it, the fiihcrmen are interrupted in their bufinefs, the 
p^rt-fifhery feems wholly to be difufed at prefent, and 
there are as few pearls to be met with in Perfia as m any 
other place. 

We are informed, that there t*ere two ftafons for filh- 
}hg I the iirft in March and April, and the other in Au- 
guu and September ; though a writer of credit mentions 
Onlv one; hamely, from the latter end of June till the end 
df septnnber'; and there were fornfcfly to be feen, near the 
ifland ef Baharrn, twtf or three tho'ufand fifhing-boats, in 
everyone of which wa» a diver. They fi(h for the pearls 
!n the foHowing manner ; the boats are brought to an an- 
chor in five Athom water, and then the diver ftrips him- 
lUf naked i and having fixed a piece of horn, like a pair 
of foeAacle* to his nofe, which prevents any water getting 
in inat way, and tied a ftone to one of his feet, that he may 
fink to the bottom inan iilftant, he takes a net or a bajket 
with him, and defeeftda to the bottom^ ther: being a rope 
ihftcned under his arms, and another to the baflcet. Hav- 
ing flipped the cord which faftencd the ftone to his foot, 
he preiently falls togathering up the oyfters, or nacres, and 
puts them into his baflcet } and, having remahied under 
water as long as he c«n^ m^tkcs a <ign to the people in the 
boat to draw him up, and afterwards they piYll up the baf- 
ket : in the mean time the diver ufually refrcfhes himretf 
with * pipe of tobacco, and then goes down to the bottom 
lis before j and thus he works ftom eight in the morning 
till eleven, and then goes to dinner ; about twelve he be 
gins to dive apin, and continues it till three in the after- 
noon. It is faid thefe divers will remain under water near 
faalfa quarter of an boor at a time. Towards evening they 
carry their oyjfters on (hore, where they lay them on heaps ; 
and when they begin to dry, the oyfters open of thcmrdves, 
and they fiwrcn diligently for the pearls, which the Banians 
aiid Armenians are ready to take off their hands, and, by 
forting and retailing them out to others, they get a very con- 
fiderabk profit. 


0/ tht languagt, cherattirt, writing, arithmttie, hanitHr, 
mufic, hifitryy cbrttultgy, aftrontmy and aJirtUgy., pbiUfi- 
fby, ertt, (St, iftho Ptrfiant, 

FOUR languaeet are fpoken in PeHia, namely, i. The 
Arabic, a. TheTbrkifti. 3. ThePerfian. And, 
4. A language which the Gaurs or Guebres, the pofterity 
of the antieiit Perfians who worftiip the fire, fpeak : their 
language and charaAers are peculiar to themfelves, ar>d caii- 
l>ot be the fame with thofe of the antient Perfians, iiiafniuch 
as they underftand none of the infcriptions remaining at 
Perfepolis, neither are the charaAers of the prefent Gaurs 
any thing like thofe at Perfepolis. The Arabic is the leirn- 
«! Jangnwe 1 and in this the Alcoran and other books of 
divinity, as well as their books of morality, phyfic, and 
^hilofopby, are written. The Turkifli language is ufually 
Ijpoken at court, and in the provinces adjoininf; to Tuiky. 



They gcnerdly fpeak the Perftin tonoR at Schirai,,tl4f <i« 
pital city of Fah, or tUit antient Peifii. 

ThePerfian laifguage is irttirely Modern, of the fttme dati^ 
^ith thtir religion 1 and, befides thofe words which are pecu4 
liar to it there are a great number of words of Other nmloits, 
which have iit iHeir turns coiiqueted Pcrfia, inirodnced 
into it ; as thofe of the Turks, Tartan, and Aiabt. Thertf 
are alfo an inconceivable number of Entopeali wordt nixed 
with ft, as High Dutofai Englilh, artd French t butltit 
faid, there are ihore of the Englifh ttian anv other. SouM 
of oar Englifh travellers give us iiiftincrs otthis, as brodet 
for brother, Sec. liiey take fome of their words from th« 
Greek and Latin, but they bbrrow iifore from the Arabic 
than all the reft ; infomucb that a perfon is reckoned to b« 
half ihflrofted in Arabic, who has xperfeA knowledg* of 
the Perflan. 

TUey hive . Neither gntnnnr nor (ym^s in the Perfiad 
lingeige, but make ufe of the Arabic rulcit. .Tbey havo 
twenty-eight letters in their alphabet, and fomCMckoa 
tWenty-nine; bat they are all corrfonants except aKf, which 
is i!Mir firft letter, and has the fotttid of our a i ibe kttcra 
you and ye are alfo, in f6me inffances, ufed ai vowolt, 
and give a found to their other letters. They have na 
ftops, eortfma, or paragraphs in their books ; but, .tik« 
our lawyers, when they enter upon a new ctaulc, begin 
with a great letter, or an item. If they make any points, 
it is for young people who are learning to read ; or ftirtbotii 
who defire it, and will pay well kn the trouble. 

The Perfians make their paper of filk rags end cotloM t 
it is extremely thin and fmootfa, and writ bear b« on on« 
fide ; it is not fo white and ftrong as oiits, (lor in *ny re- 
fpcA comparable to if. Their ink is made of galls and 
vitriol, and the rind of pomegranetr, with burnt rice) 
powdered, which being made up intoa^4te, thevdiSbtvo 
in gum-water. IniMd of goofe-qaiHs, theymaketheir pent 
of a reed fomethiiig lareer than a quill. The charfftert art 
Arabic whatever may dc thie language tbey write iii. 

The Mahometans confider pa^tr as a ficred thing ; fhejr 
efteem it a very ill aflion for a man to burn or tear paper 
and much more to put it to any vile ufii ( for, fay they, 
the name of God, or 'fome of his faints, may be written 
upon it, and it would be impious to prophane it in fuch a 
manner. On the other band they mamthin, that if not 
written upon, it ought not M'iil|( put to any common uie, 
fince it is defigned for mntS^ matters upon it which 
concern religion, the laws divine and human, and fttcb 
other venerable purpofes. , 

The art of printing is not yet introdncedt among tbr 
Perfians i their books are therefore all manufcripta. .They 
excel in writing, which is reckoned among the liberal arts. 
They write eight feveral hands: (hat which they caU 
nefky, and is the hand the Alcoran is written in, ia 
in moft efteero. They ftand or fit eraccfnlly, holding tha 
paper in their hands, and write with all iauginabh eaia^ 
rtotwithftanding they have no table to lay their P*pcr onai 
we have, and exceed the bcft of our clerks i|i tiie oifpatda 
they make. Tbey do not write as we do, from tnt left 
hand to the right ; bat from the right to the left, at tha 
Arabs do -, neither do thejr write in a fticight line, tnt the 
lines are convex, or bending ]ike a bpxir, ^itd the margin it 
on the right hanrd. They will write over a book as big u 
the bible in a fair charaAcr, for aboutlen pounds, provMed 
the paper be found them ; whereat we could not have a 
book of that quantity tranfcribed for fifty poand. Thef 
have a kind of fhott hand in Perfia, in which tbey afe the 
letters of the alphabet ; and the fame letters, differently' 
pointed, wilt have difl^rent fignificatlons. Tliey have a 
vift number of clerks in all their great towns, bat there ia 
hardly a livelihood for half of them. They ordinarily 
M^riie from morning till night for five-pence or fis-penoa 
a day. 

The Perfians make nfe of figures in their arithmetic, at 
we doi and their addition, fubtraAion, mnlriplicarion, and 
divifion, differ but little from ourt; but they go no bighert 
and with refpeA to the rule of three, they are intircly ig* 
norant of it. 

It is univerfally allowed, that learning flourifhed moft 
in the eaft in the firft ages ; the Pcrfian Magi, in particu- 
lar, from their extraordinary fkill in aftronomy and other 
fciencet, were thought to entertain a commerce with infer- 
nal Ipirits, fothat a magician and a conjurer became terma 
of the fame import ; but notwithftanding their faperioriw 
to other nations in this refpeA in antient timet, we fincU 
that at prefent the fciences are not arrived to that perfcAion 
in Perfia as in Europe. Tbey underftand neither the «t- 
leftial nor terreftrial globes. 7'bey have, however, aa 
aftrolabe, can name the Ggtu of tbetoditc, andaivnot 




? tA S I A.] PER 

snMquiiiiKd with th( other ilari. Some veari ago, when 
An liuropean brought * pair of ^lobci with him to Ifpahan, 
they were even furprized at their Otwii ignorance. 

Next to judicial aftrology, which they have great faith 
in, the fcicncei ntoft in efieem at prefcnt are, auronomy, 
{•eometry, arithmetic, natural and moral philofophy, phy- 
fic, and the ftudy of the law. They fcem to have a more 
than ordinary paflion for pactry ; nioft of their bcft pieces 
being written in verfe. Their poeti are very nice at to the 
ihime, but fomething negligent in their nuniheri. Their 
fatire it chiefly levelled againft the Turlci, who certainly 
' give them fcope enough i for, compared to the PerGans, 
they are a very brutilh and barbarous nation. 

The kntient philofopheri in the eaft were r 11 poets, ac- 
cording to the Perlian* i and their wife lelToni were deli- 
vered in vcrfe, to render them the more amiable aiid vener- 
able, and that the people might the more readily retain 
them in their memories. The fubjeA of their poems at 
this day, alfo, is generally fome piece of morality or phi- 

Th« Pei^ans excel more in poetry than in any other 
,br3iich.of literature, at they feem to have a genius pccu- 
■liariy'adapled to it. Their invention is fruitful and lively, 
. .their manner fweer, their temper amorous, and their lan- 
.guage has a ibftiiefs proper for verfe : one who did not un- 
■derlland i vyord of Perfian, would be delighted to hear their 
verfe recited, the very tone and cadence aic fo afTeAing. 
They mix verfe with all the profe they write, and even in 
common converfation ) imagining that verfe gives a force 
and luftre to their finetl thoughts, and imprdTes them on 
the memory. 

The method taken by the ahtients to preferve the memory 
of their great aAions, was, to make them the fubjcfl of 
their fangs, and (ing them in their aflfemhlies, and at their 
feftivals, as is the cuftom of Perfia at this day, and we may 
add in moil of the eaftern kingdoms i herein the Grecians, 
and moll nations in Europe imitated the Aliatics. There 
are more vulumcf of excellent poetry to be found in Perfia, 
than in any other country ; one of them, particularly, is 
thehiftory of their Kings, and contains fixty-tix thoufaiid 
verfes r the thoughts aiv noble and elevated, their exprefli- 
ons foft, anil their terms always the mofl proper that can 
be devifed : their allufions are delicat.;, and all their figures 
abound witli hyperbole. There is one poem, among 
others, called the ftorv of the jpstriarch Jofeph and Poti- 
pbar'l wife, which raifes all the paflions to the highell 
pitch. Love is fometimes the fubjeft of their poems, as 
well as morality and hiftory ■ but nothing immodeft, or 
tliat countenances obfcenity of any kind, is ever the fubje£l 
of their verle. 

The Perfian mufic next demands our notic:. They 
dng and play by rule, though to an !iluropean ear. they 
fcein to make but very indifferent harmony. Sing- 
ing in parts is not pra£tifcd among them , but tliey fing 
after each other, ana generally to fomc ilringcd inflrument 
like the lute or viol : thtir men fing better than the wo- 
men i but many of them do not pradife tinging, it being, 
•Ai well as dancing, looked upon as a fcandalous exercife in 
Perfia. People of rank will not fulTer their children to 
iearn either the one or the other ; but it is left almoll iii- 
tirely to tiie common wenches and pruflitutcs, a-s it is all 
■«'ver the eaft. It is reckoned indecent in people of any 
reputation to fing ; and the afempting it in company 
would reiKler a man contemptible, 'i hePerfians call their 
finging-women Cainc, intimating that they derive their 
fkill from the daughters of Cain, who they pretend were tlie 
firft invcnters of finging and inufic in Alia. They have a 
great number Iwjth of ftring and wind inftruinents of 
miilic; Ibiue.refeinble in Ihapc our liautboys and flutes, 
others the viol, harp, virginals, kettle drum, and trumpet; 
the latter of which is the mol^ dUagrceable and tnonilrous 
inflrument for fixe and I'uund, that can be met with: it is 
commonly feven or eight feet long, and proi>ortionubly wide 
at the gnat end, and as inucl. <'u a man can hold up: thefe 
and their di uuij nearly drown all other founds ; though as 
we liave oblervcd, the lelfer inllrumcnts have no great 
mony in them. Their inulic, as it is called, fcrves chiefly 
iniVead of clocks, to let people know the time of day or 
night, founding conftantly at certain hours, for t!-ey have 
no IkIIs. Whci) the FCing or any great man goi 3 out of his 
palace, you li.ivc alw.iys notice of it by thefe drums and 
trumpets, wliiili arc placed over the |)aU':c-gate, or in ionic 
balcony or gallerv, siul are founded upon fuch occanons, 
being heard at a great dillame. Mufic and dancing j;irls are 
in ibme places appoiiitcj to (ioiietbre a great man when he 
travels, and coiiiUtute part nf his equipage. 
The firings of tlieir indruments arc never made c' 'at. 
No. 3. 



the miuhing of any thing belonging to a dead animal, ef^ 
pccially the entrails, being accounted a pollution ; they inake 
them, therefore, 6f twitted filk, or brals wire. The playing 
upoii amulical inttrument feems to be prohibited by their 
rcjiKion ; for which reafon their eccleliattics and devotees 
willnot be preli;nt at entertainments where they are ufed; 
fo that we need not wonder that the fcience is not arrived at 
greater perfbftion in Perfia. Except fome of 'the King's, 
tlieir mufic is hardly worth the hearing ; it being chiefly 
performed by a ragged ftrolling rabble for a livelihood, 
cither upon feftivals, the circumcifing of a child, or other 
joyful occafions. 

The people of the eaft look upon aftrologyas the key to 
futurity, arid tlicy have an infatiable curiofity for prying into 
things to come. The Periians term aftrology the revelation 
of thcftars; andattronomy is ftudied in Perfia purely for 
the fake of it. This feems to be the principal end of their 
ftudies ; and they look upon a perfon to be to the laft 
degree ftupid and ignorant, who fpeaks flightly of this 
fcience, falfclyfo called. The aftrologers of Perfia, at leaft 
the moft celebrated, are all natives of rhe province of Cho- 
rafan, or Baftria, and of the town of Genabed. The 
King never entertains an aftrologcr who is not of that 
town. The i-^afon that the aftrologers here have more flcill 
in their art than elfewhere, is, we are told, becaufe the air 
is drier and purer, by which means they have a better op- 
portunity of obferving the motions and afpeft of the ftars. 
If we confider the number of aftrologers that are in Perfia, 
the rank they hold, and the large penfions fhey receive from 
the crown, we may eafily account for the ccnfidencc the 
people put in thtin : they receive from the government no 
lefa than four hundred thoufand pounds per annum. To 
the poft of chief attrologer to his fvlajefly there is annexed 
a penfion ot ten thouiand pounds per annum, and to the 
fecoiid aftrologer five dioufand pounds per anunm, and 
to the reft according to their fkill. They receive alfo in 
prefents annually from the King, one year with anotlier, 
two hundred thou fand pounds; and yet they are fome- 
times arbitrarily punifhed and put to death, according to 
the caprice of the Prince, lor the moft trivial of offences, 
and even for nftions the moft imioccnt in tJiemfclves ; of 
which we fhall give an inftance. 

In the reign of Scphv, on a day when the King and all 
the great men were alTembled to fi" fome criminals of 
ftatc cut in pieces, and the chief of the aftrologers was 
there among the reft ; tlie King, viewing attentively the 
countenances of his courtiers, obferved, that the prin- 
cipal aftrologcr (hut his eyes at every ftroke of the (abre, 
as not able to l«:hold fo horrid a ilaughter: the Kin^ there- 
upon called to the Govemorof a province who fat near him, 
and commanded him to put out the eyes of that dog who 
fat at his left hand, fince he did not ufe them. It is 
evident that tlir ftars had never revealed every part of the 
aftrologer's deftiny to him ; for tliis cruel order was exe- 
cuted upon him in .in inftant. 

A certain number of aftrologers ire conflantly retained 
in waiting at the Royal palace, and fome of the' chief of 
them about the King^s perlbn, except when he is in the 
haram with his women, wiio advertifc him of the lucky 
or unlucky moments. Every one of them carries an 
aftrolable hanging at his girdle, in a li'tle neat cafe, not 
bigger tlian the hollow of one's hand ; they are confulted 
not only in affairs of importance, but frequently upon the 
leaft trifles : f>r inftance. If his Maiefty ihall go abroad I 
If it bean aufpicious hour to enter the haram ? If it be a 
proper time to eat, or to give tudieiKe ? &c. When thefe 
qucftions are afkcd, the aftrologer iinmediately takes out 
iiis aftrolalie, ohfcrvcs the fituation of the ftars, and, 
by the afliftancc of his tables, makes his allrological 
conclufions, to wliicli intirc and implicit fa^th is always 

Eclipfes of the fun and moon, are in general pretty 
juftly cslcubted by the Perfian aftronomcrs, who often 
foretrl the very moment wherein thofe luminaries will be 
obfcuted ; thou;;li there have been inftaivxs of tlieir inif- 
tikinghalf anliour, efpeci»Ity ineclipfcs of the fun. But 
fhey differ from us in nothing more than in the calcula- 
tion of the vcni'l equinox; there being fometimes an 
hour's difl''creiKo !>etween tlicm and the KAiiopcans. Co- 
lli?;':, they appiehfiid. alway." portend fome great calamity; 
but generally iuppofc tlieir malign i:ifliieiiccs are diri-tli d 
.igainft Ibine other kingdom, rather than their own. They ncittier ccleftial globe?, or charts, or telefcopes, for 
obferving the conllcilations. till the Ei.ioivans imMorte-i 
tlicni; tiiey have fince indeed eiidoavoured to imitate the 
celeftial globes ; iiavini; had before oiilv fomc rcprefenta- 
tions of tlie conftcllations in a book called, 'I he plans 
O ot 


■IS*- "j ' 

a6 Th* new and universal SYSTEM of GEOGRAPHY. 


cm; ' 

tof AlxLil Raluncn. It is oblcrvablc, however, that the 
figures were nearly the fame as on our globes ; the longi- 
, tudes and latitudes of the ftars are alfo marked, but a little 
different from gum. They generally make forty-eight 
xonftellationii ; and the names of thcai, for the moft pai t, 
arc the fame we give them : but fome of them are different. 
The onlv iitftriunenti thev ufeinanyof their operations 
are the astrolabe and Jacob s ftalF; and as witli thefe alor- 
tfiey take the elevation of the pole, it cannot be fuppo' 
tliat their latitudes are very cxaQ.' Their aflrolabes au 
very curioufly made, being chiefly tlic workmanfliip of 
the mathematicians thcnifelves. 

Takunii is the lutne given to the Perfian ahnanac, 
which contains the ephcmerides of the enfuing year. It 
contains properly a mixture of aftromony ana judicial 
aftrology, givine an account of the conjun£lions, oppo- 
litions, aiiKifts, longitudes, latitude^, and the whole difpo- 
fition of tlie heavens. It alfo contains prognoftics on the 
inoft rcmarknble events, as war, famine, plenty, difealcs, 
and otlier occurrences in human life ; with the lucky or 
unlucky times for tranfaAing all manner of affairs, whe- 
ther of importance, or not; direding tlte people to regu- 
late tlicirconduft accordingly. Thefeltivals alfo are marked 
as in our ahnanac ; but whereas we divide tlie year into 
four feafons, they make only two, fununer ana winter. 
Though there aregreat numbers of thefe almanac-makers, 
and though tliey frequently difa^ree even in their aftrono- 
mical calculations as well as their alh-ology, they are iie- 
verthelefs looked upon as infallible. Their prognofiica- 
lions are gcnei-ally taken from the moon, believing that 
this fublunary world, as it is termed, is much more in- 
fluenced by this planet that by the fun. Thefe aftrologcrs, 
like other oracles, generally deliver tliemfelves in dubious 
and equivocal expreflions, which may bear half a dozen 
meanings ; and if their prediQions prove true in any feiife, 
or but in part, they are lure to meet with applaufe, though 
they Ihould fail in fome inilances. Tliey (crm to regard 
the earth-more than the heavens, and to be governed by 
probable circumfiances, rather than the conftellations, in 
the prediflions they make ; and their prediflions on that 
account frequently prove true. For inflance, their alma- 
nacs are always publilhed in the fpring, when the winter 
is pafled, and, according to the weather tliey have had, it 
is no difficult matter to foretel whether they fhall have 
good or bad crops in the fummer, efpecially in a cliiiute 
where the weather does not vary as in Europe ; and from 
the fame premifles they will be able to pafs a tolerable judg- 
mnit on the health or ficknefs of the enfuing feafons. 

As the afliolugcrs are always about the court, and have 
fo great a Ihare in the adminillration of affairs, and are in 
fuch credit with all the world, they may be fuppofed to 
make very Ihrewd guefles in relation to politics. I'lu-y 
cannot but obferve the humours and difpofition of the 
Prince and his favourites ; the likelihood there is that one 
will be reflored, and another difgraced. Nay, they very 
well know what an influence they have in thefe cafes, info- 
much that there very rarely happens a confidcrable altera- 
tion in the (late, but it is brought about, and indeed is the 
cffed of fome prediflion of their own. 

There are feveral kinds of diviniation in ufe among the 
Persians ; for they do not only believe that the ftars reveal, 
and arc indeed the caufe of every accident and moral ac- 
tion 1 but alio, that God is pleated to let them know their 
fate by lots, by tlie tlirow of a die, or even by tolling up a 
piece of money ; when thefe are done with due foleimiity, 
and a religious ferioufnefs. The aftrologers are alfo pio- 
felTors of the art of divination, though the Mahometan 
priefls come in for a (liare by this gainful trade -, and for 
this purpofe the very alcoran, tlieir moft facred writings, 
are prouituted. When the prieft is applied to, he makes 
a preparation fuitable to the quality of the perfon who c«n- 
fults the oracle. He purifies himfelf by battling, puts 
o 1 a clean rolje, and, having repeated certain prayers, he 
takes the alcoran in his hand, and opens it at a venture ; 
and if the place he calls his eye upon contains a pofitive 
command, the prediflion is favourable, and tlie perfon may 
undertake the thing ; but if it contains a negative, the 
contrary, and he ouj;ht to lay afide the dengn. The 
greateft Doflors, from a regard to their learning and fanfli- 
ty, arc the moft fought after on tlicfc occafions. 

There are ofticcs for the diviners and aftrologers in all 
the great towns of Perfia, where they tell fortunes, and in- 
terpret dreams. Befidcs other methods, they have alfo a 
folio book, containing about filty piAures, fome reprefent- 
irig the jigiis ui tiic zouiac, ariu otucis trieit propucts aim 
faints ; from this they pretend to give the interpretation of 
dreamt, and difcovcr all that is demanded of tlicm. 

Ahothcr part of the Pci-ftan fuperftltion confifts in cliarlns 
and amulets. Thefe amulets have certain infcriptions on 
paper, and fomerimes on precious fionei, and thefe in- 
uyiptions they wear in little bags about them : they con- 
uin fome palFages of the alcoran, or fentencei of their 
faints or prophets, .-inplicable to the difeafe or enchahtment 
complained of. They depend alfo much on the diviners 
and aftrologers with refpcct to the obfervance of days and 
times : and the aftrologers, when the King is oh a journey, 
will fometimes make him rife at midnight, and begin his 
march in the worft weather that can happen, and perhaps 
out af the high-road, to avoid tlie unfortunate hour, or 
his evil Amts. 

The Periians reduce their phi lofophy under three heads; 
namely, phyfics, metaphyfics, and logic. Their great 
maftcr isAnftotle.whom they have tranllated into Arabic, 
Till very lately, tliey did not believe there were Antipodes: 
but are of another opinion fince the Europeans have vifit- 
cd them. The philofophy of Pythagoras, witicb prevails 
in India, is' here taught by a feA ot Mahometans, called 
Sefy's. Thefe underftand the alcoran, and all its pre- ' 
ccpts i and, whatever regards external worlhip in religion, 
in a fpiritual fenfe ; and though they pra^ife corporal pu- 
rifications with tlie ather Mahometans, they do not loolc 
upon them as elfential to their religion, which occafions 
the reft of their church to hate them mortally. They pre 
fefs love to all the world, and to hate no man, 1 hey 
conlider all men as proceeding from one common father, 
and people of different fefts and perfuafiona as all fcrrants 
of the fame mafter ; they teach that the joys of Paradite 
confift in an intimate knowledge of, and a lirid union witli, 
God I and that hell confifts in a regret for being feparated 
from him. Ethics, or moral philofophy, feems to be mci« 
cultivated than any otlier in Perfia. Thofe who profefs 
it, (hew a |)erfeA refignation under all misfortunes, and 
fpcak of death, and even fufl"er it witli great evennefs of 
temper. Moft moral virtues, particularly patience, forti- 
tude, and teuipe,vance, feem to be deeply iinprelied on 

Little can be faid of the geography of tlie Periians, as 
they had neither terreftrial globes, maps, or planifpheres, 
till the Europeans introduced them, i'hey thought thei« 
was a fmallpart of the earth habitable ; and compared it to 
an orange Iwimming in a veffel of water, the grcateft part 
whereof remains under water. 

Hiflory is but little cultivated in Perfia. They are fo far 
from knowing any thing of the hiftory of Europe, or any 
diftant country, that they arc ignorai^t of that of tlieir near- 
eft neighbours j nor has the hillory of tlieir own nation 
any thing of certainly in it, till the cftablilhmcnt of the 
Mahometan religion amongft them. 1 heir hiftories, be- 
fore that time, are but fo many legends, without tlie leaft 
appearance of truth. They pretend that tlie world was 
created feveral thoufand years before Adam ; and that it 
was lirft inhabited by daemons and fpirits, who, rebelling 
.-igainft God, were thrown into hell, and that God intro- 
duced Adam and his p<j(lerity in their room. 

The Periians Ixgin their year at the vernal equinox. 
They complete their years by the number of moons, reck- 
oning twelve iiiuoiis to a year, or three hundred and fifty- 
three days, I'd that their I'olar computation exceeds their 
lunar at leall twelve days in the year. Their epoch begins 
with the hegira, or flight of Mahomet, which was in the 
month of July, fix hundred and twenty-two years after the 
birth of Chrift. And as tlie Jews computed their time by 
jubilees, theChriftians by indi^^ions, the Romans by luf- 
tras, and the Greeks by olympiads; the Periians alfo, in 
fome cafes, account by a revolution of four years. 

'I'heir week begins on the Saturday ; fo that the feventh 
day, which is their fiibbath, fallsi on a Friday : they call 
it adine, or tzemeh, that is the day when they afTemble for 
religious worihip. Upon tlie nuriei, or new-year's-day, 
the great men wait on the King to wifh him a happy new 
year, evtry one making him a valuable prefcnt, as do tlie 
Clianis who prefide over diftant governments. 

They divide the day into four eiiual parts, and the night 
into as many : and they have a hollow brazen veflel with a 
little hole in it, which they fet upon the water, and is filled 
in about the fpace of thrcf hours, and, when it finks, the 
watch is expired : ofwiiicli notice is given by the public 
drums and trumpets in all great towns. 

The Perfians call a phvliciaii hakavm, or the preferver 
of life. There is not a country in the call where phyfi- 
cians are in greater cficein, or that produces a greater 
variety o, lucuicuics atiu piiyiica, uru^'^s t ir la a coniuiOii 
faying in Perfia, that the aftrologers and phylicians devour 
the country. The King always entertains vaft numbers 



(A S I A.] 


\ A. 



the feventh 
they call 
iflemblc for 
happy new 
as do tlic 

id the night 

'cflel with a 

and is tilled 

finks, the 

the public 

le preferver 
here phyfi- 
a greater 
, coniuiOii 
ians devour 
ft numbers 

in his pay, who an net left chargeable to him than hii 
■iWologera i but there U an eternal variance between them : 
for when the phyfician has prefctibcd and prepared the 
medicine, the patient muft wait till the aflrologer afligns 
the lucky moment to take it ; and if it h*a not the wilhed- 
for efFeft, the aftroloeer imputes it to the ignorance of the 
phyfician, who, on trie other hand, tells his patient, that 
the reafon it had no better fuccefs, was, becaufe there was 
a miftake made in the caIculatioiv«f th* aftrologer. 

The difeafe is ahieily jud^d olF by feeling the pulfe, or 
confiderine the patient's unne, by which the phyficians 
learn the diflempcr without feeing them ; which Teems ne- 
ceflary in Perfia in relation to the female (ex, who are never 
feen on anyoccafion whatever i and when aphyfkian deli res 
to feel a woman's pulfe, they give him her hand covered with 
crape or fine linen^ having nit the while a curtain between 
them. They feldom bleed <n Perfia, but p.f% emulfions 
and other potions in a fever, which ii the moft ordinary 
diftemper in the country, and of thefe four Or five pints 
fometimes in a morning; but they never civc clvners, 
which fome think proceeds from an excefs of^modelty, or 
father from a prohibition refulting from their religion. 

That the patient may not be difpirited, the pliylicians 
tell him, with the greateft aflurance, if he is at death's 
<loor, that there is no manner of danger, and that they 
will itftore him in a few days. In their prcfcrintions, they 
always follow Galen, wliom the Perlians call Galenous. 
The other great mafters in phyfic are Hermes Trifme- 
giftua and Avicenna, or Aboufina, as they call him, the 
moft celebrated phyfician and philofopher of Afia in his 

In furgery the Perfians are very ignorant : their barbers 
•re the only furgeons, and few of them underfland any 
thing more than blood-letting. There is not a phyfician 
in Perfia that ever faw a body difleAed ; but they have the 
Ids occafion for furgeons, becaufe the air is fo good, that 
green wounds almoft heal of themfelves, and they are ex- 
empt from many of thsfe maladies which arife from a cor- 
ruption and flux of humours among us. 

The Pcrf an phyflcians are both druggift* and apothe- 
caries ; and have their Ihops, and fervants to make up their 
medicines. The phyfician dinnands nothing for his ad- 
vice, but only for his medicines, where the patient comes 
to the houfe ; it is, however, ufual to make him a prefent. 
When the phyfician vifits the patient, he hat about two 
guineas for the firft, and one for every fucceeding vifit ; 
notwithnanding there are multitudes of phyficians in Per- 
fia, the country in general is very healthful, except near the 
lica-coaft, and this is thought to proceed either from the 
drynefs of the air, tlie temperance of the people, or the 
ferenity of their minds. 

Though the neighbouring kingdoms of Turky and In- 
dia are feldom free horn the pla(;uc, yet it very feldom vifits 
Perfia. They are equally ilraiigers to the ftone, Iciatica, 
head-ach, and tooth-ach ; and though it is true, many of 
them have the venereal dil'eal'e, yet it is not attended with 
thofe pernicious efTcfts there, as in Europe : there are not 
thofe blotches and breakings out wiiich are found upon 
thofe who have that diftemper amongft us. They eat, 
drink, and bathe together, when they are affedrd with it; 
nor is any body alhamcd of h.iving contrafted it, but they 
fpeak of it as of any other ordinary diftemper ; frequent 
Hatliing is thought to be of great Icrvice to the Perfians 
under tlut difordcr, though it may communicate it to 

The falling-ficknefs, apoplexy, confumptions, and 
fmalt-pox, arel'carcely known amongft them : but the dif- 
cafcs the Perfians are moft I'ubicft to, are fevers, St. An- 
thony s fire, pleurify, colic, dylcixteries and dropfies. Near 
the gulf of Perfia they arc troubled with a fmall worm of a 
prodigious length, which breeds in their legs : they are drawn 
out by twitting them round a ftick ; but if they happen to 
break in the operation, it is of very bad confequence to the 
patient. Near thcCafpian lea, the common diftemper is 
the yel'ow jaundice ; and travellers obferve, that thj people 
in general in Hyrcaniahave a ycllowilh fickly countenance. 
A fever is very foon removed by the Peifian phylicians, 
but then they frequently throw the patient into a dropfy. 
W hatever may be the hi^ft dileal'e with which the patient is 
attacked, the iwclling of his legs generally fucceeds, and it 
is frequently a great while before this is removed ; it very 
often carries them to tlicir graves, a dropfy being more 
fatal in I'crfia than any other diflempcr. In the colic, and 
levcrut other difurders, they ule burning and cauterizing : 
t'iii ii tiicii i»ii remedy, where the perfon is afflicted with 
wind. In a dylc-ritcry, they give four milk, boiled with 
lilt till it is dry. For the hwinorrhoids, tliey apply the 

oil of naptha. They never fufter the Tick perfon t6 
change his linen or hts clothes while the illnefs laftt, oi 
to eat bread or flclh : boiled rice, or a kind of gruel made 
of it, is almoft the only diet of a fick man i but in fthnoft 
all diftempcrs, die moft general rcnvdy in Perfta is the 

The baths in Perfia confift of three rooms, the light 
into which is communicated from little round quarries of 
glafs in the atched roof: the firft is a great room, with 
wooden benches round about it ; here they put oiF their 
clothes, and drefs themfei'ves for the bath. The fecond, 
which moft commonly is fquare, it fix fi:et diameter, and 
has a kind of copper three or four fleet fquare fet in the 
floor, covered with a flat copper-plate, which heats the 
water and the bagnio, the fire being underneath on the 
outfide. In the uiird room is the place for bathing. In 
the morning before day a fervant goei up to the terrace on 
the top of the honle, and founds a ihell or horn, to give 
notice that the hath is ready. 

When any perfon. comet to bathe, he undrefles himfelf 
in the firft room, and ties a cloth about his middle, which 
reaches down to his knees ; then he enters into the ftove, 
whither a few moments after a fervant comes, and poun a 
quantity of water on hit ihoulders, rubbing him from head 
to foot in fp rough a nurvner, that thofe who are not ufed 
to it think he is about to i)ay them : he afterwards ftiaves 
the perfon's face and head, if he defires it, cuts the naih 
of hit fingers and toet, handles his body, fqueezes and 
rubs it, and ftretches every finger and hmb, as if he was 
about to diflocatc them ( and this takes up about a quarter 
of an hour. After the perfon has been thus ftrctched and 
fqueezed, he goes and plunges himfelf into the bath, and, 
being wiped with a clean linen cloth when he comes out, 
he returns into the firft room, and puts on his own clothes 
again. The time limited for the men's bathing is from 
twilight in the morning till four in the afternoon, and the 
women go from that time till midnight. 

When it is the women's tarn to bathe, all the male fer- 
van'ts of the bagnio withdraw, and ate fucceeded by girls. 
The ladies are never fo finely drefled as when they come 
to bathe ; this is the only opportunity they have of vying 
with each other in the article of clothes, and their perfumes 
and elTences are enough to ftifle a perfon who is not ufed to 
them. In the bath called ColUtin, at Ifpahan, ten per- 
fons may bathe at once : but if you go to thofe large Inths 
the latter part of tlie day, the furface of the water will then 
be perfeAly thickened with a greafy matter which iVvims 
on tlte top of it, and proceeds frotn the infirm bodies of 
thofe who walh in it, and appears very naufeous. But 
the Perfians who are ufed to it, when they plunge them- 
felvcs over head and ears into the water, as they are obliged 
to do when they would cleanfe themfelves from any legal 
pollutions, only ftrike away the thick fcum with their 
hands, and then tlirow themfelves in : and it is furprifing 
that the Perfians are fo healthy as their florid countenances 
demonftrate they are, when we confider that all forts of 
people, the inhrm and the healtliful, the infeded and 
found, bathe together in the fame water. 

Perfons of diftinflion have bagnio's in their own houfes i 
and thofe of a lower rank have them adjoining to their 
houfes, the ufe whereof they referve to themfislves at cer-* 
tain times, but let them out to others, upon condition only 
of providing the neceffary veffels and other implements for 
bauiing, and keeping up a conftant fire in the place. 

Witn refpeft to their painting, tlie Perfians do not, any 
more than the Chinefe, endeavour to imitate nature, but 
fcem to delight in mis-ihapcn and monflrous figures ; nor 
do they know any thing of perfpeftive. The Europeans far 
exceed them, both in the hberal and mechanic arts. One 
reafon why they apply themfelves no more to painting and 
engraving, prooably is, becaufe their religion difcourages 
them ; their precife Doctors prohibit the reprcfentation of 
every created animal. A Manoinetan would not perform 
his devotions where there was a picture in tlie room, for 
the world. There are not in Perfia, at prefent, either 
ft<-ituaries or founders, or any emboffed work made. They 
draw their piflures commonly with a fide tJKe, fcarcely 
ever with a full vifage ; and when they do, they fucceea 
very ill, for they do not know how to give the fhades ; 
even the figures of animals are aukwardly done. Their 
flowers are pretty well ; and they have the advantage of us 
in the livelinefs of their colours, which are hardened and 
poliflied by the drynefs of the air. 

It may not be airiifi to enquire into the education of tlve 
Perfian!), and of their fchools and colleges ereAed for tliat 
purpofe. There are abundance of fchools in every town, 
where, befides tlie Perfian, tlie Arabic is aught. The 




ii 1 


P: L' 

ftJi V- 


H I 

•lc«rali fwhichis looked upon a» tjie ft.ltnl.ird of good I»n- 
guagr, both, for giainmar and rhetoric), and their other 
/acred writing], are all in this language. Perfonj of con- 
dition chufc to Itave private tutors for their children, be- 
fore they fend thein to the public fdiooli. 

There are a great number of fchooli in every town in 
Perfia, and the expence of learning ii Very fmall. Their 
fchooli are called Mekteb, which fignifies an entrance ; 
this being, they fay, the gate, by which ladu enter into 
the fcienceik They are tanght here the Perfian and Ara- 
bian languages, with writing and accopipts ; which when 
they are trrived at fome pcrfeftion in, they are removed 
to fome college, or Medrcfs as they call them, where their 
•doftrine and the principles of their religion are tauglit. 
Their colleges are all endowed, and fome of them very 
rich i the Urged have fifty or flxtv apartments, and to each 
■of them belong two chambers^ In the bell colleges, every 
fcholar has about two Ihillings a day allowed him, which 
he lays out as he thinks tit ; for they do not common to- 
gether as with Ks. In (bine colleges the ftudunts have not 
more than a penny a day ; and yet intereft is made to jrct 
admitted into thefe, on account of hiving a lodging gratis, 
and other cafual advantages. Many, whofe principal de- 
fign lecins to be to indulge in eafe and idlenefs, get into 
them without any defign to ftudy, who live to old age in 
thofe honfes, and have their wives and children with them. 
We thall not be furptized to find that there are abun- 
dance of colleges in the great towns and villages of Pcrfia, 
when we confider that thefe people lay out great fams of 
money in public foundations. They ufually, firft of ,i' ,• 
build a caravanfera for the lodging of travellers gratis, af- 
terwards a bagnio, a cofTec-houfe, a bazar or market-place, 
and they alfo purchafc a garden : thefe they let out, and 
apply the revenues arising from them towards building and 
endowing a college The founder and his heirs have the 
appointment of the head and governors of the fociety ; and 
it the founder's eftVe happens to be forfeited to the crown, 
the King has the nomination. 

In Ifpahan,' there are forty-fevcn colleges, moft of them 
of Royal foondalioii, or which have devolved to the crown. 
There are profelfors who teach the fciences in every col- 
lege, to whom the fcholars make an annual allowance for 
their trouble ; but as there are feveral who read leAures 
gratis, the fcholars frequently refort to thefe, and forfake 
their proper tutors. Thofe ftudents who are men of parts 
and learning, may have a handfome falary in any great 
man's houfe, for inftrufling his children, who are always 
educated in their own houfes. The head of the houfe ad- 
mits or exclude", whom he fees fit, and pays the ftudents 
their penfions monthly, fo tlaat they Ibew him abundance 
of refpefl. 

Belides their colleges, there arc in every town thofe who 
teach the liberal arts gratis ; and thefe arc frequently great 
officers who have betn difcarded, or have voluntarily re- 
tired from court. Thefe frequently furnilh their difciples 
with books and paper, and entertain them at their own ex- 
pence certain days in the week, and fometimes clothe their 
pupils, and give them money ; by which aAs they endea- 
vour to recover their reputation with the people : for no- 
thing fo much raifes the reputation of a gentleman in Per- 
iia as the inftrufling great number of fcholars at their own 
charge, and the being patrons of learning and learned men. 
There are no public difputations or Icftures in Pcrfia, as 
in Europe ; but when the fcholars have made fome pro- 
grefs in the fciences, they begin to difpute with their rc- 
fpcftivc tutcn. , . • ■ • ,• I ►■■. -. 


SECT. viir. 

Of ihe rife and tflablljhmtnt tf the prtjint Roycl family i 
Jla, >ji j>rtrtgativt and ahfctiiU fwaj ef iht Ptrjia 

t in Ptr- 
j ^ , . '*r/iaH mt- 

ariht^m'.nijltr:, gtvernmtni, and fuccijpon of fbi erium, 
tij: tl'ir yiilh a (tnlinuatiin of tht Piifian kijitryy u iht 
priftnt tiint. 

IT is a received opinion among the Perfians, eiSecially 
by their clergy, that none but prophets, their fubfti- 
tutes or fucceffors, have a right to dominion. They ob- 
ferve, that God has in all ages governed his neople by pro- 
phets, whodire£lcd both the fpiritual and temporal affairs i 
as Abraham, Mofes, Samuel, David, Solomon, and IxUly 
Mahomet, to whom, as tlkcy aflert, fucce^tded Haly aiid 
the twelve Imams. 

In order to give fome account of the rife and eftablilh- 
mciit of the.prefent Royal family, we muft obferve, that 
Tamerlane luving dcfcacd Bajazet, and inarching tluougb 

Ptrfia witk great noinl'urs of Turkiflt and Pritian cap» 
tives. Chick Aidor, a dodinr uf law in KrcAt reputation tur 
his fantUtydinong the Mahometans, olitaiiuil of him the 
releafe of moft of his prilbners, which lUll iiicreafcd tlia 
fame of the Chick ; inloinuch tliat wl.on Tamerlane 
marched away, the Chjck entertained thoughts of alfuni- 
iiig the fovereign power. '1 tie better to accomplilh his dc- 
lian^ he g ive out, that he was lineally delcendcd from 
Italy, tijc ibn-iii-law and only legal fucccllbr of Mahoiiieti 
and took upon him the title of Calif, which rigiiilics 
Prieft as well as Prince. Ifinael Seti, or Sojihi, fnlUiwed 
his father's ftcps, and, being fuccclsful in levtral ha'tlcs, 
eftabli(hed himfclf in the government ; and is reckoned 
the firll King of the nrefcntdynafly or family. To Ifmacl 
Sophi fucceedcd Shan Thomas who, being a cruel Piiiice, 
was dcpofed, and fucceedcd by hi» brother Mahomet 
Cod.thuiidi, whowas a weak man, and famous for nothing 
but being the father of the great .Sliah Abl>as, who reigned 
.tboutaii hundred years ago. This piince enlarged the 
empire on every fide. He look the province of Candahor 
from the Great Mogul, cot\qucred the kingdom of Lar 
and Orinui, and drove the 'lurks alinoft out of Armenia 
And Georgia. He encouraged all aru and Icicnces ; inj 
as he found the Persians were not at all inclined to foreign 
trade, he tranfpUnted the Armenians of julpha to Ifpahan, 
and made them his faftors and merchants in every part of 
Europe and Afia, where there was any traffic : and as he 
obferved the pilgrimagrs to Mecca carried great quantities 
of treafure out of hi> dominions, he went himlclf a piU 
grimagctoihe tomb of Imanrezez, which is lituatcd in 
Pcrfia, in hopes his fubjeOs would carry tlicir pious aim* 
thitlier, and the money might circulate in his own coun- 
try : he was alfo feverc againft thofe who were guilty of tlia 
leaft fraud, that he ordered a cook to be roafted alive, and 
a baker to be baked in his own oven, for keeping of hWe 
wciglits. But with all his virtues. Shah Abbas has been 
giiiei ally charged with cruelty, el'pecially towards his fon 
Sophi Mir/.a, a Prince of expeftations, and the darl- 
iii;; of the people. 

Sell Mirza, by being bred up r.mong the foldiery, and 
fre'jueiitly commanding them in the moll hazardous en- 
tcrprizes, became extrcniclv relpcftcd in the army. Whe- 
ther he was really concerned in any confpinicy with the gc- 
nerals to depofe liis father, does not appear i but the King 
was fo apprehenfive of it, that he did not think himfelt 
Ax:ure while his fon lived. Some writers tell us, tlut 
Shah Abbas having rendered himfclf odious to the princi- 
pal Chains by his rcpc.-itcd cruelties, tlicy made an ofler of 
advancing Seti Mirza to the throne ; 'which the father 
bting in.ids acquaiiitcil with, commanded a nobleman, 
who attended liiiii, to bviii;; him his Ion's head : but he 
excufed himfclf, another courtier, named Bcbut Bey, un- 
dertook to do it, and, furprifing Seii Mirza as he came 
oiu of th^ bagnio, atti'iidcd only by one page, acquainted 
him it W.1S his father's plealure he Ihould die, and imine- 
di.itely f'.izcdthe iiiifortimiie Prince, and threw him upon 
the floor, who, lifted up his eyes to heaven, cried out, 
" Good God I what h.ive I done to merit this difgrace i 
Cuil'e on the traitor who was the occafion of it : but fince 
it is Ciod's will, his and tlie Kiii^-.'s lie done." The 
woiiN were fcarcc ended, when Bebut ftabbcd hiin twice 
with .1 poniard, and, cuttinj; off his head carried it to his 
fatlif r. This tragical event the people were no fooner ac- 
quainted with, than they alfeinbled at the palace giites, and 
it liad well nigh occalioned a general infurreftion. 

'I'hc mother of Sefi Mirza upbraided the King with his 
cruelty and tyranny, and, in tlie tranfport of her paflion, 
flew in his face, all which his Majcfty took ver\' patiently, 
and with tears in his eyes demanded of her, " What flie 
would have had him do, when he was informed tliere was 
a coiil'piracy againll his life : befidcs, it was now part re- 
drefs : that none had a greater lh.irc of grief than himfelf, 
and of two evils he had chofen what he then eftcemed the 
leaft ; though if his Ioti was alive again, he would run any 
hazard, rather than take the fame meafures." And indeed 
he difcoveredall the li^ns of grief imaginable : he covered 
his face and would not lee the light tor fevcral days; he 
mortified himfelf by falling, and mourned a whole year; 
and in the place where his fon was killed, he built a fanc- 
tuary, endowed it with large revenues ; and, to revenue 
hinilelf on the Perfian lords, who had inlUlled thefe fc.^is 
and jealoiifics of his fon into his head, he ordered them to 
be invited to a feall,, and to mix poifon with their wine, 
and faw every one of llieni expire before his face. The 
King commanded Bchut IJey, who had lAiirdeicd the 
young Prince fo re.idilv :md officioudy, to cut oil the luaj 
of hi^ own fun : and v.'hcn he bi'ou(;,ht it to bis Majefty in 


f ^^?^liw»#«*,.. 

f I lull cap' 
)utitiuu tur 
ol' hiiii tl\« 
created the 
R of alTum- 
mdcd trom 
f Mahomet; 
cli figiiilkj 
li, Followed 
cral l)S'tles, 
is tcckuncd 
I'o Iftnad 
rucl Pi i lice, 

■ Mahomet 
for nothing 
who reigned 
rilacKcd tlie 
<( Candalior 
lorn of Lar 
of Armenia 
icncca ; and 
d to foreiRii 
1 to irpahaii,_ 
very part of 
: and as he 

It quantitiet 
imlclf a pil- 
is fituatcd in 
r pioui aUn* 
I own conn- 
guilty of tli« 
cd alive, and 
ping offalfe 
bm has been 
ards hiH fon 
ind the darl- 

oldicry, and 
izardouj cn- 
aimy. Whe- 

■ with the pe- 
but the King 
(link himlelf 
tell us, tliat 
the princi- 
e an ofTer of 
,» the father 
|a nobleman, 
icad : but he 
lut Bey, Un- 
as he came 
, acquainted 

and iminc- 

w him upon 

ji, ciied out, 

!iis difgrice i 

It : hut fmce 

lone," The 

Id hiin twice 

ied it to his 

lo fooner ac- 

e gates, and 


|ing with his 
her pafllon, 
!r>' patiently, 
■ What (lie 
id tliere was 
low pad re- 
ran hiinfelf, 
■ftcf incd the 
luld run any 
And indeed 
he covered 
■al days; he 
[whole year; 
Ibuilt a ianc- 
to revenue 
Id thefc fears 
:'cd them to 
their wine, 
face. 'I'lie 
Lirdcicd tlie 
oti the head 
\i Majefty in 

[A S f A.) " P fi R 

bis hartd; he tnid him, fhat the reflexion of what h« had 
doiw, would certainly bring him to hii grave; the King 
replied, that now he was capable of judging what his grief 
tnuO be, and bid him comfort himfelf, that in this paRi- 
cular he wan equal to ais Royal mafter. Shah Abbas, hav- 
ing reigned about forty yean, died anno i6j8, ' ' "'inting 
hiigrandfnn Shah Sefi, or Sophi, the fon of 'tm, 

hiaruccefTir, who was at that time not fifteen years cf aje. 
The adminiftnition continued in the fame hands Shah 
Abbas had left it in for fome time : but Shah Scfi was no 
looner come to man's eflate, than he began to call the 
principal miniftera to a fcvere account, and cvit off the 
nead of Ali Kouli Chan, viceroy of Perfia, who had dc- 
ferved well of his country, and contributed as much as any 
general, to the conquefts that were made in the late reign : 
he alfo fent for the heads of his three fon.i, and of fcven 
other great lords of the court. His reign was violent and 
tyrannic'al ; and he drank to that excels, tirat in one of hii 
debauches he killed the Qjieen, for which he was under 
the deeped concern when he grew cool, and prohibited the 
drinking of wine in an^ part of his dominions ; but in a 
year's lime he fell again into the fame courfei, which put a 
period to his life, after he reigned fourteen years, and 
was fiiceeeded by his fon Shah Abbas It. being then about 
twelve yearj of age. 

This Prince was greatly refpefted for his bravery, and 
hofpitnlity to (Irangers, efpecially ChrilUans ; but fo ad- 
di^ed to his father^ vice uf drunkcnnefs, that he ordered 
tliree of his women to be burnt becaufe they refnfod to 
drink as long as he did. According to fome, he died of an 
inHammntion caufed by hard drinking ; while others 
affirm, that he was carried off by the vcneic;d difeafc, after 
he had reigned one and twenty yean. 

Shall Scti, the fecond, fucceeded bis father. But the 
grandees, apprehending that this Prince had been dead, 
were .about to advance his younger brother Hnm/.el Mir/a 
to the throne, till they were undeceived by an old eunuch, 
who aflured them that Shah Sefi was alive. This Prince 
changed his name, and took that of Solyman : it is obferved, 
that in his reign the kingdom was affliAed with war, famine, 
and epidemical difteiupers ; but his government v/a much 
milder than that of his immediate predecelTors : he died on 
the 2gth of July 1694, and was fucceeded by hi^ fon Shah 
Sultan Hoflein, whom his father cxprefsly enjoined, not to 
ut in praAice that cruel cuftom of putting out the eyes of 
lis brothers j but whether he obeyed his commands is uncer- 
tain, it being difficult to know what is done in the feraglio. 
We have before related, that this Prince, after a long and 
indolent reign, was depofed by Mahamood the fon of Mere- 
weys; who bein^ aflaffinated byUfdritF, oneofhis officers, 
who fucceedcil hira, Shalt Thomas, the young Sultan, in- 
vited Kouli Khan or Shah Nadir, to join his forces ; which 
he confenting to, EfdrifF was defeated, and put to a cruel 
death. Kouli Khan afterwards defeated the Turks ; elated 
by his fuccefs, and afpiring to the empire, he depofed and 
afterwards murdered Shah 

As there are fevcral remarkable and well authenticated 
circumitances, of more recent date, relative to this Ufurpcr 
Kouli Khan, we Ihall here introduce a particular account 
of him. He was born at Chalat, in 1687, which princi- 
pality he was heir to. Being offended at his uncle's treat- 
ment of him, he repaired to Chorafan, and entered as a 
private foldicr in the Perfian army in 1711, and was in 1719 
promoted to tite rank of colonel. The Governor of Cho- 
rafan afterwards gave him the command of the Perfian 
troops in that province; witli which he defeated the Uibeck 
Tartars. Being afterwards difguftcd at the conduA of 
the Governor, who contrary to his promife, had promoted 
a young nobleman to the rank of general in preference to 
him, lie upbraided the Ciovernor in fcurrilous terms, who 
ordering him to be baflinadoed, he afterwards fled to the 
mountains, where he headed a bandof robbers, with which 
he ravaged the country, and plundered the caravans. His 
uncle having obtained his pardon for thefc outrages, he re- 
paired to Chalat, where he foon afterwards murdered his 
uncle, aiid poireifed himfelf of the place which had been 
deemed impregnable. Becoming exceedingly formidable 
by the addition of fix thoufand bold and hardy troops, he 
attacked and took the city of Ncchabar by llratagem. In 
1728, he was appointed commaiuler in chief of the Shah's 
forces, and receiving the diftingviilhing title of Tachmas, 
or Thomas Kouli Khan. After the murder of Shall 
Thomas, he declared Abbas Mirza, an infant fix months 
old, and the Ton of the late monarch, emperor, but re- 
fcrved tiic power and riches of the empire in his own 
hands. He .ifterwards marched againll the Turks, drove 
them before him, and bellcgcd Bagdat ; but was defeated 

Ho. 3. 

1 A. 



in a mofi bloody battle, on llie iStli of July 173^, by To- 
pal Ofman, at the head of one hundred thoufand men 1 
nis army confiding of feveniy tlioufand t but he afterward* 
defeateJthe 'l ..rks in two battles, In the lad of which they 
lud forty tlioufand lUfn, with all thftircainp, Mtd tlie brave 
Topal Ofman was among the Qain, He afterwards 
iTUirched to Schiras, where ne crulhed a powerful rebel- 
lioni and in 1734, gained great advantages over tlie Turks 
and Tartars, reducing the open country of Georgia and 
Armenia. In 1735, he dedroycd great part uf the i urkilk 
arniynt Arpa Kavi ; and in 1736, tiie youngShah AbbasdjTo ^ 
iiig, he was eleQed emperor by the Periian cliieit and nobltn. ' 

After his acceffion to the throne. Nadir Shall became t 
mod defpotic tyrant, deflroying the Royal family, putting 
many of^the nobihty todeatli, and feized their efluLcs, not 
even fparing the church-land*. He concluded a peace with 
the Turks and RufTuns, and reduced the revolted Agtiins 
to obedience. After tliefe exploits, he defieated the armies 
of the Great Mraul, whom he took prifoncr, poflrlfed 
hiinfelf of Delhi the capital of Htiidedan, put multitudes 
to the fword, and plundered the empire of its riches to the 
amount of cighty-fcven millions fux hundred thoufand 
pounds derling. Among other valuables was the imperial 
throne, imircly fet with jewels: he alio took tlitee hun- 
dred elephants, ten thouland horfes, the fame number of 
camels, and a great quantity and variety of cannon and 
warlike (lores. Thefe immenle trcafures he dcpofitcd in 
his principality of Chalat, putting them under the care of 
twelve thoufand Georgians, who were Chridiana : he next 
ninde the Uibeck Tartars tribut.iry to Peflia. He quelled 
Icveralinfiirreflionsin tlieyear 1741. In 174a, his elded fon 
attempting to murder him, was aiterxVards brought piil'oner 
to hill father, who ordered his eyes to be put out. He exer- 
cifi'd the mod lliucking cruelties in aU his expeditions : 
friends and enemies, armed and unarmed, wcru alike the ob- 
jeAs of his baib.iiity: he demuliihed whole cities and 
towns, laid wade fertile provinces, plundered people of all 
ranks, and tnuidered feveral millions of the I'erlians, and 
people of other countries. In 1744, he defeated and took 
priloner a pretended' Prince whom the Turks had fet up 
againd him; but, to the fuiprife of every one, permitted 
him to efoapc punifhment, though he beheaded two hun- 
dred and eighty-two of his followers. He defeated the 
Turks in 174^, and in 1^46 and 1747, was engaged in fup- 
prctTing rebellions, and intedinc commotions. After this 
time he was judged to be in a date of intimity v his actions 
being for tlie mod part abl'urd and unaccountable ; and 
though a gleam of humanity would at certain times appear 
for a moment, yet avarice and the mod detedablc cruelty 
generally marked his conduA. As this cruel and blood- 
thirdy tyrant teemed to outdo in barbarity the mod in- 
hunun monders of antiquity, he was at length become 
infupportable i and that on the I'ocond of July 1747, five 
of his principal officers alTaflinatcd and flew him in his 
clumber, but not before lie druck off the head of one with 
his fabre, and wounded another. I'he people were over- 
joyed on hearing of his death, put to death his blind fon, 
his grandfon, and even his women, tlut ncne of fuch a de- 
tedaole flock might be found to fuccccd Iiira, and prove tlic 
fcourge of mankind. 

We have inferted tliis account for tlie general fati<ifaAion 
of our readers, as many of the hidr.-ical and geographical 
books pubtiihed of late years tend to difappoint tiie expec- 
tations of the public, by defcribing this country with re- 
fpeft to its date before the time of Kouli Khan, omitting 
to give its true modern defcription ; treating of cities that 
are merely ideal, and provinces that are at prefent totally 
deferted and uncuhivated ; of millions that have been de- 
droycd, and magnificent drufturesdcmolifhrd and laid in 
ruins. Since the above-mentioned tyrant afcended the 
throne, that unfortunate country has remained in the mod 
difordercd condition ; and wbutever revolutions may have 
fmce happeiied,-thcy have not come to hand, fufficiently 
authenticated for us to communicate to the public. But 
to proceed ; no Priiu:e in the world is more abfolnte than 
the Perfian monarch ; he has the lives and cdates of his. 
fubjcAs intirtly at l:is difpofal : his orders are implicitly 
obeyed, be they never fo unjud, or given at times when 
he IS fo little anadcr of his rcafon, that he knows not what 
he fays or does. Nothing can fave the greated fubicft, 
when he is determined to deprive him of his life or cttate; 
neither 7.eal for his uerfon, prefent, or pad fervices, will 
in the leat\ avail. If he is ditpol'cd to ruin them, -t is done 
by a word of hi:; nioutii, ur by a iigii, and executed in 
an indant, without any form of law, or evidence of 
the faft : the common people, wlio are at a didance from 
the court, h,-\vc greatly the advantage of tlic quality in this 
H refpea. 



:i }■", 

■ 1." 



frfpeft. There ar* rcry fcUtom inflaiicei r>( my ojninC- 
fiuii or fex ere juil^iiiciMi executed upon Ihefe ; hut tt>^ 
feem to enjoy m mudi I'ccnTity m in iity country ip (h< 
world ; aitd ix-rh^pi ttie nwgiAnrtrv *rc the innrc mcliiird 
10 gnvccii cauM*bly, in regard th«y air (rtirthle thlt niitliing 
can fcrodtk them from the rcfeiitinrm of their Sinrrrign, 
it' tlicy are iuund to have aiftcd < 'iiitrary to law or ciiuity. 

'I'bc Kiiig't or<lc» arc ohcyed nut of confcitnce ny the 
prople, \Tlvobc4tev« that liii comtnatuli oii);ht to he exe- 
cuted agaiivll the very Uwi of nature : fo tint if the fo|i 
be cominartded to be hit father's execuuoiicr, or the Ta- 
tlier tbe fon'i, it muft be complied with, tint if any 
tiling is eitjoincd lo he done in pre'iudice of their rcKginn, 
they are itot obliged to ohey him, nut ought to fuiltr any 
thing ratlier than viohite (he law of (iod. 

'1 he King living conunandrd a prime minifter m 
the Perfian court u>drii>k with Itim, he excufed l.iinrrlf, 
telling the King that he had l>reii a |ii4grrtna;^ to N(cc(-:j. 
*nd could not drink without vi'ilatiiig the hiw^ of ttuit 
religion. To which the Kinp; anfHrrcd, ThoudnJ< luve 
gone in pilgriii>*ge to Mecca, siid yet drink wine : drink, 
thctefore, whou your Sorercign miomand!! yoo Hut 
this gcnticraan flill leKiling, the King abufcd him in 
thegroQcU manner, in^de tlie litrvantA throw the wine in 
his face, nnd dowi> \m hnbim, and pour it into hi ^ mouth 
by ibtcc. Then lie threatened him with irrmedint'- Arjtth, 
towhich he anfwcred,Thc Kim|> had a.ighttohis i ,but 
not to hit religion -, and he chofe rather to die than di ink. 
And though hM MajeOy did not think fit to put hit threats 
into execution, he turned him out of hia employment : 
however, he wa» afterwards reftored with ariundaiu . .f 
honour, and tlte King fccmrd to value him the more < r 
afterwardi for hii refolution. 

It is recorded by an hiilorian of credit, that Shah Sefi, 
without any provocation, ordered that one of the greatell 
officers of the crown Ihould have hit ears cut on in his 
prelence bykisownlbn, which was immediately executed. 
Then he commanded the fon to cut off his father's iiol'e, 
which he alio execttted. Whercu|)on the old gentlciiiiui, 
finding himfelf thus ahufetl by his own fon, ami by uid^r 
of the King, whom he had not oflx-iided, faid to thecrin! 
Prince, Ah, Sir, after this, I ought not to live anyl.ingci, 
caufe me therefore to be put to death ; which he had no 
great trouble in obtaining i but that it might not feem a 
favour, he added to the cruelty of the order, bv appointing 
his own fon to be lus imniediarc executioner, ^liildiiig him 
cut off his father's head, and he lliould have his whole 
cilate i which was readily complied with by this unnatural 

Another proof of the tyranny of the I'crfian govern- 
ment, is, the cutlom of executing the (Tovcrnors of pro- 
vinces, and great officers of Hate, without giving them 
an opportunity of making their defence, or being informed 
of the crime they are charged with. It is ufual for the 
King, two or three times in a year, to fend every Governor 
tlie calaat,or Royal veil ; and thefe are fent by I'ucli iKrfons 
as the court intends a favour to j for the Chain, or Gover- 
nor, to whom they are fent, always makes a confidcrable 
prefcnt to the melii:ngcr. When he comes within two or 
tliree miles of the place where the Governor rcfidcs, the 
meflenger fends him word to come a'd receive tlie calaat ; 
but, inllcad of a fine coat, tbe Governor is foinetimes pre- 
fented with a halter, and is difpatched without any farther 
ceremony. This makes the Governors very watchful 
over their conduft ; and they are always under diGnal ap- 

Ereheniioiu when they hear the calaat is arrived, knowing 
ow common it is to have their beft af(ions mifrcprefcnted 
to tlie Prince. 'I'hc Perilans fay in defence of this prac- 
tice, that tlie court feldoin proceeds with that Icverity, but 
in extraordiiury cafes, where the fail is notorious, and there 
is danger of a rebellion, if they lliould cite the ncrfon ac- 
cufed to anfwer ; that if it be otlierwife, they always give 
him an opportunity of anfwering the charge. The King 
looks upon tliofeabout the court as flaves he has purchafed, 
and dooms them to be punilhed or put to death as he fees 
fit, not tliiiiking himfelf obliged to ebferve tUofc forma- 

There is no privy council of flatc in Perfia, as in the 
European govvrumciits ; but the KingaAs as he is advilcd 
by the prime mitiitlcr and great officers : that which iiintl 
perplexes the minillry, is, the cabals that arc carried on l)y 
tlie women in the luram: the refolutions that are t'ormecl 
here frequently thwart their beft laid fchemes ; and llie nii- 
iiifters do not only run tlie rifque of having their cuunlcis 
rejcfted, but tliey very often turn to their own deftruflion, 
if tlicy arc not juiiabk lo the iiilcreii or inclination ot the 
moll favourite ladies. 

With refpefl to the fucceffion of 'he crown of Petfia, we 
mud obfervcthat i( is hercditaiy in the male brancltca, but 
the frnialcs areexcliided ; Iml ihe fon of a daughter may in- 
herit, though his mother (*'-M not. Wlut U'tiiii mott 
|i»ili(ularin thiir lawsuf ft.... .lion in Veilia is, that ablim) 
man fliall not inherit . and a« tliiilc iiialis who proceed fiura 
the female braiK'he>.aieascapaTilv of lucceedingai thole who 
derive theailclvcs fiumthc nuliis. that ciucl (Kilicy of pnl- 
ing out the eyes of all that arc allied In tji* crown is cxe- 
attd upon every uulc of the Royal Uiiily, whether tJiey 
proceed fiolti Ions in daughters. As there are no cuininun 
Ciccutioners wi Pcifia, tlie orders (ot putting out the cyea 
of tbe Royal infants arc executed by any one the Kiog hap- 
pens to pitch uuoo > and they arc nut content witli doing 
itby a hot iron held tg tlum as fonucily, but titc veiy eye 
bails .ire fcoped clean out witli the puint of a kniie or dag- 
ger, a< cording as the |>eifon is provided who is l<:nt on the 
bMliiH-rs , but who not being uled to luch o{)crations, die 
I" or cliililren are put to incxpicflilile toiturc, and Ivntc- 
tinies lul'e ihcirlKes under their lunds. 

'I'he Pcrfians feem lo excufc this barbarous tuflom of 
nutting uuttlic eyes of thcRuyal infants, by telling us, that 
It previrits all difpiiK s about tlie fucceflion, aiid a great 
deal of blood Ihcd , and that they arc more mcrcil'ul thais 
llie Turks, who dtftroy every branch of the Royal f,iinily. 
On the other hand, the Pcriians permit them to live, give 
tliem wives, and I'ufTer them lo enjoy all the pleal'atcs tlut 
Mind men are capable ot in the harain. Unt how mclan- 
elioly mull it be for thefe mirernbic Princes to rericA, that 
all the males which proceed from them will lie fcrved in the 
lime manner lluiufetves li,ive been, and have th«it eye- 
balls tui'U out of llicir heads I 

I,, 'i 


WfJ ,<»»»: I'll*. 

Giving an acnuni tf thipumpeut til If of thf Ptrfmn manarth, 
tht arnii he njiimfi, lie. aljt «/ iht Princti if thi lilud^ 
frimt mimjitr, great offiien af Jiatt, gen4iall, t«l(fuyiuai 
tffteri, (ivilmagijlrani, (sft. -. vn' ci u,i'.' 

THE ufual title of tlio King of Peilla is Shah, or Paflia, 
the dili>ol'cr of ki'ij^doiiH, which is the highell title 
kitowa in Aua, and equivalent to tliat of Rmperor in Ku« 
u>|ie. Ik is alio llilod Sultan, Khan, Caun, or Cham. 
One of their kings, in his letters, ftiled himfelf, vidoriou* 
f.ord of tlie wuild, tlic moll valiant PriiKe defu.-ndcd 
froinCUrik Scp^iy, MoulUaiid llallein. His fubjcih, in 
their addrc(les,c«llliiin, tlie moftrenownedof all men living, 
the fourcc of power, majelly, and glory, equal to tlie fun, 
fuMlitute of Iicaveii, obje^l of all man's vows, &c. He. 
With thel'e, or fucli titles, all petitions and rcprefentalioni 
to the throne abound : but when they ilKak to the Kiii^, 
they ufually Ayle him the Lieutenant of God, or the Prince 
by w hoiti God difpeiiles his grace and favour to men. Tha 
Princes of the blood Royalare called Mirza, &c. fignifying 
the I'ou of a Prince. I'lie arms of the King of Pertia are a 
lion coticliaiit looking at tlie fun as it iiles over his back. 

The Perfians, like the Romans, prefer nil men indif* 
ferenlly to polb intlic (late and army : the gown-men fonie- 
times command as generals, and foldiers lit as judges in 
tlie couils of jullice, and the fame perfun has been prima 
minifter and high |uicll. Regard is leldom paid to a pcr- 
foii's birth and fortune in his promotion i but the Kinj; 
difpofes of jplaces a.s he apprehends his fabjc£)s qualified 
for tlieai. "I'hey enjoy their jioft during life, and fomc- 
times their children alter them, where they luvc behaved 

The comminion of a great man, intended to be invefl- 
ed in an office, is lent to him w i iitcn on a roll of paper twa 
or tliiec feet lung, in a line large charafler, mixed with 
gold and colours, and put into a purl'c made of gold bro- 
cade ; and witli it is fent the, or rich habit which 
the King ahv.iys gives to thole he deligns to honour The 
new officer inimeiJiately j;()es to couit clothed in the Royat 
habit, ami, when tlic King appears in public, he prof- 
trates hinilelf three times hel'oK; him with his face to the 
ground, after which he rills \ip .ind takes his place in the 
prefinco-ihauilicr, or room u! Ilatc, according to his rank. 
vVhen a perfon is difgraceit, it is done by lending for hit 
eomniillioii, or the leal of Ins ollice, .is the cafe is, and 
fonieljnus he is ordered tocoiiline himfelf to his houle till 
his Mnjtlly's pleafure is farther known. If a great man it 
apprehended for any crime, they take all his family and 
near lelHliuiis into cullodv, and eonfii'r.iK' thrir nnods and 
efl:ite>, if found guilty ; ylhcrwire, tlic owners have them 

4 'I'he 

'er(i«, we 
cl»>, but 
r may in- 
itii moli 
itt nbliixl 
cccii I'lom 
iholc wli«» 
cy of pot- 
Ill ii fit- 
eihcr thtf 
I coiniiiun 
the eye* 

villi (luini; 
K veiycyc 
lie or Jag- 
cnt on tlie 
itioii»i (lie 
uiJ luiM- 

cuflom of 
iltuus, lliat 
rd a great 
rciful tliuk 
iy»t family, 
o live, give 
cal'orci tliat 
low iiictan- 
cricd, that 
.'ivi'it ill tlie 
IS Uuw. tyc- 

vi»i -..ri' •'■'' 

fd/i mtnarth, 
tf tbi bUiJ, 
, ticUfuJIUal 
.t i»f . *-i »".. 

jh, or Paffui, 
IurIicU title 
pcror in Eu- 
L or Cham, 
I'ubjetts, in 
to tlic I'un, 
&.C. he. 
_ the Kiiip, 
)r the Prince 
men. TUa 
Feriia are a 
hit back, 
men indif* 
, men fonie- 
as judgci in 
been prime 
id to a pcr- 
Lt the King 
:£ls quahhed 
. and lonie- 
.vc behaved 

:o be inveft- 
ut paper twoi 
mixed witli 
it gold bro- 
habit which 
iiour 1 ho 
la the Royat 
ic, he prof- 
face to the 
place in the 
to bis rank, 
iding for bit 
:al'c is, and 
lis houl'c lilt 
■great man it 
J family and 

Ir OOOGS Srtll 

Is have them 

(A S 1 A.J -r^K \ p E R 

The Afamadoolet, Orand Vhlr, or Vitir Aiem, li the 
frft niinifttr in (Im kingdum. No bufinef* of confeciuciice 
ill ill* ftai* ii tranfaAed hut by the ditrOion of thii nii- 
nilVer, nor any grant or an of ftate of the Kliig'i held to 
hr Valid till cotinter-fealed by him. I'he prime niinlfter 
in I'rilia, If it be thought tit to difcharge hint, ii nfually 
pernMtted to retire and end liii day* in peace with bin fa- 
mily i whereat, on the other hand, the (>r:«nd Viiiri in 
'i'urky leldoni die a natural death. 

The Divan Beghii or Hey it the fecond |)oft in the go- 
vernment : hir office is ul'ually compaicd to that of Lord 
Chief Juftice or Lord Chancellor i but they are fumKifed 
to centie in the fame pcrfon in Perlta. The word Beg or 
Key fignifiei Lord, and that of Divan a council or court to 
whom the adininil>ratinn of juftice is committed. 

'I'lie Cicnerals are ol the third rank : in time of war, a 
Ciene.aliflimnis appointed. 'I'he next place is nnflcfled by 
the General of the courtcliii, which are a body of thirty 
tlioufand hnrf': of Txirkilh or Tartar original. The third 
place among the Ibldiery is the General of the m'ifi|Ueteers, 
a body which fervc on hnifehack, but fight on foot, like 
our dragoons. The fourth is the Cieneral of tlie coiilars, 
or royal Oaves, ;u they arc called \ and ihc laft, the Matter 
of the ordnari'.x-. 

The Vacanavilh, or Secretary of ft.ife, occupies the next 
peft. Thii ollicer regiders the public aA«, and has the 
cite of tiic records : he alio appoints a depntv in every pr - 
tfiiice of the empire, who tranfmits nil affairs of confe- 
qtirnce to him, to be laid l>efare the miniftry. 

Th« Mirab, or lord of the water, is tlir laft great officer. 
Every province has its pailicular Miriib, who takes care to 
diftribute tlie waters of the rivers niil aqxieduAs in fuch 
proportion, that aveiy part of the country may have an 
oquul Iharc. Thcfeatethe piincipal officers of ftatc in 

'I'he officers of the houfhoUl are, the Nazir, who feems to 
be both Lord 'i'rcafurer and Steward ; and all ambaliladurs 
and l'oreii;ncr» tranfaft their affairs with this gentleman : 
but iliere is a comptroller, and feveral other officers which 
•re a check upon him, as he is on the Prime Minifter, and 
thofe two have a very great influence in the court ot' 

'i'he Ichicagafi BaflTa commands all that attend in the 
outward palace ; as the niaftrrs of the ceremonies, porters, 
ulhcri, and the guards theinfelves. When the King goes 
out, tliti Lord nurchcs before him with a gnat I'tafF covered 
witli gold and precious fiones. He always ftands ready to 
obey his Majclty's orders, and fee them executed ; but 
never iit> before the King, as feveral other officers of in- 
ferior qualit)' do. 

The next office is the Mafter of the horfe. All the 
ftuds and flablcs of the horfes in the kingdom are under 
his govcrnmrnt, and that of a great number of officers who 
aie fubonlin,ite to him. 

The great huntlniaii is the fourth officer of the King's 
houihold : lie h' .lOt let's than a tlioufand huntfmen and 
followers under him. They carry to the chafe, when the 
King hunts, lions, ounces, pantJicrs, and dogs, who are 
all bred to fnllow the game. 

The principal plivliciaii and chief aftrologer, which are 
polls ot great honour and profit, take place after the 
girat biinttman. 

1 he hi);h chamberlain is always a white eunuch, and 
has as gnat an intluence on affairs as any officer about the 
court. He ftrves the King at t.ible on his knees, tal'tcs his 
meat, dii lies and uiuIitH'cs him, has the overfigbt of the 
waidiolvj, and the government of all the eunuchs in the 

The chief ecclcfiaftical officers are, the (uand Pontiff or 
High Prieft, the Aiitient of ttie law, the Cadi, and the 
Miil'li. The Grand Pontiff is ufually ftyled the Sedre in 
Perfia: thcyallogivebiintlic title of Prince of their religious 
lighta, ?Iead of the true church, I'ubftitute of Mahomet, and 
lieutenant of the twelve Imans or Caliphis who I'uccecdcd 
their patriarch Haly. 

The lupreme judge in the ecclefiaftical courts is the Seilre, 
who takes place in all public aifcmblics next to the Ataina- 
doulet or Prime Minifter. The fecond ecclefiaftical judge 
is the Anriint of the law, whom the Perfians ftylc Clieik 
Illani : his jiirifdiftion is little inferior to the Scdre's. The 
Cadi is the third eoekiial'tical judge in Perfia: he takes cog- 
ilil'ance of the fame caufes witli the two former : but bis au- 
thority is confined to fome particular town or diftiifl. '^I'lie 
Mufti is ttie fourth officer, who has not the fame amluiri'y 
!;crc as in Turky ; for he cannot controul or reverfe the 
proceedings of iiifuriur courts. The other digiiiiarics and 




Vcclefiaf^ical officers have no nunner of jurifdiAion, and 
a|e kept pretty much in lubjcAion to the temporal |iower, 
upsMi account of thole prctenlioni they make to tlie lupreme 
authority, and other principUi tliey maintain, ndt ver/ 
conlifient with the power of tlie crown. 

TlieCluiiK, in their lelpcAive piovliicei, live in u 
much Ibite as tlieir Sovereign, having ei<a(lly the fame kind 
of officen at arc in tlie KIhg'i court, with the laaic titlett 
there being Icarce anv other difference but iii their num- 
bers and penfions. They have tlieif pofli for hfe j and, if 
they beluve well, their children after them. 

There are three officers in every province put in by the 
government, who are inde|iendent of the Cham ; namely, 
the Jmitchin his lieutenant, the Vixir or Receiver General 
of tfir Ring's revenues, who hath alfo tlie management of 
the landi belonging to the crown, and the government of 
all placet where the crown land, lie , and, thirdly, the Va- 
canavith, or Secretary, whole bulliiel's it is to take an ac- 
count of all tranfaitioiii of moment iu the province, and 
tranliiiit them to court. 

There are other officers, which are independent on the 
Cham, namely, the ( iovernois of cities and caftles, who 
are called Darojja i thel'c are put in dircAlv by the Ring, 
and luvc their heuteiiants and vacanavilh alfo independent 
of them ; and the I'aine perfon, who is Governor of the 
city, is never ma<lc Governor of the fort tliat belongs to it. 
There are alfo in every town the Cadi or Civil Judge , the 
Mayor or head officer among tlie trading |)eople, and the 
Provoft or SherifFi and every particular trade has a warden 
or mafter. There is an officer alfo not unlike our con- 
ftable, who lias a watch, and is concerned in keeping the 
peace in the nieht-tinie in every great town. 

Capital punifliments are very rare in Perfia, and the fcn- 
tonce is in moll cafes palTed by the King himfelf. The 
Governor of every town i< the chief judge in criminal and 
civil cafes too, if he pleafes to intcriiofc i and may inflift 
any pains on ofTendcrs Ihort of death. The ufual punilli. 
ment is a fine, which always goei to the King, or rather 
to theCiovernor of the province, who generally biingi the 
crown indebted to him in his accounts. 

The Viiirt and receivers of the King's revenues ufually 
obtain their places by virtue of the prcl'cnts they make to 
the eunuchs or favourites at court, and by engaging to in- 
crcafe the revenue of the province beyond what it has ever 
been before ; and they generally keep their word, at Icall 
to their patrons and friends that promoted them, and to 
the enriching themfelves. Complaints indeed are fre- 
quently carried to court againft them ; but by the artifices 
of the minifter* concerned in the booty, it is a long time 
before they get accefs to the King. When the complaint 
is from a large country, there are ufually feveral hundreds 
of theperfons aggrieved come up with it to the palacc-gatc 
througn which the King ufually goes out, and there wiili 
lamentable cries, rending their clothes, and throwing dull 
into the air, thev demand juftice. If they come to defuc 
an abatement of their rents or taxes on account of tlic 
drought or nnfeafonabi'; weather, as they frequently do, 
they carry with them withered branches of trees, or fuch 
as have their leaves devoured by locufts i whereupon the 
King fends to be info.-mcd of the occafion ; and the people 
prefenting their petition in writing, fome great ofticcr i$ 
appointed to examine their bufincfs. 

Whenever his Majetty orders a Ciovernor's head to be 
cut off, the order is difpatched bv the Prime Minifter under 
the King's feal, and tent by f'uch a perfon .as the King 
thinks fit. When the mefTenger arrives at the place, he goes 
to the lioufe of the Lieutenant, (iovcrnor, or foinc other 
great officer, and Ihews him the King's order, and that tiie 
execution is appointed to lie done in bis pret'rnce : where- 
upon he takes him with him to the houfeoftlie perfon 
profcribcd, and, producing his order, he falls upon the 
unfortunate man, and cuts him to pieces with his fabrc, 
crying out onlv when he falls upon him, •' by the King's 
command." Whenever a minifter is difgraced, though 
the government do not proceed capitally againft him, yet 
his whole cftalc is confilcatcd, and he experiences a moft 
terrible reverfe of fortune in a moment, being deprived of 
his goods, his fiavcs, and fomctimes of his wives and chil- 

Noiwithflanding places in the Pcrfian court are fo pre- 
catious, and trcqucntiv hazardous, no people in the world 
purfue preferment with a keener Hppctitc : they come to 
court morning and evening, although for the moH part 
they cannot hope to come into the King's prefence i be- 
caufe he is tiequently for feveral days fucccifively wi^thc 
l.tdicj in the haram. 




" m» 


Vi ' I 


Trtmiaj tf tht PtrJitH Ittui, «*>«< tf ju/lUt, fruttJinjii in 
trimimi »/>>, »Htt fniujhmtiil if ^titJiri, 

TMF. chief Uw-book refoittj to by llio I'crfiin* i-. rlv 
:ilt.'oian : \f tlicv i.'o mil finil the dtcifion clear tlicie, 
they li .vc rccotirl'e to the bookcalK-il, 'I'he Ciyingi ami afXt 
of i\l iliomet, aiiJ afl(rwirii> tu itie raying* aitii a^)i iti 
the I mans , atui they luvc yrt annlhrr honk called ( heiaict, 
whirh n a collection of juiuKKni* lM>th civil and crnniiial. 
bvit tlif y arc rotichcd in fiicli ohlcurc ind equivocal terim, 
th.1t the jiulgci in their i^terptetati'^n^ make them fiK'ak 
Willi language they picare. 'I here rrciiii indeed but titila 
occation to cniifult ihele Ixiokl at all) for llic King, the 
Ciovcrnori ot'inovincti. and Viiirs, firi|uciillv fit in judR- 
meiiT. and (klermiite arbiiniily without ic|;ard tu tlie alco- 
in 01 any other law booki. 

Thoa<<h the fjiiriiual and tempuiai courti differ very 
mucli ill llicir dctern»inationi, yet there never are any dil- 
putcj Ix'twcen them : (or the temporal courti, having the 
(■ovcrnmcnt on ihcir fide, aie nevci mipolied by the Ipiii- 
tual; and bclidea, each of ihcm hai, fur ihe moft part, a 
diftinfi branch of liuliner« anigncd it. I'be ecclelultical 
courti take cognifancc chieHy ol derdi and coiitraAi, niar- 
riagei and divorces, fuccelTion of eflalei, and other liiigi- 
nui matteri. The temporal courti arc emplored cither 
.-ibout criminal caul'ei, or fuch at are plain and obvioui. 
;ihout which there ii not much room fur dilpiitei and if 
llirie he any intricacy in the affair, llicy generally require 
the opinion of fomc of the learned doiluii of (heir law. 

A man ii at libcily at any time to claim hii right, even 
Ihe party'i own deed vtill not avail him wlieie he can Ihew 
any force or fraud, or that he was impofcd upon. Where 
there are no witnciTci, an oath ii tcndeicd to the perlbn 
who deniei the charge ; and he \\ fwoin upon the alcuian 
with )'re'i folemnity. Then the Judge fcndi for the alco- 
ran. uhidi bring brought him in a linen cloth, himfelf and 
all the court rile out ut refpcA to the lacicd Uiok ) then the 
Jud;;c, taking it in both hit hands, reuiciitly kilTes it, and 
ioucliri it with hit forehead ; and, having o|Kiird the booK, 
oilers it to thep^rfon who ia to Iwcar, who kifles it in the 
i,ime rrveient manner the Judge hat done, and, pulling his 
hand upon itqpcn, rwrars to fpcak the whole tiuth. VVlun 
a peiinn of a difTcrciit religion is to fwear, the oath ii 
adminiftcrcd a;;rteal)lc to the mode oblcived in their ic- 
IjicClive couiitiici. Every inagillrale heais caufcs in his 
< . ii hall, or Ionic convenient room in his garden, as there 
are no tribunals or courts erckled at the pulilic char|;c : he 
has no other aflcflbrt or aififtiints but a cieik or fccrclaiy, 
wli') IS a nun of law. 

Writings and convcy.incet ought legally to lie I'calcd and 
executed before a magiftrale, and atleflcd by liiin > and it is 
a common thing, alter the Judge has attefled a writing by 
putting his feal to it, for the parties to dcfirc all perfoiis 
who hap|>en to be about the court to add their feali ) fu 
that there arc fomclimw three or fourl'core feals tu one 
deed : but they do nut (igii ihcm as iviih ui. There are 
neither notaries, clerks, or regiftcrs in Perfia to record any 
kind of contrails except mariiage contracts, which are rc- 
gilkrcd before the Cadi, but the partiei uliially keep au- 
thentic copies andcounter-paiti by uay of caution. 

As there are no public prifons in Perfia, fo there are no 
fherilTi or gaolers who have the cuftody of prifonert ) but 
every magiflrate who has the cognifance of thefc oftenccs, 
confines the prifoner in fome part of his own houfe till he 
is brought to his trial, which is ufually in twenty-four 
hours after he ii taken, and fcntence u no fooner palTcd 
than it is executed : fo that there is veiy little occafion for 
a common gaol, and the Judges fervants perform the office 
both of gaolers and executioners. 

The proceedings in the criminal courts are much the 
fame at in the civil. l°he party aggrieved exhibits his pe- 
tition to the magiflrate, who orders a fervant to apprehend 
the ofTcnder, and bring him before him ; and when he has 
been examined, fonictimcs the fame day, or at fartheft the 
next, he is ordered to prepare for his trial. Criminals of 
ftate have the carcan or three-cornered yoke put about their 
necks, to vviiicli ilic right hand is faAencd ; and the King j 
ufiinlly fits in pcrl'on in judgment on fuch offenders, at 
Which time he is alwayi clothed in red. '1 umults and | 
diforders are Icvcrely punilhed in Perfia, which Is one rra- 
ion they very rarely happen ; and murder and houli:-brcak- 

\ttrr ^rm i'l' t r /• lt\ it ^t *■! \*^-iTA t\f 
.••f, ... .>......; .. 

It a pel Ton is fo unfortunate as to kill .inolher, and the 
faft be proved before the Judges, the ofTendcr is not pu- 

nillird bythccoail, but dclivcrrd up hi lli« rclaliont of 
the drceafcd, to put him to ileaih in lucli iiiinner at Ihcy 
Ut lit. On fuch an occafiun %% this, all tli rclaliont and 
ffiriidt of the dcctaled allenible, and with loud ciitt dr 
inand (list, according to aiwiciii cuftoni, they may hiv< 
the liluod of him who ha' muidricd ihcir kinlnian \ winch 
the inagiilrate Uldum (aili tu pioiliile them: but Inme- 
liniet the murderer, by pitfcnlt tu the Judge, and iilfrii of 
laigelunit lu ihe rclaliont of lliedccralcd, procurria pardon. 
I) the relaiioni will be latiificd with noiinng left ilian hit 
blood, the Judge fays to ihcni, " I deliver lo you tin 
muidcrer according to law, make yuurlelvci falitfaOinn 
with hii blood fur lh« blood lliat ha hath I'pili i but rr- 
niembcr that Ciod i< nieicilul." 'Ihe Judge's fervanit 
hereupon arc ordered to obfcrvc the dircClioni of the piu- 
fccuturt, and guard him to (he place they delire i and they 
follow ihe criniiiial with a thouland cuilei, beating and 
abufing him all the way he <;oei. When he it come to ihe 
place appointed, lie a dchveted op lo the rclttioni, who 
Ibmeliniet intliCt the mull cruel tuiiuret thay can invent on 
the niilisrablc wretch : and even iliu women, it it faid, nho 
Icarccly ever appear abioad on any other occafion, wiH 
come and imbrue their hatidi in the ofTcndcr'i blood. 

Oidinaiy ciinies are ufually punifhed by tines, where ih« 
panics are men ol fubftancc ( but where they are nui, they 
give them a certain numl>er of blows with a cudgel on th« 
folcs of their feel, not under thirty, and iitil exceedin|r 
ihice hundred, Their feet are fwollcn with the blows ana 
turn black, and foinctimes the hails of their iocs come ofTi 
Pickpockets HiiiJ little pilfeiing roguci are maiked with 
allot iron in the forehead, and houlir-breakeni hive their 
right- hand cut »C The fame punilhmerit it infliOcd oit 
thole who cnui icrfeil or debale the coin, for the tiill cf« 
fence ; but for 'lie lecond, their lielliti arc lipped open. 
I'hit is the ufual punifliiilciit l.ji capital olTencci : and Uiey 
execute it alter this niannrr ; The cnminal't fret art tied 
to a camel, and his head hanging down to the giound, his 
belly is ripped open, lo that all his bowels come out, and 
lung over hit head : he it dragged in this manner through 
the priiii ijial flieeti of the tuwn, an officer marching bclor* 
him, and with a loud voice iiifumiing the people of the 
nature of his Clime. He is aftcrwaiJs hanged up by tht 
heels upon fome tree, and itii lonctinics leveral llouri be- 
fore he expiics. 

They have other kinds of punifhments for capital crimes, 
as impaling, letting them up to the chin in the earth, cut- 
ting oil' the hands and feet, and leaving the criminal in this 
condition till he dies. They lomctinics precipitate the ma- 
Icfjftni liom a high tower, by which he is darned lo pieces : 
this puiiilhmcnt is commonly inlliiilcd on w<meii'wlia 
have committed capital crimes. 'I hey lomctimes ulc tor- 
tuies to procure a conteflion, at by pinching off the flelli 
with leU-hot pincers: but the mcll ordinary way of ex- 
aiiiiiiiiig uffcndcrs, is, while they are beating ilie Iblei of 
iluir feet, called (he baftinado. 

1 here is no pan of the woild where people travel with 
gicalcr lecurity than in Perfia. Itut if a periun happens to 
be rubbed, the taMjis, or guards of the road, arc imme- 
di.itily difperled all over the country, give notice of it from 
our guaid to another, and the country is laifed upon them 
ill an intlant : and as there are very few woods to conceal 
themrclves in, and large deli:rts to crofs before the robber 
cni dlfpofe of his Uioty, it it ten to one but he is appre- 
hended. When complaint it made to any Governor of a 
robbery, he fends lor the rabdars, nearcA to the place 
whrre the robbery was committed, and requires them to 
mal;e fati$fa6lion, on pain of forfeiting the fccuritiet tbejr 
have given for their pl.iccs ; for they all give bond lo make 
fatisfailion for luch lubberics as are committed in their 
limits ; but if they are not able lo do it, he orders them to 
be baflinadoed, and the money to be levied on the neigh- 
bouring villages ) and fometimes as much more as thtre is 
occafioii for, which goes into his own or his officers 
pockets. Ucfidcs this, the party robbed is obliged to make 
the Governor a handrome prcfent, on the reluming him 
his money or efferts. If a robbery be committed in a 
city, the watch are obliged to make fatisfa^ion, or pro- 
duce the thief. 


Giving an account of the haram, or tht aparlmtnt tf tht uii- 
men lichnging to tti King of I'tijia, in tht Rt\iil fatoft tf 
//fiahiin, their trtatment IK gtmral, tht guard). Lie. 

rx^IIKRF. are fcveial diftinft buildings in the royal 

J, barain, which havs no communication with each 

otliei. 'I'hc following are the r.iiiks of women who rcftde 

llicie : 

y. ' 

iMoM of 
ff «• ilify 
litioni iit^ 
id crict dr 
i imv li'*** 
lan I wliicli 
liut Iniiie- 
lid iilfri* <tl° 
na i>.ifdoi|. 
I'l lliaii lilt 
to ynii III* 
illi but ft- 
e't ftrvaiiM 
of tlie pto- 
ci tnU tlicy • 
belting and 
come (0 the 
a!ioni. who 
in invent ot» 
II I'aiO, >\li« 
ECifion, will 
I blood. 
cj, wlieic til* 
110 liui, they 
udgtl on th« 
»t excerdmK 
lie blowi *ii^ 
!oes come offt 
maiked with 
:ra have their 
I infliOcd on 
r the Hift cf- 
lipped open. 
cct : and they 
'« Icet »rt tied 
le (;iound, hia 
ome out, and 
anncr through 
nrching befor« 
people of the 
;cd up by iht 
xt«l Uouri bc- 

I capital critne«, 
he earth, cut- 
minal in thii 
tatc the lut- 
ed to piecet : 
me» iiCc tor- 
otf the flelh 
y way of ex- 
tUc Ibiei of 

pic travel with 
Ion happens to 
I, arc imme- 
icc of it from 
fed upon ihcin 
ids to concetl 
ire the robber 
he is appre- 
overnor of • 
to the place 
uirei them to 
fccuritie* they 
bend to make 
itted in their 
irdert them to 
on the neigh- 
ore as there is 
his oificers 
iliged to make 
eturning him 
immitlcd in > 
ftion, or pro- 

■unl r.f tin Wt- 
Rc\iit patati ef 
\,h, (Jfi: 

in the royal 
lion with each 
|eii who rtfKle 
Oiere } 

[ASIA.] P F R 

Iherti namrly, I. Tli« J»r!iice(l»s who are barn in th« 
placr, whom ihry call Hti^uin, as ihty do iha pmiceirt* 
of (he blood Koyal in the Mojiil'i court, t. Tliott by 
whom ihe King has any children, or who are hit miftr«llii ( 
Ihrfc hare the lilie of Caiium, whKli ii •quivaltnt to that 
•f Cham or Chan among the iiKn. Th* third and lowcft 
rank, whom th* King has never taken to his embracea, 
and many of whom ha hardly knows, have the tide of 
Katun, or ttdios only. All il •• reft have the common ap- 
prllalion »( tiavet, and lie rmploycd in fervile offices. 

When I King di«i, thofc lidiis he his convcrffd with 
M wnrta ire Ihut up In a quirter ■.)y themlclvti, from 
whence they lie not permitted to Hi- out as long as llwy 
live, except the mother ol the fuccceding Princ*, who has 
pneriiiy i mighty iiiHuence on afr4ir*. ind ilmolt fitve- 
r«ign authority, «v>thin the limits of this palace. 

A great variety ot hcauiien ire confined in the King of 
Perfia s haram i for iIk Chans and (iovernoii are conti- 
nually fending up i frclli fupply of young virgins from ill 
parti of the empire. 1 1 lliey have intelligence of a womin 
of Angular beauty in any family, they immediately demand 
her : and il is 'aid, their parents are not very tverfc from 
pirting with their daughters, but rather proud Ihev hive 
»n opportunity of ohlif<ing their Piince ; el'pecially rmce it 
may be a meint of raifing the whole family i for when 
ever ■ young lady eiiiein tne fcriglio, t pcnfmn ii fettled on 
her neareO relation. U (tie become a confident or miftrefi 
to his Majcfty, it is increifed i ind if he hive children by 
her, fite Icldom fails to procure the idvinerment of ill her 
relations. There ire the daughters of the Ciovtrnori of 
provinces, and tS^e grcateft lords of the court, in the hiram \ 
Dut there are ininy more Georgians ind CircarTian virgiiw 
of meaner birili, who generafiy captiviie the young mo- 
narch's heart, as they are faid to excel all the leA in beiutr. 

I'he unnatural and cruel priAices in the haram are Uid 
to be very Ihockiii!;. While the King ii without childien, 
tveiy one of hii niitUcfli:s ii fond of hiving them, as tlicy 
■re in hopes their ilFac will fucceed to tlie crown, on <■ hich 
their h>ppiner> very much depends ; but when they iiiu. the 
King hasfeveral chilJicn already, they do all ihcy ca,> to pre- 
vent their being with child, or to procure abortion when it 
bippensi for, except thetirfl hippy womin thit has achild, 
the reft, after they have my, ire contined to an apartment, 
where they live in perpetual apprehenfiont of hiving their 
children murdered ot deprived of fight it lead, upon b«r- 
biroui maxims of flatc, which feldum fails to be executed 
fooner or later, either in the rrign of the prclcnt King or 
tliat of his fucceflbr. Mence the ladies of the hirim prin- 
cipally aim It lieing married to fome greil man i which 
they tomctiines accomplith by iiifmuatlng ihemfelves into 
the good graces of the King's mothei, the mother of his 
cldcftfon, or the King himtelf. The women of the haram 
are alfo fometiinet married to clear the palace and IcITcn llie 
cxpence, when ilicy grow too numerous : but they feldom 
fend thrm out of the haram who have been with child by 
llie King; which is one leafoii that they are not very foiitl 
of his favours. 

The guards of the haram confift of three bodies -, name- 
]v, I. 1 he white eunuchs, who guard the outward gati- 
tliefc never come within fight of U»e women, left it flioiild 
excite tome amorous inclinations in them. 2. The black 
eunuchs ; thefo come properly from the coaft of Malabar 
in India : tlieir ftation is in the fecond court i ar;* the 
cidcft and muft deformed of thefe arc picked out to uttend 
the ladies, and urty meflages backwards and friiwards: 
Ihe reft are employed either in the gardens, litrhens, or 
otlicr places remote fi- m the women's apartments. The 
third and inncrmoft ^uard. it is fiid, is compofed of wo- 
men who arc commended l>y fome antiquated matron that 
leceives orders from the Piince himfelf, .md, by the eunuchs 
which attend, conveys his Majefly's commands to the 
guards without. The women of the haram are ^11 lodged 
111 fepaijte chambers, or two in i chamber at moft, and 
then they put an old woman and a young one together. 
'I'hofe laJici who delight the King moft with their ring- 
ing, their dancing, or their wit, are fure to become the 
envy of the reft. 

The King is never formally married to any of his mif- 
trefles, but takes which of the ladies in the haram he lees 
fit to his lied, without any manner of ceremony. The 
niillrcirLS he is intimate with ate but a fmall number : the 
others indeed fing, and dance, and play before him, and 
contribute to his picafures in another manner ; but from 
Ihe diftr.ifltons he meets with from a variety of conforts, 
lie generally fixes upon fome one wim may properly enough 
be ftyled the cjuecn of liic haram. 

The ladies in the haram pals their litei in idlcnefs and 
No. 3. 

S I 




luiury, lolling ilnofl lh« «liole day on carpets, wiih their 
little liavea rulilnn| and dialing them, which is ih* moft 
common arnuU Mriii m the eaft. They lometimes tak* 
opiate, o( Imoke their country tobacco, which is fo mild, 
that il may he taken from morning till night without dif< 
lurbing their heads. Their food 11 diefled by their flavee, 
who alio make and walh their clothes. Th* ladies never 
vilil out of the palace, but they are vifited by their rela- 
tiuiis. Othir ladies of the greateft quality in Perfia fcim 
ever go abroad but upon foiiw extraordinary occafions, a* 
to a wedding, a lying-in, or upon fotu* feftlvil : but their 
vdiis MtuilJy lift fcven or eight houii I'hey take with 
tbcm tbrir nmale flaves and eunuchs, and the hulband 
ufually lienda a goveriiaiile and lunucbs of hit own to ob- 
liive their cundu^ till their return. 

The King's ladies liildom fct out from the haram but ill 
the night : a lioop of horti ufually marches a hundivd 
patri before them, and aiiotlui troop in the rear, CTyin| 
out, Courouc, courouc, by which every man underftandt 
he is to retire to a proper dillance : the eunuchs whh tbeir 
batloont alio on hoileback utatch between the guard* and 
Ihe women 1 and il any man it found in the way, orwith* 
in the limits prohibited, Im ccttaiiily lofcs his life. If th«f 
march llirough a city, the men of III* ftrect they march 
through, and thole adj>.iiiing, arc all obliged to leave their 
boulci and fly to fome uiber part of the town, it thofe of 
IIm villages ill the count. y are for a league together on tht 
right and Ittt of the road through which ihcy are to march| . 
and a detachment jf dragooiu is ufually ftnt hall a day be* . 
for* to drive ihein away. They fiic their muflcets at littlA 
intervals as they naicb, to givi notice of ibeir approacht 
and all meit tlia; heat it liy as fift »i iioftibly they can | 
and it is laid. ' cic have be frequent iiidanccs of peopla 
being killed by the cunuciii ^ ho have not been fo »ile, or 
rather fo foitunale, as to p-r u at of the way in lime : for if 
a man ftiould be faft afi ,,, or dangeroufl^ ill, he is liable 
to be killed. We are to ', that in the eign of Abbas II. 
one of the fc . 'm, whole employment was to fet up the 
tents, bein$' >v with the march, al.i he had put the 
lent in Old'- laid \m(d( down to deep, the King and hit 
women bcii.,; then at a confiderable diftance : but the 
fellow happening to overileep himfelf, and being found 
there by the eunuchs, they wrapped him up in the carpet 
ht lay on, and buried him alive. 

I he re are a vaft number of eunuchs difperfed through 
llic whole kingdom of Peifia, efjKcially in ihe King's pa^ 
laces, and thofe of tlie quality, wheie they have almoft . 
every thing < .' value intrufled to their care, and in a man« 
ner conduA the afTairs of their mafters. The women 
never ftir abroad without them, cither on a vtfit, or evea 
to the bath : but they are not permitted to interrupt their 
privacy in their chambers. Tlif eunuchs alfo teach the 
children of the family to read aud wiite, and it\ftru£l them 
in the principles ol their religion, till it it thought fit to 
put them into the hands of the learned) and even then the 
eunmlis have the care of the young gentlemen, not fuffer- 
ing them to be at any time out of their fight ; and the 
'ling's children, who never ftir out of the haiam till they 
. aim to the throne, have no other mafters. Some few n 
ihele eunuchi are verfed in the liberal and mechanic ant t 
am* it is happy where the Prince who fucceeds fills into 
the bands of one of them, for othcrwife he coroca as a 
mere novice to the throne. 

In Perfia, aneunudi between eight and fixteen years of - 
if,e is fold for a hundred pounds at leaft i and fometimei 
for two hundred, according to their capacities : they chuft 
to buy them young, becauTe of breeding them up to their 
hands, and they feldom change their maflert while they 
live. The King dors not entertain left than three or four 
tboufand eunuchs of one fort or other : men of the firft 
rank have ufually half a dozen i and thofe of inferior qua- 
lity, two or three in their houfes. They are generally very 
diligent in their refpcAive employments, and faithful to 
their mafters. Their whole dehre and ftudjr feems to be, 
to procure the efteem and confidence of their lord, which 
their prudent management feldom fails to obtain. But 
with all thefe good iiualiiiet, it is faid, they are found to 
be revengeful, deccitlul, and unmerciful, and that it il 
very rare to find a man of true courage among them, 


0/ iht ptwtr and natural fimglh »f tbi UngJtm §f Ptrfit ; 
ill ftluatiiH luilhrtfpeH It tht tircumjectnt ttuiUriti, aitd 
tht Pirjuim •xsxntr sf •nj«{inj iirrr aumin. 

PERSIA is not a defpicable kingdom, if we confider in 
vaft extent, tituation, or the condition of iti neigh. 
I bQon 


Thk new and universal SYSTEM of GEOGRAPHY. 


? ■ 


-boiiri. At to its (iiaiitiflni h it defelnled «r every fide 
>mt|)er by reas, deferti, or lofty moantdni,' which render 
,lbe approach to it extremely diflicDiti and with refpeft to 
jhcir neighbours, they have none except the Tnrk, tbat 
they need iiave any apprchenfion of. The Tartan on the 
north are divided into abundance of little difiinft princi- 
.palitiet.orhords, and only make incurfioni in fmall bo- 
din, but will feldocn (land a pitched battle. The Indians 
are a conteinptible enemy, whom the Perfians have alwajrs 
beaten ; and the Turks have been fo taken op with their 
wars with the Chriftiant, that they have not been at leifure 
lo turn their arms agaiiift Perfia for many years. _ The 
wart between Feriia and Turky ended with the taking of 
Babylon, or B;igdat, by the Turks : Perfia hat enjoyed a 
profound peace on tbat fide ever fince. This town was 
conftantly the bone of contention between thefe two mighty 
powers ; but the Perfians Hndrng great difficulties both in 
taking and keeping tkis place, were at length contented to 
give it up. 
■ The Perlian forces confift of the troops of the Rate, and 
the King's troops. Thofe of the ftate are entertained by 
the Governors of the refpe£tive provinces, and paid out of 
certain lands appropriated for that purpoli;, and are di- 
vided into militia and regular troops. The regular troops 
are called courtchis : they were originally of Turcomania, 
or Tartary { a ftout haray race of people who lived in 
tents. Thefe are 'he foidiert which are properly called 
^oofelbafhet, or red heads, fo Ailed whv-n they came to 
the alTiftancc of Chick Sefi, the firft Prince of the late 
Royal family ; ht which fervice he Allowed them the ho- 
nour of wearing red caps or turbans of a particular form, 
like that he worehimrelf. They held the firil ;'ank in the 
kingdom till the reign of Abbas the Great, who endea- 
voured to diminifh and fupprefs them, on account of the 
unreafonable influence he obferved they had in all affairs of 
fiate, depofing and fetting up what Princes Ihey thought 
fit, like the Tuikiih janiUries. 

The niufqueteers, or troops of the crown, confiit of 
twelve thoufand men : though they march on horfcback, 
they fight on foot. Thefe ufed to be oppofe J to tite 
Turkifli jaiufaries, and were of great fervice in engage- 
inents. The other body confifts of ten thoufand borK .- 
thefe were called coulars, and, like the mufqueteers, car- 
yied fiie-arms, inftead of bows and arrows. They are 
tall andwcll-madei and the King has a particular confi- 
dence in their courage' and fidelity. They were called 
coulars, or flaves, to f^nify their particular attachment to 
their Sovereign; thetermflave in Perfia, as well as in In- 
dia, being an honourable title, and prefisrable to that of 
fubjeA i nay, we are told by a French author, that Cou- 
iam Shah, or King's ftave, is equal to that of Marquis in 
France, bccaufe all that have that denomination are fare to 
be preferred to fome pofl, if they behave weH. 

There are two other fmall bodies, the one intient, called 
.fophies or fephies, inftituted for a guard to the King's per- 
ioD by Chiek SelL They are not above two hundred 
men, and wear the Sophi's cap on their heads, and for 
their arms have a fabre, a poniard, and an ax, which they 
icarry ou their fhoulders. i be'fecond body are called the 
siezairi, ot the fix hundred, who are all of the fize uf gre- 
nadiers, and flout young fellows. The King finds all the 
troops with horfcs, arms, an-) accoutrements, but every 
man provides himfelf with clothes according to his fancy : 
the foldiery have no particular livery, any more than the 
Servants of the King s houfehold, or rf any great man. 

Confidering the extent of the kingdom, the Perfian ar- 
mies were never large ; Abb?^ the Great had never more 
than one hundred and twenty thoufand men in his fer- 
vice at once i but the fotdiers have fince that time been fb 
ill paid, that many of them have entered into foreign fer- 
vice, or applied themfelves to other employments ; fo tbat 
at this time it is fuppofed that all the troops in tbat vaft 
kingdom do not amount to upwards of forty thoufand 

The difcipline of the Perfian troops is very unlike that 
of the Europeans, who excel them as mudi in tlie art of 
war at the Macedonians did the Perfians. Not being en- 
ciimbered with artillery or baggage, they make prodigious 
fwift marches, and frequently fall upon tl>e enemy in bis 
campor quarters with incredible fury, when he leafl fuT- 
peAs fuch a vifit. At other times they will cut off his 
piovilioiis, and turn their waters from their ufual courfc; 
and having fufiiciently harrafled them in a long march 
through a defert country, will fall upon him when he is 
fatigued and difpirited. When an enemy makes head 
,againu ihsm, ihcy will f.y ti!! they have drawn him into | 
vine difadvantageout ground, and thcu ictura to the | 

charge again. They never throw up any intrenchmenn 
about tlieir camps, which are commonly defended by foina 
mountain, or difficult pafs; but tliey intrench in ficges, 
and ufually take a place by undermining it, at which they 
are amazingly fkilful. As they do not trouble tbemrdvea 
with artillery, fo neither have they any waggons or fultlers, 
their camp being fupplied by the country-people with pro- 
vifions, which chieny confift of rice and fruit. 

The conftant method of the Perfians is, when they ars 
apprehenfive of an invafion, to caufe all the people to 
withdraw from the frontiers, and deftroy the country in 
fuch a manner, that the enemy fhall find nothing to /ub« 
iiA on, not leaving fo much at a blade of graft or a tree 
upon the ground. 

The Perfian colours are made of rich filkt for a device, 
they have fome pafiage of the alcoran, or part of their con- 
fefmn of faith; and fometiines a lion. With the fun rifing 
over his back, wrought in them. The great flandard- 
bearer, whom they ca!l Alemdar BafTa, is one of their 
principal military officers. The pay of the foldiers does 
iMt pafs through the officers bands ; but every man re- 
ceives it of the farmers of fuch lands as are appropriated 
to that purpofe : the officers pay is very good, the General 
of the mufquetecrs, and the General of the coulars, hava 
each of them upwards of three thoufand pounds a year. 
The Perfians are excellent roarkfmen, as well with their 
fire-arms as with their bows and arrows. 

They ufually, in time of peace, keep a body of fix or 
fcven thoufand men in Chaldea towards Babylon, to pre- 
vent the incurfions of the roving Arabs. The Governor 
of Armenia has about five thoufand men under his com- 
mand, and the Governor of Georgia a like number. In 
Chorafan, the aiuient BaAria, they have ufually eight 
thoufand men, to bridle the Ufb.-ck Tartars ; v><l another 
fuch body in the province of Candahor towards India ; 
and theic troops, being the out-guards of the empire, 
and almoft in conftant aftion, are efteemed pretty good ; 
buttbercft who are cantoned in the inland country, they 
have enjoyed fo long a peace, thu they have uot the air of 

Though tlie Perfians have a fea-coaft of three hundred 
leagues toiiic fuuthward, and theCalpian fea on the north, 
they have notwithftanding no naval forces, or any fliips or 
veflfels whatever.r They formerly built fome velltjs on tho 
Cafpian fca, to protefk them againft the CoIIkks ; but they 
have none there or any where elfe at prelciu. The Mul- 
covites generally tranfport the Perfian merchandize ia 
their own vcflels to Aftracan, and have the navigation of 
this fea pretty much to themfelves, which has facilitated 
their conquefts on that fide; and it may be difficult for the 
Perfians to remove them, if they fortify the coaft, and can 
be conftantly fupplied and fupported by fea from Mufcovy. 

SECT. xiir. >V 

Cf thi rtvtnua of tht crnun tf Pirfia ; tht iltffirmt tinurit 
ef landt ; alfc tftht landi biltHging it tht Kins, '^* church, 
privaii perjijii , and unoccupied lands, (ic. 

WE fhall, in the firft place, confider the feveral te- 
nures, by which the lands are held, and what 
kind of property the fubje£t hath in his efiate. The lands 
in occupation are of four kinds ; viz. Firft, The linds of 
flate. Second, The king's demefne lands. Third!' Thd 
lands of the church. And laftly, Thofe belonging to pri- ' 
vate men. The lands of the ilate are much the greatefl 
part of thofe which are cultivated, and are in pof- 
feflionof the Governors of the provinces, who take their 
own falaries out of them, and affignthe reW fpjr the payj 
ment of the officers aud troops they maintain. The de- 
mefne lands are the King's particular eflate, for the pay- 
ment of tlic officers of hi^ houfehold, tlie-Troopa he main- 
tains, and other purpolcs. The church lands are the dona- 
tion of tlteir princes, or private men, and are accounted fa- 
cred, being never taxed or confifcatcd. The lands of pri- 
vate men arc holdcii of the crown for the term of ninety- 
nine years, paying an inconfiderablc annual rent; at the 
expiration of the term, it may be renewed for the fame 
number of years, on advancing oru: year's income. 'I'ht: 
unoccupied lands are let by the King's officers to perfuns 
whochufe to build on them, ui convert them into gardens 
or plotved fields, on the fame tci ins as thofe laft mentioned. 
ThcKing's officers exafta third | art ofilic annual produce 
of the lands let to hulbandmen ; but ilie rent is fometimcs 
lefTened, according to the particular agreements of the par- 
tics, or an abatement niade'whcn any f;reat dcftruftion is 





leCtS ; ana, u any uiip'uu 

ife, uj5on ati anpeal to cour^. 



Kled by loitw 
:b in lieges, 
t wbkb tbcy 
le tbemfelvcit 
It or futtlers, 
tie with pro- 

(hen they ara 

lie people to 
le country in 
thing to lub- 
afs or a trea 

for a device, 
of their con- 
the fun riling 
eat flandard- 
one of their 
foldiers does 
very man re- 
I appropriated 
, the General 
coulart, hivs 
unds a year, 
ell with their 

»dy of lix or 
lyloit, to pie- 
rbe Governor 
uler his corn- 
number. In 
ufually eiehi 
; ifld another 
wards India ; 
if the empire, 
pretty good ; 
country, they 
I uot the air of 

three hundred 
1 on the north, 
)r any (hips or 
e vclkis on ths 
acks ; but they 
. The Muf- 
lerchandize in 
navigation ol 
hM facilitated 
difficult for the 
coaft, and can 
(om Mufcovy. 

afftrtnt Unurn 
'ing, tb$ ehurcb, 

the feveral te* 

eld, and what 

ite. The Unds 

The Mnds of 

ThiiJr Th<* 
ch the greateft 
id are in pof- 
\vha take their 
ft f9r the p»y^; 
ain. The dc- 
!, for the pay- 
rroops he main- 
ds are the dona- 
te accounted fa- 
hc lands of pri- 
crm of ninety- 
al rent ; at the 
for the fame 
i income. The 
cers to ptrfoua 
cm into garden* 
: laft mentioned, 
annual produce 
:nt is fometinics 
Knts of the par- 
at dcftruftion n 
en, or other in- 
anncil to courf. 


[A S I A] PER 

'Order* ate given to make fuch allowance ai the nature of 
the. ^e require*., Tba King ha* like wife athird part of 
the hufbandman'* cattle, and a ftill greater ihare of the 
fruit. Hehai allb.the feventh lleece, and the feventh of 
the breed of the cattle in tbofe lands which ate not ap- 
propriated to hi* ufe, which it a great addition to hi* re- 
venue ; for the fhepherds of Perlia, like the antient patri- 
arcHt, pofleft vaft flocks and herds, on which they conti- 
nually attend. The people of the call: call thcfe wealthy Ihep- 
heid* faranet chin, from whence we have the word faracen, 
meaning, an inhabitant of the fields. The King has an 
officer called Ichomban Balhi, or chief of the Ihepherds, 
refiding in every province, who take* tlie feventh of the 
cattle for the Kiit^'t ufe, viz. of Iheep, afles, mule*, camel* 
and goat* : the Kmg is alio intitled to every third coltj and 
to a third part of the lilk and cotton. 

The King of Perlia ha* the fole property of minerals and 
precious ftones, and two per cent, of all the money. The 
money raifed by the waters is another confiderable part of 
the revenue. A tribute of a ducat per head, is alio paid 
to the crown by all people who are not of the religion of 
the country, whether native* or foreigner* : and a tax of 
ten-pence i* impofed on every Ihop of the working trades, 
and twenty-pence on the other*. 

A* the Perlian* have no confiderable port' except Gom- 
bron, confequently their cuftoms and port-duties do not 
amount to much. The merchandizes carried into or r>t;: 
of Perfia, by land, pay only a fmall Turn for a camel'* load, 
and proportionably for every miile or ox. 

Tne cafual part of the revenue exceed* all the reft i it 
eonfift* in what arifci from the confifcated eftate*, and the 
prefent* which ate made by the great Lords, Governor* of 
province*, ice. and particularly thofe which are made on 
new-year'*-day. They prefent the' King with wrought 
filk«, horfes, afle*, beautiful boys and girli, gold, filver, 
precioui ftonet, perfume*, and every thing rich and 
curious, and which may ferve for ufe, ornament, or plea- 

Several handicraft trades, fuch a* carpenter*, mafont, and 
fome others, pay no dutie* to the crown ; but thcfe are 
obliged to work for the King when he requires it, without 
any pay : whatever building* or palaces the king erefts or 
repairs, he ha* only the materials to find. The main- 
tenance of anibafladors, and the providing them with car- 
riages, iadone alfo at the charge of the country they paf* 
through, and cofts the King nothing. 

When the King has a mind to reward a perfon for any 
fignal piece of fervice, thi* is alfo done at the expence of 
another : he fend* him perhaps to one of the Chans, or 
greac courtier*, with thecalaat or Royal veft ; for which the 
Chan ufually makes the meflcnger a prefent of ten times 
the value, or more, according to the pod he is in. The 
King fometimes exptefle* the very fum he expcds ftiould 
be paid; which 's moft commonly exceeded, at the perfon 
Talues the Prince's favour. 

The levenue of Perfia, one year with another, amounts 
to upwards of four millions fierling of our money; which 
confidering that their troops are meft of them paid out of 
the lands of the ftate, which are not reckoned into this ac- 
count, is very confiderable ; but at the fplendor and mag- 
nificence of the Perfian court is much beyond any thing 
«vc have feen in Europe, polfibly very little of it may re- 
main in the treafury at the year's end. 

We Ihall here take notice of the feal* under which a£ls 
of ftate are pafled in Perfia : they have five feals which are 
ufed in five feveral branches of bufinef* : one i* ufed in alt 
fuch affair* a* concern the demefne lands. A fccond for 
commifiions, letters patents. He. The third only in mi' 
Jitary affaiis. The fourth about the revenue. And the 
fifth in thing* relating to the houfchold. There arc no 
arms engraven upon them ; jut on one of them there are 
the name* of the twelve Imans or Patriarchs, on the other* 
a fcrap of the alcoran, or fome piout expreflion, ihewing 
their depend:".cc un God and his prophet Mahomet. I'he 
form of^ one of the feal* is round, two other* are fquare, 
and the other two of an irregular form. The largeft are 
of the fize of a crown piece, and the other* about 
half that bignefs. They are made of turquoifes, rubies, 
emeralds, or Ibme other precious Hones. The principal 
feal the King always wears about his neck. 





0/ tbt riligitn »/ tbt Pirfiani, 

AHOMETANISM is the Perfian religion, as ex- 
plained and interpreted by Haly, tlic nephew and 

fon-irt-Iaw of Mahomet, and one of h!i fuecel&r*^ 
the empire, and, according to the interpretations of ths 
eleven Imans, the fuccelFort and defcendant* of Haly in a 
right line. 

The Perfian* and Turk* differ a* much about the inter- 
pretation of the alcoran, at they do about the fucceflbri oi 
Mahomet ; the Peifiani hold that the comment* made by 
Haly and his fucceffbr* the Iman*. ou);hr only to be re- 
garded i while the Turks adhere to thofe of Abobeker, 
Omar and Ofman, and thcfe in many point* are direCily 
oppofite to the other. The Perfian feft, or the follower* 
of Haly, are called Chia i and the Turk*, who rely on 
Abubeker, Sunni. Neither of thcfe fcAj will believe that 
thofe of the other can be faved, but hate one another to a 
greater degree than they do Chrilliant or Pagan*, and 
feldoni fpeak of one anotlier tiut with imprecation* and 
curfeSt ,•■ 

The Mahometanf'call their religion Iflam, wbicb fign!' 
fie* fubmiffionto the commands of God j but the ordinaiy 
appellation which they pive themfelves i* that of Mulfel- 
moon, which we pronounce Muflelman, and fignifies the 
being of the number of ihe faithful. In the beginning of 
Mahometifm, ihe difciples of that religion weie more cruel 
and fanguinary than they are at this day. aflbrding no 
quarter to thofe who did not make a profeffion of their 
faith in thcfe words, namely, *< There i* no other God 
but God, and Mahomet is hi* prophet." 

They have two artidas of faith, and five of praflice. 
_i. That there i* no other God but God. 2. That Ma- 
'liomet was fent from God. 3. That they ought to ob- 
ferve their corporal purifications. 4. That iliey pray to 
God at the appointed times. 5. That tliey give alms to 
the poor. 6. That they fall .ill the month of Ramezan. 
7. That they go fn pilgrimage to the temple of Mecca, if 
tliey can. To which the Perfians add another article of 
faith, viz. 8. That Haly it the vicar of God. On thcfs 
eight heads, therefore, I Ihall colleA what the Perfians hold 
moft material. 

The Perfians hold, that good works are neither the caufe 
nor the mean* offalvation; but that our good works are 
only a fign we are intended for happinefs. and a mark of 
God's favour toward* the petformertof them i and, on the 
contrary, that wicked afls are a Itgn of eternal reprobation. 
They alfo maintain, that all fouls were created long before 
the world was made; and many of their dodors believe 
the metempfydiofis, or tranfmigration of fouls \ erpec'ially 
in relation to the fouls of the prophett, faints, and good 
men. The generality of them ate of opinion that the 
creation was begun upon the fiift day of the week, as the 
Chrifiian* do, and that then God cieated the earth in the 
form we fee it, with mountains and valley*. . That the 
fccond day he created the trees, plants, flowers and her- 
bage. On the third minerals, light and darknefs. On 
Wednefday the rivers, cattle, filh and fowl. On Thnrf- 
day the heavens, with the fun, moon, ftars and angels. 
And that on Friday he created man, male and female. 

They believe that both good and evil angels were made 
of the fubftance of light or fire : that they are compofed o£ 
foul and body, and that their xrial bodies may be fo con- 
denfed as to become vifible. I'hat the firft time the evil 
angels difobeyed God, the good angels fought with them, 
and brought them captive* to heaven, where God pardoned 
them : but God afterwards creating man, and command- 
ing all the angels to worlhip him, the evil angels, through 
pride, rebelled again ; whereupon God curfed them, and 
precipitated them from heaven into that place which their 
defpair and fury ba* made a hell of. 

A* to what we call original fin, they will not allow it 
to be a fin in our firft parents. They maintain thu that 
aA was only a deviating from perfection, or leaving the 
better for that which was not io good .- and they found 
their opinion upon tliat fuppofilion, that the prophet) were 
impeccable and free from fin; being fanAified from their 
mother's wombs, and they efi^em Adam a prophet of the 
bigheft rank. 

As to the day of judgment, they believe that there is a 
private judgment paifed on every grown perfon foon after 
death. That in the mean time the fouls of the faithful are 
filled with joy and comfort, while the wicked, on tlie con- 
trary, fuffer the cruelcft pangs of remoife. They fay, the 
foul wanders from place to place till the body is interred ; 
and that after it has undergone the firft examination in the 
tepulchre, it enters into a fine xrial body prepared for it, 
where it continue* till the general rel'uricfiioi), when it will 
be reunited to it* former body ; tor the foul, fay they, can 
never. a£l but by the mediation of roiiic botly : and they 
will by no iiieant have it remain in a Hale of inreulibilitv 





'jHH the l»ft day. Bgt ibi P«i Qtnt, it kaus, arc iMl all flf 
;jM>e inin4, eitbsr a* to the pU«a w-ltcre departed (emit flnii 
' rcnain, .or their kappinef* vr -nifcry during thii interrd : 
but they bavt a middle ftate for thofe who have done neither 
good nor hurt, m infMtii and tboit i tbefe, they fay, roffcr 
neitbtf plcafure nor pain, an they have deferved neitker 
Ihe ,9iw nor the other. 

They alfo believe, that in the rerurrtAion the Tonl Ihall 
be i«iiaited to the very Taine body it (Mrttd with : but 
liiey fay our bodiei ihali not be changed in any material 
ftoint, they will neither bs tranfpatent nor«rial{ they will 
not, indera, be crooked or dekmned, or fubjeft to old 
age or infirmitiei, ortro>abled witbexcfeaaenu, Sec. bm, 
% tNy, if you deprive the body of all iti Tenfea and 
appetite*, and every thing that is imteria', with what pro- 
priety can you call it the fame body ) Alter the faift jud^ 
aient, they hold, that alt men muft pafa over a oertan 
bridge .nil wider than aravpr'icdge; thatAmbklicvert and 
Ihe wicked will infattiWy fall in their paflage into hell, «r 
the bottonlers pit, at we call it, where they will be ever- 
faflingly tormented : but the faithful (hall be fo gnidcd and 
Aipporlied, that they (hall pafs through th« bridge' fwiftcr 
than a bird filet tbroogh the air, and enter into heaven. 
Some believe that none can be faved but thoTc who believe 
in Mahomet t othcri, that good men of every religion may 
be favcd i and a tbi^d fort allow faKation to all thofe who 
have been difciplet of tftic prophet*, tk. .he Jew* andChrifr 
tians tliey acknowledge were: ethers believe that 6n\y 
atbeifls will be damned : and tbcy fay, that God wiM call 
to hi* alSftance in judgment, Mahomet, Haly, and the 
Imans, his lawful fucctflbr* ( and all other true prophet*, 
who will every one intercede for their rcfpeaive di^ 

, The Petiians difier among tbenfeNe* with refpcA to the 
fieatific vilion : the general opinion is, that God will not 
be vifible, even to the happy, who will only behold a 
bright raviihing light, fuch a one a* the imagitiatioii an- 
not at prefent conceive ; but all their doftort hold, that 
there will be degrees of rewards and puniflunents, according 
•t men have deferved ; and as the akoran make* feven 
heaven* for tlie blcfled, according to the virtue they have 
attained to, fo fome of tlKir donors make feven hell* for 
the wicked. Many of their doctors alfo take the promifet 
and threatening* m the alcoran, relating to another life, in 
a fpititual and allegorical fenfe j and that tlu bappinef* of 
heaven conlifts in being employed about fuch oGjeAs u 
we proper for the foul, as in tke knowledge of idcnce*, and 
in the lublime operation* of the underftanding ( and after 
the body, it (hall be furnilhed with pleafare* I'uitable to its 
nature, and receive as much- fatitfaftion u it i? capable of, 
btit not bjr meat and drinks, and itnfible enjoyment*, a* 
in tbi* world. That hell alfo confifts in a cruel regret and 
defpair for the lofs of paradife ; and that the body will be 
aiBidrd with the moft violent pains. If you demand of 
Attn whether they do not think that the beatific vilion will 
be a thoufand times more ravifhing and delightful than all 
the pleafures of fenfe : theyanfwer, there can be no fuch 
^rifion, becaufe there muft be fome proportion be t ween the 
power aiid the objcA ; and tha? there is no proportion be- 
tween a finite created b'iiig and an infinite, and oonl^- 
qnently man can never fee God. If you aflc then how they 
can foppofe that in Paradife, where it is agreed on all hand* 
that immortality reigns, we ihould be taken op with cor- 
poreal tilings, which endure but for a rime, and pcrifh 
in the enjoyment : they bol te!l us, dsat thofe tfainjp are 
not made to fupply any necciuties of nature, but for plea- 
fure ; and that all thofe pleafures we enjby in diis life, w« 
fhall enjoy in a much higher degree in heaven ; for thi* 
world, they bold, is but a type of heaven, and aU that we 
fee came from thence, although it be extremely degetterited 
from the original. 

If it be objeAed to them, that if we eat and drink in 
h^ven we fhall be fubjeft to fome neceflities whiieh follow 
eating and drinking : they anfwer, that thofe delicious 
meats ihall evaporate in a perfiimed fweat by the pore* : and 
tliough it be generally faid that the Mahometan women are 
excluded heaven, this ii only to be uitderflood of the wo- 
men of this world, who wilt not be in the fame lieaven with 
thv men, but in anotlier place will enjoy equal pleafures : 
that tliere will be alfo other ccteflial women created for the 
faithful, far excelling any they have fecn below. As to 
the duration of the world after tlie laft day, die greateft 
part of tlie Perfian doftors hold that it will not be difTolv- 
cd, but changed and purified ; and IhoU ^tcrwards be the 
habitation ofl>leired fouls to ail etamity. 

As to the prophet Maltomet they Mtch, that God fent 
him into th« world tmlearned and ignorant in every I 

4 ' 

fgf ncr, to be hia AmbaflUor to anpcoyla, M wdl Afeab* 
^^rbariaiu : and that thi* Ambaflldor taa* abfofat*d all 
ooier religions, except in foch poini* ak hare been efl*' 
bliihed and nuified by him afrefh. That diis unlearned 
prophet wa* divinely conilititted Lord of all mankind, and 
that God ha* MMRie the belief and profeffi«n of all thofe 
things which the propliet taught and comoaanded jieccf- 
bry to falvatioiu - 

The Perfian* pictend that their pnpfaA HrH bred up in 
fuch ignorance that he did not know a letter; and this they 
nuke a great evidence of the divininr of iiis million. I'hey 
(i^r alfo, that he was poor and friendlef* -, and appear won- 
derfully furprized when they hear a* by, that tlieir legif- 
■alor eftaHifhed his leligion by the fword. And a* our 
Saviour is faid not to have preached till he was two and 
thirty years of age, they fay, their prophet did not bcgia 
to preach' againft the worfhip of idols till he was forty years 
old. 1 hev teU us that God havii^ intended from all eter^ 
nity to fend their prophet Mahomet into the world, he gaw 
notice of it by all tlie prophets which preceded him : but 
that the Clffifliitns on one hand have applied to Jcfua 
Chrift, and the Jews to tlicir Meflias, thofe thing* which 
were foretold of hioi, and which couU not agtce with any 
INK Mafaoiaet : and thai they had f uppw ftd and attend 
fieveral other paflages which treat oThint: and ttiif the 
Mahometan* in geneialfinDlybclievCt Attodteoonuaolk 
people, th^ admire that any on« cab dmy Mahomet to 
De a pttn^iet i bat much more that be Ihotdd be thong^ 
an impoSlor. Wc, Uj diey to the Chriftians, acknow- 
led^ your ptopbtt and bononr hiia, and avow bis ailEon, 
why wen will you not acknowledge ours i and petfuade 
tfaemfelves, that this can only proceed from pare nttlioa : 
which i* thottcht to be the occafion they fo much deteft 
and abhor dtofe of tour reUgton. 

The third article of the Perfian caeed it, < that Haly k 
tiie Vicar or Lieatenant of Godt' and indeed they exak 
hiaa fbaoetiiiKi i^ve Maboiaet himfel^ and luaka hioi 
almoft equal with God. 

The Perfian* iKver fpeak widi that deteflatitoa f^aaf 
thing as they do of Abubeker, Omar, and Ofinan, wllk» 
were the rival* of Mahomet in power, and whom the 
Turks believe to have been the true fuccelTors of their pro- 
phet, but die Perfian* hold them to be no bener tlian ufur- 
pers ; however, the Turks do not equally abhor Haly, but 
acknowledga i^ to be the true fucceflbr of the prMhat 
after'the three former, and frequently call them the four 
friends and companions. 

The fuperftition of the bigotted part of the Perfian*, rO- 
fpcAing thrir u>:^totions, is fo extravagant, thatifthef 
were all equa'i', ,i^* £led witli it, itwonldbe impoflible for 
people oi anoi.'^v -.eligion to live amongfl them ) for thejr 
look upon tliemfelves to be defiled by tlie touch of a per- 
fon of another religion, or by any tiling that fuch a oite 
has touched, and by coafequence they will ufte no food 
drefled by one of another perfuafion, or even drink out af 
the cup that he ha* ufed. Notwithftanding the drinking 
wine IS fo exprefly forbidden by their law, and their com- 
mentators are fo very fevere agaiuft the praftice of it, feva- 
ral of them, and particulaily the men of the fword, wiil 
drink pretty freely of it ; and when they are afked by « 
Chriftian how they do to difpcni'e with thi'; precept ; may 
anfwer, in the fame manner as yo\i difpen. witli drunken- 
nefs and wenching, which is no lefs forbidden Chriftiaiu. 

The bigotted Peiiians lay a much greater ftrefs upon tiv 
^remoniu pait of dieir law tlian the moral ; dieir walli 
ing* and purifications muft be obferved, whatever is left 
undone ; having that maxim of dieir prophets frequendy 
in their mouths, " tint religion is founded in purity, that 
one half of religion confiAs in keeping one's feif^undefiled." 
They fcarce perform any aft of devotion witliout wafh- 
isig ; their prayers are vain and criminal which are offered 
up with unwafhed hands ; and it is the higheft profimatian 
to touch die alcoran in fuch a ftate of uiickannefs ; which 
is the teafon that there is frequently written on tlie covet 
of the alcoran and other books of devotion, thefe words, 
viz. " Touch not this book with impure hands." Their 
corporeal purifications are called teliaret, which fignifies oU 
marmer of purifications on account of religion, whether 
done with water or eartli ; for when they cannot meet 
witlL water,, as in the dclerts foroetimes, then dicy are al- 
lowed to fcour theml);lves with earth : and as they are 
obliged to pray five tQnes a day, fo they are obliged to 
clean themtelvcs as often, uiilcfs they are fure diey have 
notjpoliuted thcmfclvcs between one prayer and aiiathcr. 

Thofe things which, in the opinion of the Perfian doc- 
tors, render a man unclean, are fummed up togedicr a* 
follows : viz. Tlic urine of any animal, the bloiid of anjr 



• 1 

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[A S I A.] 














animal but inreAt. except What re jiaim in the flelh after 
it h drelled for food ; the feinen coitua of any animal ; a 
tlcw ancl a hog are reckoned intpntc creatures, and all infi- 
dels ; tliough many of the Perfwnt except Jews and Chrif- 
tiaiit, and do not look upon their touch ai impure, be- 
caufe thkv allow their religions to be of divine inftitution : 
me;td and beer are alfo reckoned impure, as being intoxicat- 
ing liquors ; but opium, becaufe it is not liquii^ is cfteem-. 
ed pure, though it intoxicates no lefs than wine. And 
laftly, the touch of anv dead animal, as well as a dead 
corps, defdes a man : out wufliing, it feems, will purify 
things inaniuutc that have been polluted, as if a iof have 
drunk out of a veilel, or licked a diOi, If It be (coured 
firll with fand, and walhed afterwards twice with water, it 
becomes dean again > but fome of their doAors have fuch 
an averfion to a hog, that they fay, ' the vedcl he drinka 
out of ought to be walhed feven tinket : if blood or urin* 
happen to be fpilled on any clothes or furniture, they muft 
be well walhed and fcoured, at lead tlie places foilM, be- 
fore they can be ufed : the eating out of gold and. filver 
plate) is laid to defile the meat, but if the meat be taken 
out of a gold plate and put into a china dilh it is not un- 
cleant And notwithftanding gold and (ilver utenfils are 
prohibited, the King and court and other grandees of the 
kingdom ufe them frequently, which their doAors tell us 
they atone for by their alms : but great men in moil Coun- 
tries feem to a& as if they were fuperior 'botli to the reli- 
gion and laws of the kingdom where they live. 

The officers in Periia declare the times of prayer from 
a terrace, and not from the tops of high towers or fleeples, 
as other Mahometans do^ On common days there is not 
moretliaii one Or two of thefe criers employed, but upon 
fellivals there are lomctimes ten or a dozen of them, pat'- 
ticularly on Fridays^ their fabbathi and in Lent ; aad it 
is not to be conceived how their voices are heard, for they 
rend their throats with all their might. When the people 
hear thefe crien Call to prayers, every one rlfes up and goes 
to his prayers, not to the nlofque or temple, for thoy are 
not called tliidier, but in their houfes, or wherever they 
think fit : however, tlidre are cii'ht things faid to be reqnW 
fitc towards prating acceptably, namely, applicatiot) of the 
mind or attention, the affcflion of the heart, faith, mo- 
defty, reverence, hope ; and two outward qualifications, 
viz. purity of botly, and of every thing one touches, or 
is furrounded by, imd proper geftures, as turning their 
taces towards Mecca, the motion of their hands, theprof- 
trating their l>odies to the eartli, 8cc. They divide their 
prayers into nro kinds, i. Thole which they are indifpen- 
fibly obliged toofierup, and, 2. Thofe which a'rtadvife- 
able or expedient, in ordei to arrive at a greater degree of 
perfeAion, which are termed by fonie prayers of fupercro- 
gation : however, thefe are not dilFercnt forms, but only 
a repetition of the otlier. Every man is obliged to pray 
five times a day. /eckoning fironk twelve at noon to twelve 
die next day ; for the Mahometans begin their day at noon, 
as Our mariners do. The firft hour of prayer is exaflly 
when the fun is in the meridian. The fecoiid h in the 
evening, viz. from the tirte the fun is forty-five degrees 
above die horizon, till half the di(k appears. The third, 
when it is fo dark l r. cannot diftinguifh colours. The 
iburUi prayer is to ' /. made on lying down to fleep, for 
which no fixed time is limited. And the fifih in the 
morning, which, may be performed at any time between 
the difappearing of the flats ami noon. 

Though the Perfians are not at tt;?? time ignorant of 
the nature of eclipfes, yet they ilil' ■<■ Mn and ufe certain 
prayers at fuch times, as if they ftill thought they portend- 
ed fotne dreadful calamity, or at leaft that it is a mark of 
God's difpleafurc, to be deprived of the light of the fun or 
moon. They pray every man for himfelf, either in the 
temple or a private houfe, as they pleafe; maintaining, 
&M no perfon ought to read the alcoran or prayers in the 
temple to ttie congregation, but an I man (a patriarch or 
prophet), or one lineally defcended from him. They 
look upon it in general as an-afl of piety to commemorate 
their deccafeJ firiendsat certain times, and fome of them 
a."e of opinion that God will increafe the happineft, or 
leflen the mifery of departed fouls, at the importunity of 
their furviving friends, but they are not all agreed as to 
tliis matter. They do not pray to their faints, or ev«n 
to Haly or Mahomet, as mediators to intercede for them ; 
but believe they may receive fome advantage fromthe 
prayers of holy men on earth, and that their own 4KBf- 
lions may be luppofed by others. 

The Perfians lay out their alms chiefly in public build- 
ings, as upon caravanferas, or hoafes of cnterainment for 
uitvetien m gtcu towns, and on the road, where they are 

No. 4. 

S I A. 

lodged gratis ; in making bridges, caa|e«^,dSi 
receptacles of water, mofqu^, coltcg^, *nd ' 
they have nohofpiuls for the fick, as in Ei 
The dervifes and fiiquirs in Mahometaiv 
a kind of bMging friars, who axtort the ^ .^ _ 
from them abnoft by force, looking upon th«awhres » 
be much holier, and in many refpeAi fupttkr to thofe 
they demand ah alms of; they travel in lucll' large com- 
panies, that it is hardly fiife for people m villages to deny 
whatever they alk, and they may be faid rather to levy t- 
tribute, than to live upon charity^ Thf^ aloM which an 
afcertained by tlicir religion are a kind of ^'Jua of corn, 
cattle, money, merchandife, &c. thou|^ t&cy do sot a- 
mcUnt to near a tenth, and are only taker; of the neat' 
profits after all the rent and chaiges.dednfied t and theftr 
are not given to the prieft, but applied to pio"' "nd cha- 
ritable ufei, like theothsr, from wbenoe ^icy have re- 
ceived the fame denomination of, alma: the clergy liv* 
upon the glebe or revenues with which their chnrcbes are 
endowed, and what they get by the aducMion of children; 
but they colleA tht tythes and have tite difttibution of 

The tytlics are ipplied to the maintenance of the Ma- 
hometan faquirs, or begging friars, to the redeemihg flavea 
hardly ufed by their matters : for the relief of infolvent 
debtors 1 and for the relief of ftrangers who happen to be 
in difttefs in their country. The reH are employed in pub- 
lic buildings, in erefling temples, caravanteras, colleges, 
&c. There is alfo the quantity of feven or eight pounds 
of rice, or other grain, or fruits, annually paid tor every 
head, the day after their great fail or Kamezan, which it 
applied to tlie fame ufcs the tythes are ^lied : their faints 
and devotees. Who fet up for an extraordinary piety, pay 
fevcral other fums to the ufe of the poor, bcfides thole 
exprefly commanded by law, and of (poils that are taken 
in war a fifth or double tythe is paici for the above pur^ 

The PeHian teltgioti does not exprefly eomhiand any 
other fafl than that for the month of Ramezani unlefs upon 
fome extraordinary occafion, as by way of penance, or to 
avert any calamity, or the like : but the diicijples of this 
religion, are adviled to perform many other tafls) which 
their zeilots do not fail to comply with : this word Ra- 
mezan is the name of the ninth month of the year, and 
their Lent is fo called, becaufe the faft is obferved firom th»_ 
beginning va the end of it : wheti tliis moon firft aj 
which is ufually in the evening immediately) after ( 
it Is proclaimed by the holy criers in gimt numbers, 
the terraces of their raofques, who publifh'itas a 
furpriiing piece of news, and fing certain hymn<: 
otodloni the people anfwer in joyfiil crieS) and illumii _ 
the ftrects, and from the terraces of the bagnios the horrts 
found to give notice that tire ba lis are ready : for they be- 
gin their fafts, as all other a£)s of devotion, with Walhing 
and purifying themfelves, which is ordinarily done at the 
bath : the end of the fafts is folemiiized in much the fame 
ma;\r' , as tht beginning ; the criers give notice of the 
fuci ' ' ;ig mt>on ^oni the mofques, tlie people teftify their 
joy i.; their acclamations, the found of mufical inftni- 
ments, and the like. 

The difciples of the Perfian religion arc required to make 
a pilgrimage once in their life-time to Mecca : this is tlie 
town In Arabia where their fiilfe prophet Mahomet was 
born : the principle end of the pilgrimage to Mecca is to 
vifit the kabba or chapel of the patriarch Abraham, and 
perform certain afis of devotion, in the courts that fur- 
round it, and not on act'" ' f Mecca being the birth- 
place of Mahomet, mucl • scaufe his tom'i is there, 
for that is at Medina, above . hundred miles- 'the iiortli 
of Mecca. The principal tilings the pilgrim:, perform, 
when they come to the town, are the •■^■. -ving ; namely, 
The going in proceflion fiven timi md Abraham'* 
chapel', the kifhng a black ftone the, m which more 
hereafter t the fpending a certain portion offime at mount 
Arafat ; the facrificing a fheep upon mount Mcnah in re- 
membrance of Abraham's going to facrifice his fon i the 
drinking of the water of the well Zeinzen ; the taking 
feven tunts between the little hills of Safa and Merva ; ana 
the throwing ftones over their heads in the valley of Me- 
nah, all which, it is faid, they do in imitation of the pa- 
triarch Abraham, and which God has enjoined them as 
an indifpenfible duty, particularly that of the facrifice. 

The wi; '"iC pilgrims go at prefcnt is by BofTora or 
Bozra, feated OMMtt bottom ot the Perfian gulph : they 
were forced t» j|^^B> thoufand infults in this paflage ; 
the Arabian priaHPBirougli whofe territories tliey paifed, 
extortiiu money from them almoft every dayi onone pre- 








»eno." 'it other, »r » ^hey tud the left mercy on them on 
account cf their b^.'g heretici : whereupon the court of 
Pecfi4 for fonSe time *' irbad the pilgrims to 20 hy land to 
A4ecct!, bnlering ihcm to fail round Ari!i'a mto the Red- 
f^i, :ii the pilgiii.vs of India: t iiereu < 'i the Arabian 
tirini-cj finding their revenues much lei]' >ed, lent Am* 
Dilliidors f I Hi "crfian court to afliire that all abufei 
(buuld b<* -ru!:t d. and the pilgrims m);i,ht have a free 
pada^e ; ]:''>.■ -A ■'Y^.r. exorbitant exaflions. 

Ifany _ r. ii •;> in Perfia who has not ^on« in pilgrim- 
•ge to Mec iti perfon or by proxy, the Cadi or 
Civil Magiit.,'ii> .cjzc-. on fo tiiuch of liis fortun'; as the 
durges of the pil;;rlmage would have amounted to, for tlie 

SDod ofhis foul, and ;,ms he employs ir, fniding one to- 
lecca for liim ; but thi:> is to be undei Hood of men of 
fubftance, for the inferior fort of people i tc not obliged to 
go in pilgrimage. 

The cai»v,ir< of pilgrims fets r .. t from 6>'i:Ta on a certain 
day, in onirv to be at Mecca at i .e time tlr; law requires, 
and is com'oyej thither by the Arabs, who Vecps them in 
she defcrts f-.rty or fitly da\s, though the 1 'urney migfn 
fifily be pert'.i''n';d in twenty ; they are guidi d by the Uars 
ill their pafTa^i;, and for that reafon, as weU ;:, 0:1 accourit 
fA the tieats, thsy travel in the night time, ami .1 . the air 
is dry and pure, flic ftars afford them light encigii ■ there 
;i ? !" inns or caravanfcras in this defcrt, bur :hc i>ilgrinrt 
1<-- ir tents, as they do alfo till they have j.-cvfovmca tlicir 
Hcvotijns at the kabbaj '},, the day time they" pitch 'htir 
te'"M luar foma v»«U by the Arabs ;.inip, vherc thc^ lave 
ftii ii.> «ila»y provirioiH Hrovght tlun by the natives. 

The i>iJj^i.')n^, (v-vinfj j,al?:d the il'fett, pitch their tents 
81 a little (iii'ir.f.' '. '!;5t Ul^tcx, anj .n the day ajjpoii.ted 
/or prrfoi.i',ii!j ^l,; ,..; u),)v«-;nei>t!'jncd, which is always 
,011 thi! tirll liy of tl oHinrh ? "' -h, ihcy -tui r (Fall their 
flothes, and perform V.;k jjuf- .riorvj rrfju'-i.] in a great 
bafi~ 0; rec,:|;tacie r.f wa'cr *<ut w!i i h they wear no other 
cUithia^ bur. I iinmrlcrlh \h n' th^inTiiinl'.cs, and another 
, about th;r l'i'L.ii',ders, ir.vim. rmg thert'iy, that they are 
d^ad tou>».oi'J, haviiijs no rtgard c/ their ornaniLAts, 
■ !• reliih id j-'.)' t!n.';.g b.i! heavenly tilings. 

rhe;r nriiicij^ial religiou;- feftivals are, that in commc- 

. moration of '^ibranaai's faoificing his fon, and that of the 
martyrooro o) tn; two Irams, Hollein andl^adcin. This 
l.irter fefii'v:! is celebrated in memory of their patriarch 
HoflTein, wi.(;, having loft a battle, retreated with his 
roken troops itito a defert near Babylon, called Kerbele, 
||here, havmg n-.en purfued fourteen days, he fell at 
l%gtli into thi. iiands of his enemies, and died fighting 
"lantly, having firlt received feveral woundc. Jtcon- 
Kinue. the firtl ten days of the montli Msharara, during 
■i-hich time there are no trumpets, or m jfica] ii^iir'^imenrs, 
;Vnmded at the iifual hours ; and thofe who obferve it 

■ .-Iriflly, neitiier fliave their head or face, or go to the bag- 
ni) 'i"hey will never begin a journey, or undertake any 
thii)g of coiifcq.'.cncc at this time ; many of them rend 
tlicir, clothes, paint their fkirts black, and appear with 
fgrr-}wfu' Jcjeued looks, as in a time of public mourn- 

. ing : you will fee from morninj til! night, in all tlie ftreets, 
p.irtie« of the mob, fome almoit naked, otliers fluined with 
mood, and others in armour from head to foot, with naked 
Iwordi in their hands ; fome ap^>ear faint, and ready to 
pitrifh, 'vith th<4r tongues hanging out of thei.- mouths, 
ptd all the figns of defpair and anguilh, cryint with all 
their might as they pafs by, Hoffei;! I Haflcin! (HaiTein 

. v-HS the elder brother of Hoffcin, who loft his life in tlie 

. fiuijC war). What they endeavour chiefly to exprefs is, 
the heat and thirfl witli which the legend reates HclTein 
was afllifted with in the defert, to fucfi a degree, it is faid, 
that be became black, and bis tongue bung (ut of his 

, mouth. During this feflival, the Peiiians arc ;xtjemely 
..charitable : they look upon it as a crime to refufe a poor 

... uian an alms at tliis time. Before the houfes of the great 
men iilfo Hand great vcflels of ice and water, that none 
m;y fuRer thirft, as llieir great ."^ ' ~ HofTein did -, and the 
King every day entertains at |( ur thoufand people, 

who attend the proceflioiis. T .re abundance of ma< 

chines .ind pageants carried .^ '.><> .caft, diiefly to move 

. the cqmpailion of the people, and excite tlieir rage againft 
their enemies the Turks. 

i Wc Ih.-".". here take notice of fome religions which are 
toie rated ) . Perlia. And firft, of the Gaurs, or anticnt 
Ptrlians, generally fliled Igiiicoix, or worfluppers vf fire, 
being diltinguilhe'd thereby from ^Lother people. They 
are difperfed throughout Perfi aj^jjjgi* have colonies in 

. tlie.fuburbi of feveral great townKHtil particularly near 
Ifpaliiui there is a village inhabited only by Gaurs. Many 

! ot tliclc people, who refulcd to fubmit to tlie Mahoinptar> 



o 'nd, 


irliiion, fled irwo Tndia, and are fettled about Surat. It 
is obferved of the Gaurs, that they are neither of fo good 
» complexion or make as the Mahometan Perfians, which 
is thought to proceed either from their not intermixing 
With the Cieorcians, tee. as the others do, or from their 
applying thcmfelves principallv to hufbandry, and labori- 
ous employments, in -which tney are more expofed to the 
weather. The men wear their hair and beards long, a 
fhort clofc veft, and a cap not much nnlike our hat>< ; tliey 
are all of them either hiilbandinen or mechanics, never ap- 
plying themfelves either to the liberal arts or merchandize, 
arid their language and chsmfler'; v.r in.ierftood by none 
but themfelves. They i'-.;<rd igrlculti.iic not only as it 
iifcful and innocent V.jf-*T;fu, L 11 boiNnrabi.. 1 d cvcu 
meritorious : they h;'.l thut fi'Js was thi- iint bnTiiv-fs men 
were employed m, and f.>. vihicb tho gods (lie •i'i'lves 
have the grcitefl regtiti : rtu -ni^fls te* i> thefl. fa 
to the bcfretting of i."iiluf«n, t^le manurima; <l r 
ar.d plai' '. ig trees, iie thj rjoft <uori.. ^ 
ments tlv -^ can be 1. ..tK.eriied in: ir. i thn, fn n,- 
rtifTi obfei", ', is the reafr f» that Perfia was lb :iJu>;U more 
friiitfiil undf. *he dpmli.i' n of die anticnt Perfians than 
h 1 ; at prefinr ; tV-v entoungid nothing more tlian agri- 
• ■ ve and hulbandry, planting and gat^enin^, and tlieir 
':c;;i.m taught them that riirfe things were mfiptr: 'ins ; 
wiii)K the Mahometan liCf lnok no f;i't;icr un thi pre- 
I'enr >;enet.>, D, ant' do not fo much aa ami at improvc- 

HU.V. , 

'(lieGa- ■», whoares. reronjiit c-f rnenr PrfiaiTs', are 
an innocent hau.'.'.eft people, and . ^ '.cd to Ire under 
their own i:'.vs aim magi-fti;;f.'s iiy ui'-, prcfent 
government ; their 'cligioii u'! )ws th-^ni to diiiik win?, 
and cat all manner of flcf h, except beef ; nor arc they fcrn- 
pulous about the drefling it, as the Maliomctans and Pa- 
gans are, who woi:ld thii>k thcinlclvcs polluted, if one of 
another religion or feft was to cook their meal, they do 
not c?re, howevci, to mingle with another people, and 
efpeciilly the Mahometans, but match alw.iy.s in tticir own 
tribe; ncithir a plurality of wives, or divorces, are fufl'cr- 
ed by their religion, qnlefs the firft wife has remained 
barren nine year: , nid then they arc allowed to take a fe- 
cond : thefe people ate as ignorant as other ruftics ufually 
are, and can give huf a very poor account even of their 
own religion or hrftory. Tmiir principal temple is on a 
mountain near the ci'y of Yezd, and there the High-prteft 
of their religion refidra with great numbers of his "clergy, 
who live in a kind of convent, or feminary. The priell* 
are employed there in much the fame fervice the veftal vir- 
gins were at Rome, namely, in keeping in the facred fire, 
that it may never be exfinguilhed ; and according to their 
traditions, this fire was firft lighted about four thoufand 
years ago on this mountain, by their great prophet Zo- 
roafler, and they live in hopes of his return, and of feeing 
their religion and artient government triumphant again in 
Perlia: they diSei fiom other Pagans, in their averfion to 
certain animals, for they look upon it as tlieir duty to de- 
ftroy all noxious vermin, and el'pecially fuch as fpoil the 
fruits of the earth. 

We fhall now take fome notice of the religion of tlic 
Armenians, who form a confiderable body in the Pcrfiait 
empire, rfpecially if we include all thofc other Chriftians 
who liave joined them on the account of ;hc ;aige privi- 
leges granted them by the Perfian govcniment. I'lie Ar- 
menians wire originally of the (ii«ek communion ; but 
tliey arc faid to differ of late in Cevei al particulars both fro.a 
t!ie Latin and Greek church*$ ; they have two patriardi* 
of their own, who have under them many archbifhops 
and bifhops, but the archbifhop of New Julpla and his 

fuTragans, it is faid, 
the Perfian governu 
an influence on th? 
as theChrlflian pr 
this part of the ... 
been inc' ' '.•■ab!' 
meniaii ciii .' 
and in fo 
but for til .,^ 
more fct ajai.i 
Romilh mi.«;i>r v .. ;. 
Their cl;i ;;■ <(>•'! 
(hops, priefts, an^ ■ 
Mttiy U hardl\f ' 
tw pati iarch, it ^ 
goveriit.2ent by bi 

not fubjcft toeiiticr ui them, and 

1:-ough Mahometan, has as great 

J of their patriarchs and bifliops, 

..: ve in the elcflion of bifliops in 

The Popilh niiirioiiarics have 

..cir eiulcavnurs to procure the Aj'- 

eknowkdge the I'ojic for tlieir head^ 

j<irs, it is faid, they have picvailcd 

ity, the Armenians of Julpha art i 

. Maliometans, than they are agaiuft the 

of patriarchs, archbifliopa, bi-- 

s of the order of St. Dafil. Si • 

.0011 as any ciime .-uuoni; them : 

v'Jtains his coiifumalion iVom the 

ur prelcnts. TIk monks arc the 
only part of their clcr?,y that arc prohibited marriage : bu} a 
cicrgvman is not fufi ;rcd to fay hiafs for tlie firlt fevcn days 

afh»rlli.;niarriaiif anil WLlicriCVCl l\e i*; fufTcred to ' " 



-^fji^ •:•*:- 


union ; but 
orli fVoiii 
plia and his 
thcni, and 
has as };rcat 
id liifliops, 
bifliops in 
urics have 
uic the Aj- 
their head^ 
pha art i->t 
agaiud th« 

ifliops, 111" 
DaTii. Si- 
loiij; them ; 
)a fiKin t)ie 
nks ar« the 
liige : buf a 
fevcil davs 
■ it, 

[A s I A.I p n n. 

it, he i> (hat up in the charchior fivs <i«yt befim, and 
five days after, and fufTered to eit nothirtg but rice and 
herbn, nor is he perniittc'd to go home to hit wife and fa' 
iTiily. Tliey receive their orders from the hands of the 
bilhops, an(( mav be ordained at eighteen vears of age. 
liotli clergy and laity arc obligc<l to keep lo many fafln, 
that one half of the year is fpent in fafting, when they ab- 
Itain from all manner of flelh and fifh ; tnd fo auftere are 
the lives of fome of their bifhops, that it is faid theyfcaree 
tat tlelh or filh more than four days in the year. At ihe 
communion, they give the l)read clipped in the wine to all 
tlio congregation ; when the priell, with the bread and 
chalice in his hand, fays three times, the people repeating 
it after him, " I confefs, I believe that tnis is the body 
and blood of the Son of God, who takes away the fins of 
the world ; and who is not only our falvation, but the fal- 
vation of all the world." 

Before their four great fcftivals, of Chriftmu, the An- 
nunciation of the BlefTed Virgin, Afcenfion-day, and the 
feaft of St. (leorge, they faft eight days without tafting 
hdi, ficlh, eggs, butter or oil ; and their devotion it fo 
great for their national St. George, that fome of them, it 
IS faid, will faft three' or four days fuctfefflvcly before that 
feftival, without eating any thing. They fail alfo every 
Wedncfday and Friday in the year, except between Eafter 
and Afcenfion-day. 

When a child is baptized, the prieft plunges it three 
times naked in a veflcl of water, pronouncing nearly the 
lame words on the occaiion as are ufed here ; he alfo 
sinoints the infant with their holy oil, firft on the head, 
then on the mouth, the ftomach, neck, hands, and feet. 
I'his anointing is held as neceflary as the baptifm of wa- 
ter, or rather IS baptifm itfelf; for on the anointing the 
feveral parts, and making a (Ign of the crofs, they repeat 
the words, " I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and ot the Holy Ghoft." This oil is made of 
feveral fweet flowers and aronurical drugs, by one of their 
patriarchs, and as no baptifm can be duly peirormed with- 
out it, they fell the oil at an exceflive rate to fuch priefts 
and bifhops as are fuhordinate to them, wlio alfo make a 
large profit of it on thefe occafions. 

They ufually give the child the name of the faint that 
flood in the calender next before the chriilning, or that 
which immediately follows ; and if tlie ceremony happens 
to be. performed at Chriflmas, or on the fcftival of bapti- 
fing the crofs, the infant is dipped three times in the river 
Zenherhood, or forte ^eat water. The Aqtienian char£h 
keep to the old ftyle in folemnizing their fisflivals as the 
Proteftants do; they rejeft the doflrines of purgatory, but 
believe however that the tbuls of the juft remain in a (late 
where they ihall krjow neither joy nor forrow till the re- 
Airrcftion, but what proceeds from a rcfleflion oh their 
paft lives ; and hold that tiie prayers of good men may 
DC of fome advantage to thein. As fpr the wicked, they 
believe tliat they are fent immediately to hell. Extreme 
un£lion is adminiftered by them either juft before or after 

'Ihe Armcixians believe but one nature in Chrift : they 
do not fay howc-er, that the human nature was fwallowed 
up in the divine, as tlie firft Entydiatis did j nor do they 
believe a confufion of natures in Chrift ; but tliat ti\e di- 
vine and human nature arc united in his facred perfon, as 
thi: foul and body are in man, and fo make but ont : but 
tiie Roman catholio glory much that they agree with thein 
in the doflrine of tranfubftantiation, and from thence in- 
fer, th;it it wn- n-cc tl.c doOrinc of the univerfal church. 

T hu Mshoinei Per'^ans alTift in great crowds at their 
^;ivn i^l'ival if <.m baptifm of thicrpfs, in memory of 
our Saviour', bar>tifm, and fomctimcs the King himfelf 
h.-is appeared at t, ' ; 'blcumity. The Armenian bifluips 
and their clergy gu iii procctfion on tbrfe occafions to 
fome ^riv.t rcfcrvatory of water, x> '\ a crofs carried be- 
fore them ; and hiving read prayers '-.itable to the occafion, 
and fung feveral anthems alter their manner, to the fuiind 
of the country mufic, the bilhop plunges the crofs into 
the water feveral times, after whicli, Ivippy is the perfon 
*lut is fprinkled by it ; their own baptifm, it is thought, 
can fcarce convey greater pri lieges to them. 

I'hc Armenians luarry their ciiildreo ufually in thfir 
ialancy to prevent tlieir b^ingcarrkd into^nelurams of 
tile great men ■, for citlter the rerfuin = are fo ^ufl that thc:y 
'-'ill not take any in^i's wife froio him, or tliev ai^ too 
'.inddle with f woiiMB.^ho h..s bee;., in ne pofftf- 
a-;other: but though the paities are frcqirntly 
; 'i at four or five years of a^e, the marriage is fel- 
; I atcd tiirtUcy aj;e eiaht OS ten. 
• I'lys after the wejdiiig, tlie portion ftipulated to 




(■.Cl I 

be given with the britkt m fcBl ^ the hufbtnd'i boufe, 
conlifting of fine clothes, gold, ftW^r, »ild jewels, accord- 
ing to the quality of the parties. They ad-1 alfo ufually 
fome firuiti and Iweet- meats, whid.h are all carried in fiita 
boxes and cabinets, attended by fuch muTic as the coun- 
try affords ; fonietimes this is deferred till the birth of the 
firft child, when a tkh cradle is provided, aiul all other 
necelTariei proper for a new-bori uifant. 

When an Armenian dies, the perfon whofe oflice it is, 
urafhet tlie body with confecratod water Uken out of tlie 
church, and puts on the corps a new white fhirt, and 
other linen. Then having fewed it up in a new linen 
bag, it is carried to the church on a bier, without a coffin 
attended by the priefts and relations, with lighted tapers 
ill their hands ; and having placed it befo.'c the altar, a 
prieft reads the fervice appointed, and then they leave the 
tiody in the church with the candles burning about it aU 
night. In the morning after mafs is faid, it i* carried to 
tlie archbifhop or biihop's gate, who fays a pny^r for the 
repofe of the deceafcd'* foul > afier which it is canicd to 
the burying-place, the bilhop and priefts finging their 
prayers till it is laid in the grave -, then the bilhop taking 
up a handful of earth, throws it on the corps, faying thrw 
times, ** From earth thou cameft, and to earth th<>u (halt 
return, remain there till the coming of ouT Lord." Then 
tliey fill up the grave, and tlie relations and friends return 
to the houfe of the deceafcd, where they find a good dinner, 
and are fplcndidly entertained for feveral days faccelTively, 
if the relations are people of fubftancft. 

TheGeorgians who adhere to the difcipUne of the Greek 
church, are very numerous, but they are not found out of 
their own country of Georgia (the ancient 'beria) which 
is the moft northerly part of the Perfian empire : as for 
thofe of them, which come to Ilpahan, they go under the 
eeneral name of Armenians, and communicate witli themt 
but of tlic Greek and Georgian churches I (hall fpeak 
more largely when I come to treat of Turky. 

There is ftill another people in Perfia, who go under the 
name of Chriftians, whole religion feems to be a compound 
of Chriftianity, Judaifm, and Mahometifm : they are call- 
ed Chriftians of St. John, and fometimes Sabean Chrif- 
tians, and inhabit near the gulph of Perfia, iq the province 
of Chufiftan, where it is computed there are not lefs than 
twenty thoufand fiimilies of them. St. John Bap'ift is 
their great faint, from whom they pretend to derive their 
original, and they have a tradition that his fiepukhre is at 
Chufter, the capital of Chufiftan, or Suliana. They do 
not acknowledge Chrift to be the Son of God, but efteem 
him to be a prophet, as the Mahometans do ; and the refk- 
fon they are called Chriftians, is fuppofed to be firom their 
great veneration for the crofs, which they reverence even 
to idolatry. The Perfians hold that circnrociTion is not 
abfolutelv neceflary to falvation 1 but however they do npt 
omit it, I'f there be an opportunity of performing it accord- 
ingto their rites. 

The Perfian mofques or temples are never confecrated ; 
but when they are built, the people are invited to perform 
their devotions there, which is all the ceremony ufed; but 
as their religion does not oblige them to pray in temples, 
the great men feldom come thither j and their molia's 
preach as frequently in the ftreets and public places of re- 
fort, as in their mofques ; the common people, however 
cliufe to perform their devotions in their temples, efpeciatly 
on Fridays, their fabbath, and upon the great teftivals 
when there is ufually a fisrinon, or a good moral difcourfe 
delivered by fome molla ; but the people are not very at- 
tentive tQ thefe preachments, for fome will be reading, 
others lleeping, and perhaps others fmoking or eating in 
fermon tiive ; every one does what he pleafes fo as he does 
not difturb the preacher : their moUa's are never confe- 
crated, but take up the office of preachers, and lay it down 
again as they fee fit : thofe who dofign for the prieflhood, 
begin with ddtbing themfelves in a plain modcft garb, a 
white turbant, and a kind of caflbc of camblet reaching 
down to their heels ; then tiiey apply themfelTes to ftudy, 
and obtain the title of talebolm, or feaichets after know- 
ledge ; they alfo live abftemioufly, and put on a grave 
pharifaical look ; afterwards they go in pilgnttiage to Mecca, 
or to the tombs of their Imans, if thev can raife money 
enough to defray the charge, and at tlieir return get them- 
felves rcgiftcrcti in the Swdre's books, in order to obtain 
pi. ferment when it falls, cither \r\ fome convent or endow- 
ed mofnuc, and they are advanced higher ufually accord- 
ingto tlieir Jii'^jence or merit. 

There are three,]pH]iK;ipal officers in every great mofque : 
!. The Monttlcvv, wlio takes casi of tiie fiimiture and 
ornaments, a. The Molb or Freaclier. 3. The Moa- 





40 Thk new and universal SYSTEM at GEOGRAPHY. 

! 'I 



Rm, who caiU the people (Q pritjrtfi. The cUrgy of Per- 
fia in general are not rich, raceiving no duei from the peo- 
ple, but depending altogether upon the endowments of 
their houfes or churches, and what they get by tlie inftnic-' 
tlon of children, either as private tnton, or maftcrt ot ftma 
public fchool. 

Befidei the molla's, there are feveral other fortt of peo- 
ple in Perfia who pafa fer ecclefiaflici, u the mir'i and the 
aeriffa, who are of the family of Mahomet by the male 
line ; and the fa«edi, wira are the defcendanti of Fatima, 
Mahomet's daughter ; the rail's ha*e the privilege of wear- 
nig a green tiirMnt, but are tKtt (o much honoured in Per- 
fia as in Turky, bccanfe they arc looked upon to be m the 
Turkilh inlereft ; the den'ife* and faquirs, which a< fiir as 
I can perceive ace but two names for the fame profeffion, 
are alfo looked upon as religious people ; but, with all 
their pretences to a fevere, abftemious life tii public, they 
are difcovered to be proteft libertines in private 

The Jews are alto difperfed throughout Perfia : tiiere 
tre reckoned to be about twerkty thoufand families of then, 
a poor miferable people, manv of them artificers, others of 
Ihem pretend to magic, ana tellirkg of fortunes. Their 
Women inliitiiate themfeWes into the good opinion of the 
ladies in the lirraglio's of the great, who it is laid give great 
Mth to their prediAioiw ; they alfo prepare love potions, 
and fuch trumpery for the (illy creatuMi, who iludy all, 
ways to gain the anedion of their tyrants. The Jews were' 
formerly the ufurers of tlte country, but fince the arrival 
of the Banians of India, they have had little to do with 
any thing oi that kind, and are forced to take up with Icfs 
beneficial employments : which brings me to fpeak of the 
Pagan Indians in Perfia, who have now engroflcd ahnod 
til the ready money cf the country. Thefe are difperftd 
all over Perfia, and it is computed, that tliere are not lefs 
than (ixteen thoufand of them in the city of Ifpalian. They 
are allowed the like liberty in the profeiTion of their reli- 
gion, as the Jews and Chriftians are. The Perfians en- 
deavour indeed to gain profelytes, by granting rewards and 
privileges to thofe who will embrace ^Iaholnetanifm ; but 
•n this country no reftraint is laid on the confcience ra- 
fpeAiiig inattert of religion. 
- • . i ) - . 


0/tii HurrlagH $/ th* Ptrfiani, (it, and tflht cmdit'un tf 
thiir cbUJrn. 

THE Perfians ate allowed feur legal wives, with whom 
they may enter into formal contraA before the civil 
magiftrate ; but they have feldom more than one ; for the 
reft of the women, who wait upon her, have in like manner 
the honour of their mailer's bed, and their iflue ate equally 
legitimate : fo that there is no fuch thing as a baflard in 
Perfia, thofe born before and* thofe after marriage having 
the fame privileges 1 nor is it any difadvantage for a fon to 
be bom of a concubine, or even of a black Have, in regard 
to his inheritance. 

Love is the leaft motive for entering into 'a contrail 
with a lawfiil wife, as (he is called, efpecially among the 
creat, nor does Ihe expe£l much of*1t, but it is the num- 
ber of flaves, tlie clothes, the equipage, and the figure tlie 
man makes in the world, which are great inducements for 
the woman, or her friends, to match into any family. 

The Arineniant marry their children in their infancy, 
when they meet with an advantageour match : tliis they 
do for a political reafon, left tlieir daughters Ihould be fent 
to tliu haram ; but tiie parties do not cohabit till they arrive 
at a fuitable age. 

The Perfian marriages ace attended with the following 
ceremonies. When both the parties liave given their con- 
fent, and the terms fettled by the mediation of fiiends, 
proof thereof is made before the Cadi or civil magiftrate, 
who caufes the fame' to be regiflered ; but as far as I can 
find, the parties tliemfelvcs do not appear in perfun before 
him, or go to tlie temple to folemnize the marriage, as 
with us : but the bridegroom the day before he takes home 
his bride, fends her a habit, ornaments and jewds fuitable- 
to her quality ; and the next day towards the evening, 
mounting on horfeback, with the rlcheft furniture lie can 
procure, and attended by his friends, the mufic and danc- 
tug girls, he goes to fetch home his witc, who meets him 
|Mrt of the way mounted alfo on a camel or horle ; but fo 
vailed, that her face cannot be feen ; flie is alfo attended by 
her friends and relations in their gayeft equipage, w'th V^cr 
Haves, clothes and baggage : 'both companies being join '. 
they marcli tu tlic luilband's houfe, with lighted turcl .;:s. 

tile drum* Md mnnpeti founding, «s4 mufic playing be • 
fore them, the mob following with joyful acclanititioiis, 
and wilhet for the happincft ufthe new married couple. 

When they arrive al tlie Iwufe, the bride is led to liet 
apartment, where the hulband follows foon after, and this 
is the firft view Im has of her face 1 tlie company fuend tlie 
remainder of the evening, and fometiines fevcral days fuci 
ceflively in fiftfting aivd rejoicing at the bridcgrooir.'i lioufet 
but the men and women are in feparatc apartments , th» 
mufic, dancing girls aitd mob are alfo generally well en- 
tertained, if it lutppcn to be the wedding of a man of 

Thefe ate the only wives the Perfians have, according to 
the notion we have of a wife : but they have alfo a kind of 
wives or concubines, whom they agree with cither for life 
or for a certain time, to fcrve them in the capacity of 
bed-fellows. Thefe contrails alfo, it is faid, are regifter- 
ed before a ungiflcale ; and where a man parts with ono 
of thetc, ihe muft remain fingle forty days before ihe con- 
trails with imtlier, to fee if Uie be with child ; for in this 
cafe, the firft man muft keep her till ilie is brought to bed* 
and her children afterwards. The laft kind ofwives are 
a man's Haves, whom he takes to his bed, and difpofes of 
as he pleafe*, without any ceremony : but tlie children of 
thefe are in as good a condition as the reft, inheriting ac- 
cording to their feniority i lb that if the fon of a llave be 
the eldeft, he has an elder brother's portion. 

If a woman be divorced witliout any flult on her part, 
ihe ihall lta>ve the dowry her huiband ftipulated to give her, 
whidi after her death will go to her children. Divorces 
are very eaiily obtained here, efpecially where both parties 
agree to it : the ufual fuggeilions for a woman to obtain a 
divorce, are that the huiband takes up too much time with 
his flaves and concubines, and does not afford her due be- 
nevolence, or elfe that tlie huiband is impotent 1 in either 
of which cafes the magiftrate will grant a divorce, and both 
the man and the woman are at liberty to marry cH'cuhcre. 

By the Perfian law the girls are held to be of age at uins 
years of age, and the boys at thirteen, and no longer un- 
der the direflion of their guardians ; and where a guardian 
dies, the magiftrate will fumetimes admit them to be of 
age iboner, upon examination. Tfic eldeft fon is always 
guardian to the younger children, and inlants have that 
privilege, that their cftates cannot be fcizcd for the debts 
of the deceafed till they come of age, and are able to plead 
for themfelves. Where a perfon dies irttrftate, there is an 
officer in every city and province, who takes care to fecure 
the efiate and eife£ls of the deceafed, and fee them diftri- 
b«ted among hia relation*, in iach pioportion^ as the law 

With refpcA to the funeraT rites of the Perfians, and 
tbeir behavioiK towards the dying and dead, we muft here 
obferve. That when a rich man is drawing towards his 
laft hour, they fet up lighted lamps, or make little fires on 
the terrace of liLi houfe. v.i^t the people in the neighbour- 
hood, and thofe thut paiS by, may pray for hrm. They 
alfo fend for a molla, or pricll, who puts him in mind t>( 
reviewing his paft life, and repenting of his fins i to which 
the dying tiun ufually anfwcr;, taube, or, I repent. 
W hen he can fpeak no bnger, they continue to read fome 
chapters of the alcoran to bim till he expires. His death 
is foon known by the difmal groans and lamentations of 
thofe about him : the relations immediately let up a great 
howl, rend their clothes, tear off their hair, beat their 
breafts, arul aA like people in the utmoft defpair, dpccially 
the women, intermmglii>g fad complaints, and uttering 
the inoft tender exprelHons to the dead corps, as if it was 
really fenfible of their grief. The corps is afterwards 
wrapped up in a new linen cloth, or winding ihcet ; and if 
it be a man of figure, theie are certain palliiges out of the 
alcoran, or out of fome other of their facred books, written 
upon it : aud they tell us of one of their great miiiiOers of 
ftate, who was wrapped in fo laree a Iheet, that the whole 
alcoran was written on it. Tn this condition the bodv i<: 
rcpofited in fome pbce at a diftancc frc^m the houfe ; and 
if it be to be buried a great way off, it is put into a wooden 
coffin filled up with fait, limes and perfames to prefcivc it ; 
for they embalm their deaJ b , dies no otherwife in V' "a, 
nor do they ever embowel thorn, as with us. 

If they are buried near I'.i place where they dk; they are 
carried thither diredly fro. . tne place where they are walh- 
ed without much ceremony, the people who attend the 
corps following iir no manner of order ; indeed at the in- 
terment of people of diftrhflion, tlie enfigns of the mofque 
are carried before them on long pikes, one has an iron hand 
at the end of it, which they call Haly's hand ■, others have 
ctcfccnts i and on the reft are wtitteu the names of Ma-» 



SECT. xvr. 

tht tanitnl Jtriiiluris, ruins, Jeptilehrtt, 
imreUt anttqititia of tht Ptrfia 

»nd tih/r m- 


THE paUce antiently called the houfe of Darius, which 
waR tlie lefiddice of the Per fian monarchs, is called, 
by the modern iiiliabitants of the place, Chil-mina, or' 
the palace ot i'orty Pillars. It is fituattd at the foot of a 
mountain, c;iile»l the Rayal moaatain. It extends three 
tlioufand feet from north to fouth ; and from eaft to weft 
one thojfand, nine hundred and n-netjr-five feet, to the 
mountain itfelf. But having before .ji\'en a large account 
of tliia celebrated CMiticc, moic genera'' Vinown bv 'ho 


hornet, his daughter Fatima, and hit twelve ftKCsffors : 
they have alio Ureamers of (ilk, and led horfes, which carry 
Um turbantand araw ot tin dtoMM : ttMR aw im bacnra 
appointed on purpofe for carrying the corps to the grave, 
but the neighbours offer their fervice, and if a pcrlon of 
falhion meets a funeral, he will alight from tri* horfe, atij 
help to carry the corpfc to the place of interment, 

'I'hey lay thao«rM in iM wtriding Iheet without aooffi a, 
with the face towards Mecca , and if it ))c a great man, they 
lay by him bis turbant, his I'word, his cjuiver, and hit 
bow, and aii iTch is built oit that lid:: near the grave. The 
Kalbn of making this arch is upon the fnpiiofition that 
the foul re-animales the body foon aker tlie interment, and 
h examined by certain angels, concerning his faitii and 

Thbir mtjuminc nlViany lafts fbrty days ; h does not con- 
fift in wearing black clothes {fbr hhiek They dCTcft, and look 
upon it to be the tJevil's colour, an infernal liabit) but 
their moumrng confifts in lamcntationj for thedeceafed in 
« »BOi an<l nej;ligent garh, and the moft lively expttfflons 
«f grief *i>d dcfpair, which they tt^at two or three timtj 
• week during the time above-mentioned j after wJiich 
th«y bathe and fhave, and drefs thcmfelves in their ufual 
iMbiu, and the mourning is finifhrd : their wives are the 
moft inconfolablc, for a widow feldom marries a fecond 

W« ftiall now give a defcrijmon of the mourning of the 
Armenian; at the gTavf<i of their deccafcd A-iends, annually, 
the night before the fotannizatjon of the feftival of the holy 

The Arwieman tvotften, dothed in witite linen vails, 
and fc mwflled up that ticthing but their eyes could 1>e 
difccrned, about two or three hours before day, came to 
the ChiilHan burying-pliicc, bringing with them wood, 
coals, tapers, aud incenfe ; there thev made fires by the 
tombi or their refpe<ftive relations and friends, and placed 
lighted tapers up«>n them, continually throwing incenfe on 
the fire, lamenting their loft, and addTcfltng tlicmfclves to 
the deced'ed, in wrc moft atider and affeftionate expref- 
fions : then they threw thcmfelves on ^\t graves, and em- 
braced and bathed them with their tears. TTiis was fuc- 
ceoded by the moft dlfntal groans and cries that can be 
imagined. At a little diftance, the place where this was 
tranfai^ed looked like the ruins of fomc town juft deftroy- 
ed by the rian\ej in a dark night, there being fuch an inter- 
mixture of Hones and fire, with the cries and lamentations 
•f people in the utmoft defpair. 

The men, it ferms, remamed at home while the women 
were employed in this folcttmitj, but ffcnt perpetually, after 
their wives, under pretence ot enquiring how they did, 
poffib)y left the daiitnel's of the ni^ iliould give them .an 
oppoitwiity of jmriiiing Their intngties, inftead ofvifiting 
their departed rriends. There were ilfo a multitude of 
prieth attending at the burying-place, to ofTef up pravers 
fcr thofe \v1k> delired it ; and thefe being all cloUied iu 
black, as the women were in white, made an odd fort of a 
<how. The priefts were paid for the prayers they faiJ on 
this occalion, fonio of them fit-pence, others tcn-pente, 
but none give them more tlian twenty-pence. There are 
feldom lefs than three tTtoufand Armenian women, who 
come from Julpha, to attelid the graves of their dcceafcd 
friend* at thin time, *ho fo perfume the 4ir with the in- 
<»nfe and aromatic gums thcj' throw into the fire, that the 
city of Ifpahan is fenfible of it, at more than a mile's dif- 
taiice, I"he eei-emony being concluded about two hours 
after day-light, the common people continued to go thi- 
ther moft part of the day, not to mourn, it ftems, and be- 
wail tiie lot's of their friends, as tliofe in the morning had 
done, but tn fhtoke and divert themfelves, as Hluil at 
&ftiva)s, and on other joyful occalions, 




name Perftpohi, we flull omit Ikying any thing fitfthti of 
it in this place. 

A UNW fwi^y of rvtfii |nvmm tlMiiiMvei W llie eMt* 
ward of the above-mentioned, which coniift of wiitdowa, 
avenues, portals, pallkges, &c. They extend about four 
lnftidred-And fifty feet from eaft to weft i and about fevcit 
hundred and twenty-five from rorth to fouth, and tlvee 
himdred from the u>lmniii and moancaint. The earth it 
covered with the fragments of Icvcnty-fix columns in the 
midft of thefe ruins. And about one hundred and elghtecr^ 
feet to the fouthwar4 of thefe it an edifice elevated above 
tlie reft of the ruins, on an hill. 1 he front is compofe4 
of a range of ftc/net eight feet deep : it extends one nun-t 
dred and thirteen feet from eal\ to weftt but is not embellifiw 
ed with any ornaments, 

I'liere are fome fubterraneous palTaget oretty far to th« 
fouthward of the laft mentioned ruins ; which, from a ri> 
diculous notion that no light will burn in them, the native* 
vnH not enter, though it is fupnofed that immcnii: tKlfui9a 
are lodged in them -, bin fo-eRuropeantravelldn, having 
ventured to enter them with lights, which were not extin- 
guithed by an invifible power, as the natives abfurd^ 
imagined, perceived that ihcfe paffiiscs terminated in it 
fmail, narrow, and ImpatTable Vind of aqueduft. 

There are two antient fepulchres of Perfian monarchi 
near the mountains, the ftonta of which are omamente4 
with various figures reprefenting men and different kinds 
of animals -, and at about two leaguci firom thefe fepulchres 
are four other tombs refenibling the others, ohiy cut higher 
in tlK rock. I1iis place derives its name from one Noxi 
Knftan, a fabulous pcrfon, who is reported to h»ve been s 
potent prince of gigantic ftature, that he was forty cubiu 
nigh, and fiv:d one thonfand one hundred and thirteet) 
years. The fleure of a man on horfeback, which the peo- 
ple fay, reprclents Ruftan \ hi is in a Roman drefs, anc| 
lias afib a bonnet rHing from a crown, with flowing hair, 
a long beard, and his left hand upon tlie hilt of bit Iword { 
but notwithftanding the report of his prodigious fiature, 
both he and hit horie are of the coininon Me, Before 
him is a woman with flowing hair, wearing a crown -, fh? 
is drefled like Minerva, and holds up part of her drapery 
with her left hand. A tliird figure rcprefentt a warrior 
with a tiara on hit head, and his left hand placed on the 
hilt of his fword. In another compartment is an imper- 
fe£l appearance C men fighting on horfcback. Ail thefe 
figures arc carvtu .u thcruck. This toant' of Noxi Ruftai^ 
is fuppof;d to have been ercAed by Darius HyDafpet,. as 
it correfponds v.'*'> •'! ' ' Htun given of it by Hera» 
dotus andotlier antiei' ' .s. 

At two hundred pat i. .i-ncr, on the weftem ftde of 
the mountain, are two rabies cut in the rock. That to 
the left reprefents two, men on horfe>back., one of whom 
trafps a circle, of which tlie other hal quitted the hold, 
come imagine that the fitft is AleiCander, and the other 
Darius, wlio by this aflioX refigns to him the empire. 

Near the city of Seamaihie, at a place callH Pyrmaraas, 
ire the tombs of Scid Ibrahim and Tiribabba nis tutor, 
both whitli ate vilitcd by a great Aumber of pilgrims, who 
perform their devotions there ; and near the city of ArdobH 
is the fepulchre of SJiah Sefi, which is 'ifited with great 
pomp by the Peifians on Whitiun-mondav, This tomb 
IS three feet in height, nine in length, and four in breadth, 
made of whitt Tiirhlr. and coveted with crifflfon velvet { 
i great variv:. nd filver Umps hang down fronj 

the re >f of it, . >.. och fide are two very huge candlc'i 
flicks of mafly gold, with wax candles in theni, There is 
alfo a fpacious arched gallery finely gilt, M^ich is ufcd us ^ 
library, containing a great number of ina^nufcripts in th^t 
Perfian, Arabic, and Turkilh tcnj-j"!. fome written oij 
parchment and others on paper, all fuperbly bound, beauv 
tifully painted, and elegantly covered with plates of gol4 
and nlver. There are alfo above four hundred pcrcelaii^ 
vcffels, many of them capable of containing teiigallons, 
in various niches on the fides of the library. 'There is 
near this fpot, another tcmb ercAcd to the memory ot 
Seid Tzeibrail, who was only a peafant, but the father of 
Shah Sefi. This tomb is fix feet high, of an oval form, 
raifed ten fleps, adorned with zlafs of feverai colours, and 
fbrrounded with iron grates : the roof js of azure gilt, an4 
in the midft of it there is a Urge tower of blue and green 
ftones ; the floor is covered with rich tapeftry ; apd roun4 
the walls are vaults or chambers for the education pt chiU 
drtn. The gold and filver lamps hang-about it, "a ■ yiirh 
there are lights every night. The tombs of n;anY o; 
Shah Sefi's tamily anccentaiAC'l ina finaUchapeji , /; 


4t Tmb NBW amb t)Nl?BR8AL ftTSTSM or GEOGRAPHY. 




C H I N A. 



Inn j ^Viiuit, gTMl vmU, 
•■ nmHgillinif and f*€i if tht 

TrMllig •/ /*/ ifUKdarUi, i 
i/h»iu, riun, ttHtltf I'l' 

3pHIS opulent mi<) extenfiv* empire, which *pPMn 
I to be a world within itfelf, and which incliulei Clii- 
e Ttrbtfy, is bou'.ded by the dominioni of Rofli*, on 
(he north t bjr thf \ ici^ Ocean on tlie eaft t by thr Vt ■ 
'dian and Chincfe ica, on the fouth -, and by the ^iof^u i..^ 
of Tonquin, Ta tarian Thibe% Ruffian Tartary, and part 
oflndoftan and India beyond the Ganges, on the weft. 
It lie* between niuety'five end one hundred and thirty-itve 
degree* of eaOvrri longitude, and between twenty -one and 
fifty-five d' ^ ^<*s of north latitude ; being about ofie thou- 
faiid eight h' led imile* in Un^h, and one thoufand five 
hundred in i<':^dth. It take* it* name from a Cliinefe 
word, whici- G '.niiiei central ; as the native*. fu{>pofing 
the wor i to be flat, fancied it wu fituate cxaAly in the 
This country i* divided into fixteen province* ; tu. 

9. Shan-fi, 

10. Shen-fi, 

11. Se-chucn, 









12^ Quan-tong, 

13. Quang-fi, 

14. Yun-nan, 

15. Qiiew-chewt 

16. Ly-au-tong. 

The 'wrthemv called the Tartarian provinces, tre fe- 
jttrUeu ti'>m proper Chin^ by a wall of brick and ftone ftiU 
•Imoft entire, one thoufand 'ti"« hundred aulM ia lengtB, 
being carried over mounuin* and vallie* firMn Monml 
Tartary in thr weft, to the Rang fea in the eaft. Thi* 
Will was built by the Chinefe to prevent the incurfione of 
Um northern Tartar*, but i* mit of much uf* at pffent, 
fence Chiiu and thole TattarianprovincM have k>cen uiKed 
wider one prince. 

Pe-king, Shsn-4, and Shen'fi, are the n*xt three pro- 
vinces which lie wiftiin the grc t v-ill. Th^* three pro 
•ince* of Shang-tora, Nan-ki. , -r.i Cht icy-ang, lie 
upon the eaflern coaft of the Chinefe fea : Ho-nan, Hu- 
quang, and Ryang-fi, are midland provinces ; Fo-kyen, 
Quan-tong or Canton, and Qjung-lT, upon the footh-eaft, 
•re maritime province* ; and Se-chu' n. V/,.ew-chew, and 
Yua-nai ; are (ituate in tfte foutU-weft, and adjoin to 
Tonquiit and weft cm Tartary. 

Thofe ifland* m China, which are the mod extenfive, 
frr, Formofa, near the weft of Fo-kyen ; Ay-nan, foiith- 
ivcH uf Cantoit ; Macao, a fmall ilhnd in the mout of 
Canton river, inhabited by the Portugueic 1 and the J •• 
illand*. which lie between Formoli and the Fbilik: i 

The chief river* are, i. Yamour, whicfi divide 
aefe from RufTian Tartary on the north. 1. .'Vri uu, 
Irbidi divide* Chiaefe from Ruffian Tartaiy, on the rtcft. 
*. Crocceus, or Ho-am-bo, which rifes in the coniinet 
c .tern Tartary, and, ninniig iftward througli the 
kingdom of China, falls into the Kang fea. 4. Kiam, 
v.hich alfo rife* i!i wefi'irn Tartary, and, running eafl- 
H ud, difchar^es itfelf uKo the gulf of Nan-kin. 5. Ta, 
which, rifing m the province of Qoew-chew, runs fouth- 
«sft, and falls into the bxy of Canton ; on this river are 
Ihe mountains and flraits of Sang-wan-hab. Of thefe, 
Ihe rivers Croccc'is and Kiam are vaftly large, and not fa- 
Aomable in fomc places, if we may credit the Chinefe ac- 
<ountof them. 

Ecfides ihefc rivers, fpacious canals are cut through the 

country ; and (o many of them, diat a tr»veller may go to 

•very town fixooti by water. Over thefe canals are mag- 

' • t .^ 

nificent bridge*, wliofe arches are of ntarble, and fo higli. 
tlul vcfTeU may p«(i through iliein with their niaft* (laitd* 
{iig ; but the moft remarkable is the fl<-iiig bridge, buill 
between two mevotaiiis on the river Waug-ho. 

Their town* ftaods fo thick upon their river* and canall, 
tlul a traveller is no fooner p.illcd tliruugh one town, but 
lie come* in light of anotlier -, and wherever there it a town 
on Ihore, there it another of boats upon the watw, info- 
much that it ii laid, almoft as many people live upon the 
water at upon the land. 

. vtdel* ^re ma<le as commodious a* their houfet i 
laany oi the Cii..ufc a't born, live and die in them, and 
k .ep tlieir hogs and poultry on board. BeGdes thefe veflelt, 
there are rafu or floats of timber perpetually going up id 
down their rivers and canals, upon which there are bu. . 
little huts or cabbiui, and here the people live till they 
have difpofed of their timber. Thu* great quaruities «ie 
conveyed upwards of a tluiufand mile*, from the fouthern 
provinces almoft to Pe-king. 

T'.iough the provinces of Yun-nan, Quew-chew, Se- 
chueii, and Fo-kyen, are mountainous, yet China in yf. 
neral is a flat country. Che-ky-ang, indeed, tlie eaftcm 
part whereof is a plain, fruitful aiuntry, hath high moiiii • 
tains towards the weft. The country of Q^ant^-tong and 
Quang-fi, which are admired for their fertility near the 
lea-coaft, are encumbered with rocks and barren moMii- 
tain* at a diftance from the Ihore. The province j of Ky- 
anc-fi, Shan>li, and Shen-ii, have more mountains dw\ 

SECT. il. 

TrMtt »f tb* frintitai Itums, palmtt, imf-lii, litiit^ aui 
Mmmtfr tf ftifd, in Ckimi. 

THE Chinefe twsrns are afually built in one form, that 
is fquarc, where the ground will admit of it ; and 
the principal gates open toward* the '"uur cardinal points, 
eaft, weft, norths and fouth; and rpaciousftreets.croirine 
each other, rua the w>Mle length of the town. We Ihall 
here mention the chief towiu of every province, and give a 
particular delcription of ihofe which have been thought beft 
deferving tUi notice of travellers. 

Niucbe is the capital af the provinee of the fame name. 
Pitehee it the capital of Corea, and Chin-yan ot Lea-tonge. 
Thefe ate ffduted without the wall. 

The capital of the province of Pe-king, and of the whole 
empire, is of tl . fame name. It it fituaie in one hundred 
and eleven degrceHof eaftern longitude (making London the 
firll rariiaian) and in fo-'" triireet J north latitude. Ir 
ftar>Ji in a fruitful plain, not far "buth of the great wall. 
"^ le towi> confiftt ot two cities omcd together, one called 

-- Taiur city, and the otlici the Chinefe city; for when 

> ic Tartan conquered thii country, about one hundred and 

xty years ago, they drove out the Chinefe, but gave thena 

»v' to build another city contifjuoui to the old town, 
b was then pretty near the form of a fquarc, but (ince 
I . addition of the other, makes an irregular figure. Thefe 
cities are t«wnty miles in circumference, befides the fu- 
burbs : the whole contains two millions of people. The 
emperor's palace, including the parks and gardens, i<! near 
four milet round, and ftaiids in the middle of ilic Tanat 

Pe-king it farrounded with a wall and ditch ; the prin- 
cipal ftrettt are en* hundred and twenty feet broad, and 
three mikt in length. Every tradefman frts up a bond 
before his (hop painted and gilded, on which arc wtitten 
tlie names of the goods lie fells j and. being adorned with 
colours and ftreamers «ii the top, make a very gay appear' 
ance. The walls of the Tartar or royal city are above fe- 
venty feet high, and perftftly cover the town, for the 
houle* are very low, being built no higher thin tl\e ground 


>Y>wO<r MtllUtr \,M t'fnf^^ *■ f^'ifi*^/ .\\ \Ttt\l ^H^,^n 


\i V, S T K M N T A UTAH V 


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■II ■ r 









tA 8 I A.] IC it 

floor, IWcadfe Tcking Im Aiibrm much by evtbqiukei, 
Which are frcqutnt here. 

The ctici ofthii ciiy are ftill higher tlitn the walb, tml 
tiave a fort of equal height buiit before them: the arch (if 
each gate ii built with marble, bat the walls are of brick : 
they have no oMworki beyond the wtlli, but then are 
iijuare Mwwi iit them U proptr diftancei from each other. 
The ftnMti of Pe-kiitc Ut perpetiiaily crowded, thoorii 
a woman it /cidoiti iiecn m ihtm, the reafon whereof may M 
that all provifiona are l^rou^t thither by land carriage, no 
river or canal coming within three mitet of the city, which 
•ocafioni the tirct '% to be filled with carti, camelt, horfef , 
and other heafti o^ burthen, with their driven, infomuch 
that it i* diiScolt paffing the gate* in a morning or evening. 
The artificers or handicraft traderf alfo contribute to in- 
creafe the eioud, as they work in the houfei of thofe that 
employ thero, and are perpetually looking out for bufineft. 
The magiftrates alfo have their guards when they appear 
abroad, and all people of difiinftioh a numerous atten- 
dance, which makes the lowti appear ftill more populous 
and thronged. 

The emperor's palace is three milet in circumference; 
and confifts of nine vaft courts, in the fartheft of which he 
refides. Thii apartment is Ivipported by large marble pil- 
lars, the roof coveted witli gilded Ihinitig tiles, which look 
like gold, tt is afcendt^ by white marble ftepst the 
rooms, adorned with carvings and paintings, make a very 
grand appearance, and three or four thoufand mandarins 
or great officers are always attending when the PriiKe gives 
audience on puUic occanons. 

The chief mandarins have very magnificent palaces, 
%hich take up a great otent of ground, as they have but 
one floor; theyconfift of feveral open courts, in which the 
buildings are not contiguous ; they are fo fond of privacy, 
that they have no windows towards the (Ireet i and will not 
fufFer their neighbours to have any, that can look in upon 
them ; and within the gate is always a (kreen, to prevent 
aftranger's looking in: the furniture of their hoafes con- 
Tifts of piflures, japan cabinets, chairs, tables, and var- 
nilhed ikreens, and their beds are exceeding fine. In rum- 
mer their curtains are filk, finely wrought, or tite fineft 
gaufe to defend them againft the gnats j in winter their 
curtains are of thick coaife filk, and their dounttrpanes of 
the fame. They have no feather-beds, but lie upon quilts 
or mattrciles. 

I'his great cit) is guarded both day and night by foldiers, 
who patrole the ftreeta with their fwordt ; they alfo 
carry whips in their hands, with which they lafh without 
diftinftiun all perfons concerned in any riot or outrage, to 
the difturbance of public tranquility ; there is, befides, in 
this city, a garrifon of flxty thoufand men, to preferve 
good order, and prevent irregularities. No clubs, balls, 
or other noAurnal meetings are permitted here. In the 
principal ftreett they found the five watches ot the night on 
a drum of an ektraordinary fixe, or elfe on a large bell, 
fuppofed to be llle largcft in the world, except the great bell 
of Mofcow. This great bell of Pe-king was caft near four 
hundred years ago, and weighs twenty thoufand pounds ; 
but the Chinefe bells afford a veiy dull found, having only 
wooden cU(>pers. Awalch coimtUof two hours 

Nui-kin, the capitU of the province of that n.ime, and 
lierdRfore of the whole empire, is called the foutli court, 
as Pe-king is the north court, fituate in one hundred and 
eighteen degrees of eaftern longitude, and thirty-two de- 
grees of north Untude. It it uUl more populous than Pe- 
king, Oanding on the river Kiam, which it here three miles 
broad, and forms a very commodious port. Here filk, and 
all other Cinnele manttk^uies, may be purchaTcd at the 
bel^ hand. Befidettbc river, tlKre are abundance of navi- 
gable canals, Which bring the merchandize ef every pro- 
vince thither. 

Before the gates of this, and almoft every other great town, 
are two magnificent towers ereftcd, and near them a pagod, 
or idol temple, dedicated to the genius, or guardian angel 
of the place. Triumphal arches alfo are erected to the 
honour of fuch great men as have becnefteemed ornaments 
to their country. Temples alfo are erefled to the memory 
of Confucius, the philofopher, and other bencfafiors. 
The grandctl of all tlic Chinefe buildings, is the porcelain 
tower, which frauds before one of the gates n( Nan-kin, 
being above tn-o hundred kti high, of an odangular ficure, 
Cuntsining nine (lories, <:ach (lory benching in, and de- 
crcilingin birai'th, as It incrcafes in height, Arming a kind 
of pyramid , it is faced with porcelain, or china-ware, from 
Whence it has its name ; al>ovc the eighth ftory is a cu- 
pola, which I lies thirty feet higher than the tower, with a 
gilded ball over it ; litis tovtet h:;s ilood upw/irds of tliiee 

! W A. 


I '.u'l yeart, and it efteeme^ tihe ino^ elegant ^uitdinl 
ea(l. Near this city is the moft famous tMnpte oT 
Panhn-Shi, in which are ten thoufand imager. 

The capital of Quan-iong is Canton, fituatt irt the 
fouth of China, near the mouth of the river Ta, and it th* 
moft reforted to by Toreign merchant! of any part df Chinl. 
it is almoft the only town the PLuropeaitt iraide to at pr«-> 
fcnt, and confequentiy is immenfely rich ; it it faid to Ml* 
eeed all the cities of Afia in the number of ptgodt ot idol 
templet, palates, or pOblic buildings, and there aik in it b6, 
fewer than thirteen magnificent triumphal anhcai . Th* 
ftreett are paved, but narrow ( the lhaiOta0U a fine imewk 
and thofe tradefmen, who deal in tMpBekind of goodn 
ufually (land in the fame qiianBI<iwtbetown. Their win- 
dows, in fummet, are of cane, to let the air through ■, bat 
in wii^ter, of oyft^r-ftrellt, (craped till they are tranfparenL 
which however give but a treble light. Thty have Charcot! 
fires in the middle of their rooms in winter. The wallt df 
their rooms, inRead of hangings, are covered withibinwhire 
paper. There is a market held almoft in every flreet, for 
all manner of provifions. Frogs are efteemed the molt 
delicious food, and beir a much greater price than any other 
meat, though they are of a blackilh hue. Viper broth wat 
in reputation here long before it was in London. Here it the 
reraarkible water-caule, which it fo much admired by 
travellers. We may here remark, refprAing the diet and 
drelii of the people of this empire, that the Tartars and 
Chinefe, by their intermarriages are become in a manner 
the fame people : they are not to be difliiiguilbed cither by 
their fttture or features, any more than by their habiti, 
in which the government requires both nations to be onl* 

The town of Macao is fituate on a fmalt ifland at the 
mouth of the river Ta, orCanion. The PortugUefe took 
pofleffion of the ifland in their fiilt voyuge to China, and 
had a vaft trade here; but were at length forced to fuhmit 
to the dominion of the Chinefe : however they are per- 
mitted to govern their own people by the laws and«uftomi 
of Portugal. The Romifh miffionarics, whtn they are 
perfecuted and driven out of China, ulbally ictire to Ihia 

Fu-chew is thecafftal of the province of Fo-kyen. 
Amoy, or Emoui, is a port-town in the province df 
Fo-kyen, oppofite the ifland of Formofa. The Knglilli 
had a faAory here i but were obliged, by the unfaijr dcal- 
ilictof the Chinefe. to difconiinue their voyages thither. 

Ni.npo, which is another large city in the province of 
Che-ky-ang, has a commodious harbour, and a very great 
foreign trade, rfpeciall" with Japan, from which it is dif^ 
tant but two diys (ail. 

Nan-yang is a city on the river Kiam. Tong-chew, i 
city one hundred and eighty mile' north-weft of Canton; 
Kiew, Hew-kew-hien, a city on the river Kiam. Shaw- 
chaw, a city one hundred niilirs north of Canton. 

The tovsn of Chufan is fituated on an ifland near the 
coaft of Che-ky-ai)gand Nan-kin, north-eaft of Nimpoi 
where the tlnglilh once had a faflory i but not fin ling tb^ 
advantage in trade they expeflcd. retired to Canton, whichi 
at we before oblirved, engrolTes mbft of the European trade. 
The reft of th: chief towns ot the feveral provinces ari 
Tay-ven, capital of the province of Shap-ft ; Sin-gar, ca- 
pitil of Shen-(1 ; Koy-fong, capital of Ho- nan; Hang- 
chew, capital of Che-ky-ang; Naii-chang, Capital of 
Kyang-fi) Vu-chang, on the 'iver Kiam, capital ofHu- 
quang -, Ching-try, capital of Se-choen ; Quew-yang^ 
capital ofQucw-chew; Yun-nan, capital of Ynn-nani 
Qucw-lin, capital of Quang-fi. . In the whole, it is comi 
puted, there are one hundred and fifty capital ei;iesi 
one thoufand three hundred and twelve of the letotM 
clafs : two thoufand three hundred arid fifty-liiven for- 
tified towixs ; ten millions of families, and upwards of fiftf 
millions of people. Some compute there are fifty-eight 
millions of people in China, which, it is faid, maybieeafil/ 
known by the poll tax ; every man being obliged to han^ 
a httle table over his doof, fpccifying the number 6f fooM 
be has in his houfe, the truth of which is from lima trf 
time examined by in officer appointed for thatputpole. 

S E C Ti III. 

Of tbt pirftni, hakitl, and [tniui tf thtpnpU ef Chixa. 

THE Cliinefe men are not very haiidfome in their per- 
ions, tlieirflature is rather low; nor are their complex- 
ions to be admired, el'pccialiy in the I'outhcm proVincM 
of the empiie, which lie near the tropic, where tlte heat 
of the fun muft ucceflttrily make them taway ; but in th« 



1 aS 

■orthera ««mBot», Uth itaeir ftMwc md tomf kxiiM Ut 
much mcntW. 1 bey bavc ft« brwri ftces, bbrck bm\ 
little dirk cy«i, fliort noloi. and thin beitdt i polling moft 
r»rt of tliem off with tw -*eii, inftead of Ihivi ng. re- 
forving oiiiy whiiketi and fome loin? hairs on tlie howom 
•f thtirchttw. The nail on the iitifc finger of their Wt 
hand, i» lufcred to grow a grciit kngUi beyond the fii>g«, 
and fcrapod and poliihcd with abundance of care ; by peo- 
ple of condition, this being looked upon at one ol the 
dilii^uilhing maiks of a gentleman in tliii part of the 

world. • r 1. • 

The Chiaefc were mighty proud of ilu: hau of their 
keadi, and ulcd to tie it up at our women do in a roU ; 
but the Tarur iovereigni kave compelled tliem to lha»e 
their headi, kaving only one lock on the middle of the 
«rown, oyer which they wear a cap ihaped like a beli, 
which doe* not come So low as their cars, and lhere<tiTe 
(hey carry a fan iv. their lunds to Icreen them froai 
the fun. The Chineie who left their country on , the 
Tartar con(|ucfi, and Atd to tlie neighbouring iflandi, ftill 
wear ihtir hair. 

I'be ioen wear a veft, with full Ions fleeTe*, which 
cotne down to their fii\gen ends. Over the veft they wear 
a loolc coat, fhortcr than the vcfl, with fhort fleeves ; and 
wlicn they viit, oc receive company, they have ' gown 
thi'own over all ; they wear alfo (hirta and breediei, or 
ratlifrtio\fzar», which reach down halfway of their legs, 
theie arc made of fattin quilted ; they wear alfo filk boou, 
m bulkins quilted, an inch thick, and over the toot put on 
a flipper, with a thick fole, for the boots have no fole : 
mcii of fifhion arc never feen without their boots, in com- 
pany, either at home or abroad. But though the Chincfe 
Ben are thus doathed, when they are in company, tlie 
natives of the fouthern provuices throw off tlieir caps, 
Kowns, veft, &c. when they are with their families, or 
intimate friends in private, and wear nothing but a thin 
pair of drawers ; and the common people, mechanics and 
labourers, go about the ftreeti with only a pair o( drawers 
«n, and are exceeding tawny. 

Great coats are worn by the Chinefe in rainy weather , 
which are coveied with a kind of green oil-fltin ; and they 
have boots made of good ftrong lea|l|rr, when thev ride 
out. At their girdles, they hang their pouch of tobacco, 
their pipe which is brafs, their handkerchiefs, and the 
little chop-fticks they eat with, and tlii'ir knife, for they 
have no other pocket. In winter people of diflinftion 
wear rich furs, lamb-fkins, or quilted cotton. Their 
feyinetars, or broad fwords, are worn on tltc left thigh 
with the point bending forward. 

Officers of ftate and magiftrates, have fomc animal em- 
broidered on their cloaths, either in gold or filver, whicli 
rxpreire-s the nature and dignity of their rcipeflive offices. 
The military men chufc lions, dragons, or tygcis, and 
tfie civil magiftrates, birds ; which may not be improperly 
ftilcd their arms, as they diflin^uiih tlie feveral degrees of 
honour they have been advanced to, though thefc arc dif- 
nfed when they are o Jt of place ; honours not being here- 
ditary in China. 

The women, who are kept at home and not expofed to 
the fun, are fair enough ; and, except that they have little 
eyes and Ihort nofes, may vie with our European beauties. 
Their features are in other refpefts tolerably engaging. 
Tlwir principal beauty is thought to lie in their liltio feet. 
At foon as a girl u bom, her feet are bound up lb hard, 
that they cannot grow to their natural fizc) which makes 
them walk a little aukwardly, the foot of a grown woman 
not being bigger than that of a child of three years of age. 
They wear embroidered (Ilk fhoes, in fhape much like our 
womens, exccptthatthsy are turned up at the toes, aiidthK 
the haeis are round and of an equal bignefs from top to 
bottom : thefc they nuke themlelves, and are very proud 
of (hewiog their fine feet when tliey have an opportunity. 

The ladies ufually drefs in their hair, part of which is 
made up in a roll, and faftened with a bodkin ; the reft is 
divided into two locks, which fall gracefully upon the neck. 
In tlie portliern provinces they wear a fort of caul of thin 
^Ikever their bauTi and in cold weather, in Pe-king, they 
wrap a kind of cornet, or black hood, about it. They 
wear, as tlie men do, a long veft of ilttin, red, blue, or 
green, the elder women chafe black of purple ; over tliis, 
they have a loofe gown with wide fleeves, fo long, tttat 
ihcv would reach the i;ioand, if they were not held up. 

'I'he Chincfe youth, being bred up under a ftrift difei- 
pliiic,. and taught'to p«y the profoundeft revereticc to their 
parents and fupci iors, thev fonn get the command of their 
paffior^s, or at leaft, find means to conceal them. When 
they bavcaniiitcreflto uwuiage, no people know better 


Mw to infinutie themfeiva into lAte good opinion «f 
thofe they deal with, or improve an opportunity wlien it 
«jkn ; nor will they decline t niofl liaiardous under- 
taking, when thty nave any ain in \icw. Throngs «f 
people are perpetually in motion upon their rivers, oil 
their coafts, and upon the roads ; trade and commerce 
fcc«D«o be the foul of that people, and the fpring of Ml 
their af^ions \ nor do they much Ictapic impoling on ihofe 
rticy deal with, of which mmv of them are fo far from l>e- 
■112 afhamed, that they will laugh at the man they have 
biibblctL. A fbreigixr goes in great dar>|i^ of being 
cheated it' he truOs lo his own juai<;inrnt, and If he em- 
ploys « Chinefe faAor, as is ufual, both faAor and mer- 
chant will fomctinies combine together to deceive the 
ft ranger. 

They continuaUy "Vply ihemfelves todifcowr.lheliicH- 
natioas, humours and terapen of thofi: they have any 
commerce with ; and keep up a fair cofrefpondence even 
with their grratcft enemirs. However, tliere do not want 
iniUnces of feir dealing, and open gcneroas ufage, and a 
fidelity not to be corrupted. 

There are no duels «i0(n)gft them i all rhcir revmte is 
fecretly managed, and they can n'lt only dilTemble their 
malice, but feem patient even to infcnfibility, till they 
have a favounble opportunity to ftrike home. Their great 
men are engaged in a perpetual purfuit of place<i and great 
pofts, and carry on their deligns by bribes and prcKnts, 
a* in other courts : yet at the lawi prohibit diefe pratticea, 
and rcfier all to the merit of the candidate, the moft fub- 
tle and defigning amongft them ever put on the grcateft 
appcaraiKC of modefty and felf-drnial : but however the 
Chinefe may excel in cunning, it is obfffved, duit thett 
couoge if not extraordinary. 

SECT. IV. " f 

Qf ihtJItI, liqutrs, ctrimtniti at teilt, falutes, vijilt, Vt. tf 

iht Chintft. 

rr^HE Chinefe are far firom being nic- or liiperOitiou.'! in 
I theirdiet, they do not only eat all kinds of flcfh, 
iifn and fowl as the Europeans do, but horfe flelh is in 
great efteem among them ; nor are dogs, cats, fnakes, frog-:, 
or fcarce any fort of vermin refufcd : but rice, to(jts, pulfe 
and garden-flatf are the common food. Kroth and loups 
they have alfo made either of flcfh or fifti, whirli they 
mix with their nee. ."^alt and pepper are never bro'jght t» 
table, the meat being feafoned in the drefTmg. They cat 
their ftefh boiled, fryed, and broiled ; but it is cut into 
little fquarc pieces like dice Ivfore it tomes to table. 
They ufe neither cloth, napkins, knives, fpoons or forks ; 
but two little round fticks of cbonv, or other wood, fuinc- 
times tipped with filvcr at the ends, with which they take 
up their very dcxreroully, and for their rice and 
broth they hold tlu' Cup to their mouths and lade it in with 
their little flick 1. Thiy iifc high chairs and tables, con- 
trary to all the people of the caft btfidcs, who fit ctofa 
legged upon the flu^ir Every pctiiaii almoft has a little 
lacquered table to hiiufelf :it an entertainment, on which is 
fet meat and rice in little china difhcs or faucers, and fcme- 
tini^s their difhes are of filvcr. 

Their principal liquor is tea ; they feldoin, if ever, 
drink cold water , poflibly thcit water is not wliolefome 
till it \% boiled, an<1 fettled, for it is very foul, tlp.ciaily 
that of all the rivers, which carries with it a blue or yel- 
low flitrx ; and the original caufe of their drinking tea 
probably wa-i tc refine the water, and make it more ()«Ja- 
table. They have ftrong liquors alfo, particularly liock- 
fhue, which is brown beer made of wlieat, and (anifhue, 
as they call all ipirits, but liave no wine, though tlie couii-' 
try abounds in fine grapes. 

They are exceedinglv ceremonious at entertainments ; 
every one h:iadles hit Itttle chop-fticks, and carries the 
meat to his mouth when the reft of the company do. 
They diink alfo all at once ; taking tlvc cup in botli hands, 
they firft cany it as high as their heads, and tlitii diinU 
without fpeaking a word. There ftwids a man to koep 
time, that one may not eat or drink Velorc another ; tu 
begin firit, or make another wait, is reckoned extremely 
rude. When a Irefh difh appears, theytlouii.h their lit., 
tle-fticks again, and having taken two or three mouthfuk, 
the niafter of the cerrmonic makes a (ien for them to lay 
down their arms, which they do exaflly in the fame Qr.« 
der tliey took Aem ap. ^Fhei the liquor is prcfeutcd thcui, 
of which they fip a little, but no min drinks more than 
he cares tbr^ if he aaUsi the motion u is fufiicicnt) 

[A s r A.] 

xi I 


f -1 


tinH tlicy fit filcnt It table three or fnai hours, till the 
niallcr give* the lign to rifit. TTien they walk ir » the 
garden, ainl»t their rctiirn find a dd'art prepared, c mlift- 
mg of drit'd fruits iiul I'wectincati, which they cat with 
tlicir tea, aud a I'd ul playera arc brotjght In to ad a co- 
medy lor thiir divfrfioii. 

'I'licre ocrcuiuiiies required at their entertainments ate 
eReeincd very ridiculous and ti-oublcfome by ftrangwi i 
hut they arc looked upon in another light by the n,Uivel ; 
llicy ol>lerve they are part of the conlUtutfon, and con- 
tribute towards civilizin); their people; that thofc outward 
condckcnlions and obliging cxpreflions, rcijuircd of all 
ibrtit of people, in hi^h or low life, tend to promote 
peace and good order m the (late, as well as in every 
neigUlwurhooil I that the prohibiting courfc and fcurril- 
oui language prcventi a great mai'.v quarrtls, and at for 
oathi and obli:enr "'-ourfe, thcle are never heard if 
amongfl the Chint. They falote one another by layirtg 
(he right hand uii ihf; ba'aft, and bov^ini; a little -, and 
wlien they approach a prince, or great man, they kneel 
open one kucc', till they are bid to rife i but it would be 
an affront, it I'cemi, to falute a great man a^ he palTcs 
along the ilrects, unlefs the pcrfon hat particular bulincfs 
witli him i but the people ftand up when fucli a ono palTcl 
by, hxiiig their eyes upon tlie ground, and with their arms 

When a gentleman defigns to vifit another, ho fends 
a fcrvant to meet him with a note, intim?ting liis 
intoution ; ami being informed he is at home, he fits out, 
and is received according to his quality. If the nerfon he 
goes to vifit is much above him, the pcrfon vifitcd docs 
not ftir out of his clnirj if ihey arc eqiirl, he receives 
his gucil at the hall-door i and if the viii'nr be much his 
fupcrior, he goes out intc the rtrcct to me^f him, where 
they cnibiacc each other witl: a great deal cf feeming 
alfe£\ion, and a let of fhort compliments pi, , which are 
prcfr.riJKd them; the one knows what he is to fay, and 
the other what he is to anfwei, and they flop at every door, 
where their bows and cringes are trpcated ; on? favs, 
" Pray walk," and the other anfwers, " It nnift not be';" 
which being repe.ited three or four times, the ftranger 
fttlfers himlcif to be overcome, anl goes on to the next 
door. If there be more gucils than one, when they come 
into the room where they are to Iw entertained, the nc;{t 
(lifpute is w!io lliall fit uppormolt ; and after a great deal 
of cringini;, cvrry one takes the place which belongs to 
him, accordiiii; to the potl or employment he has in the 
go\ernment; they are obliged to fit upright, with their 
eyes fixed upon the grmuul, their hands flretchcd out on 
dieir knees, and their feet even : they are to look grave 
and compoicd, and mutt not Ire too talkative ; and f'ome- 
tinie;- there is not a word fpoken more than the compli- 
ments prcfcribcd. Wlup they dofpcak, it is with all the 
fubmillion imaginable, and never in firft or ft., -fl pcrfon i 
ft>r intlance, inl'.ead of laying, " ! am oblisci" /you for 
the f.votir you have done mc," they will fay, -''he fa- 
vour my lore? has done me, who am h much btneai.i him, 
h;',s laid his under the highcft oliligati' :is." And of fayine, " 1 ureCcnt you with thii curiofit, which 
my country prodnrcs, xhey will fav, " Permit the' fervant 
to ortcr his lord thi'. curinfity whicii his pcwr country af- 
fti.tls." Again, whatever comes frmn lii ; lordlhip's no- 
ble province is well wrought, or extrauidinary fine. And 
never lay, •' 1 " or '• you ," but " your fer\a' " or " your 
fcholai" did Inch a thing, and, thoduftoroi .ny lord faid 
this or that , and not, you 1; '4, or you did it, this would 
be reckoned the height of incivility, and a manner of 
fpeaking only to be ufed to (laves. 

Tea 13 tlie ufuai liquor orunk upon a vifit; and much 
ceremony there n ul'cJ in taking the dith, carrying it to 
■one's mouth, .ind letting ii down, or returning it to the 
it'r\aiUi anf^her, they take leave, much the fame cringes 
are repeated as wh'.'n tl' ^uelis arrive. Amba. .ors are 
aiiowcd maft''!,- of the ceremonies to inflruA them forty 
days b'.foif they are adtnitted to their audience, th t they 
may cr:n.nit no blunders, and ma.iv of the Chinetc will 
be offended with ftrangerN if ihoy omit to cringe and fawn, 
accnrd'ug to the rules prefcril>ed them. 

The Chinjfe are fo far from putting off tlicir caps when 
they falute one another, tliat it is reckoned very indecent to 
appear hdorr their liettcrs barcbesf'c.' vd ipon this ac- 
count, inc ifrniiilty to the ciiftoi . I tl'.i c try, the 
Fopc tlioughr tit tt: difpcnfe with B'. ' '< I <<w j'pcar- 
iiig b.trehcadcd in the Chrifli :t\ chuh.. . ■ Twi, 

(laminp, though prohibrfd bv »!„ ■ u» is 

much pra^ti<«>d »!nongrt the- if 

thofc who have foUov.eo i 

No. 4. * 

« have played away their cflafCT, wlw, and children ; «rhlch 
they win fometimei hazard «p<m afard, or a tingle ; ■ ut 

a die. 


Civis * di/cripliiH tf thi hithuiayi, trdvittini, tnd MrrUfit 
ef til Chimfi. 

T T lGHWAYS are tlMown up from one end of the 
I X kingdom to tlie other, though more people travel 
by water on their canals, than by land i and their grand 
canals arc faced witlifloite, the vefTels being drawn by the 
flrengthof men. 

Their highways are confidcrably raifed over vallies and 
low gronnds; and they cut pafTages through mountains uid 
rocks, that travellers may the more eafily pafs them. 
Their roads are above twenty yards wide , and at proper 
f'lillances they have little wooden buildings, thirty feet 
high, called mercuries, ereAcd upon tliem, to dircA the 
traveller; they ate not unlike their triunuilul arches, and 
flaiid at about a mile and a half diflancc from each otlier i 
over them arc written in large charaClcis the names of the 
towns whither the roads lead, and their diflanccs, which 
ar« exactly mcafured at tlie charge of the public. The 
country milita keep gu.trd here, and have a guard-houfc, 
for the fccurity and proteOion of travellers, and forward 
allcxprcfTcs anddifpatchcs tlutarc fent to or from court. 
The guards examine people that go armed, and, if they 
cannot produce a pafs, detain them. Such cire is taken, 
tint a robbery is feldoin heard of : another realbn there aie 
fo few robberies, may be, that all people arc employed ; 
for it may l)e faid with a great degree of certainty, that 
there is not an idle hand to be found from one end of th« 
empire to the other. 

Tlicir roads are conftantly kept in good repair ; which 
is attributed to the Emperor's annually viliting the diffur- 
ciit provinces j and whether he goes, or not, it is given 
out that he defigns to make a progrefs through Ibme pait 
of his dominions; and if he finds the roads bad, the go- 
vernors and magiflratcs of tlie places througli which he 
pafies arc in danger of lofing their heads. It is, however, 
veiy inconvenient travelling by land in a dry feafon, the 
foil being light and beaten to powder by conftant trampling 
and the numerous carriages, infomuch that they travel 
all day tlirough clouds of dull i which is one reafon why 
many people chufe, in fummcr-time, to go by water. 

The Chinefe have horfes, mules, and camels to ride on, 
but they chiefly ciavcl in litters carried on men's (houWers, 
or by mules. Some gentlemen travel in vehicles whicli 
thcv denomin.itc chariots, with two wheels, not unlike 
poli-chaifes. Their travelling-chairs arc made of cane, 
but have no windows, only the upper part of the fron' ii 
open i the chairman carry the poles on their fltouidcrs, and 
not in their hands as with os. The Tartars ulually ride 
on horfeback both in towns and upon tlie roads ; their 
faddles arc made like thofe in Turky, and, like the Turk.s, 
they ride very fhoit, with their knees atinoft as higli as the 
top of the fadJle i and when they engage an enemy, they 
rife up and {land on their flirrups, to give the greater force 
to the ftroke they make. 

Goods are frequently carried by porters on dieir backs j 
the roads are full of them : the boats are drawn bv men 
almoll naked, both driven hard and ufed a)mof\ as baibi- 
roudy as beafts of burden are in this paitof the world. 

Upon all the roads are houfes for the entertainment of 
the governors and officers, going to and returning from 
their polls, where they live at the public e xpencc, and hava 
h jrfes and carriages provided for tlicm at every ftage : an<l 
here alt other travellers may have the fame convcniencies, 
that can procure an order for it, |Which is not diiiicult to 
obtain; and if they liave not fuch an order, maybe ac- 
commodated with every thinjj they want at a reafonabl* 
price. A book of the roads is publifhed by authority, 
wherein the diftanccs of towns are afcertained, and the 
ftr.gcs proper to reft at ; and tlie men that carry chairs M 
httcrs, it is faul, will travel five miles in an hour. 


CiHtains an acMunl if ihfnaturt eflbtfiil, tttiriduti \ thii'r 
huJbiinJry, plants, aximalt, mimt, vc. 


S China, like other countries of a large extent, eon« 
fills of hills and vallies, we mud therefore rwcurally 
ixil f" meet with a great vaiicty of foils, graiu, fruit, 
M plants. 


,^nAiJa 1 j^jtJj . . , 

Tmi new and universal SYSTEM or OEOCRAPHY. 

pUnti, kn<i iniimli. Tht atouM or vtgtubk 

rovTncii, I 

exccMling liahi and poroui in moft provTi 
fingk ox or buffalo will draw the plourit, and 

The I 



I il 

ih it 
that a 
in Come 
plicei (he piougha are drawn by men. Themountamoui 
province! o( Shtn-ri, Ho-nan, Q)ian-tong, and Fo~kyen 
indeed are net very fit for illlag«i but they are covered 
with excellent timbw. In the provincet of Pe-kinf|, 
Shan-(i,SharMr-tong,and Fo-kyen, wheat and barley thrltc 
well ; and in Hu-qoangi Nan-kin, and Cha-ky-ang, whieh 
are low countriei, and frequently flooded, ttity have great 
plenty of rice. 

^Vhrn they have cleared a field of weedi, thM it in- 
tended for rice, tli y turn the writer into it, and reduce 
it to a perfeA hotch-pot ; inJ I'avin^ fown the rice firA ii> 
hed^. \. here it coinca up too t'. •> ;'ieul much, titty 
finljilant it into their fields. ^ ..^.i i( ii Krmvu fit or 
.ifht inchei hi|h, ami fopplv the fieldi with water, in 
which it grows till th- < ice it almoft ripe i atier which the 
water being driei* .,> m the fair feafon, they cut and ihrclh 
it out, ufually in the fields where it grows, and in feveral 
«irovineei have two crops in a year. The rice is more 
tike iiati than my other grain) the ftraw hard and folid, of 
which whifllt are maile ) and we frequently find lome grains 
of rice left in the draw. I'here needs no dinig to render 
the land firuitful which is fown with rice ', the water fup- 
plics the place of dung, as well u rairtt but for wheat and 
D.irley, they ute all manner of compoft, and frequently 
burn the turf, the aihes whereof are eiteemed a good iiu- 
nure. In the com fhlds we fee neither tree<i, licd^,or 
ditchee ; they do not lofc an inch of groui^d that will pro- 
duce corn. 

This country, extending from the tropic of Cancer to 
tlie latitude of fifty decrees and upwards, has all the fruits 
proper to hot and cold climates, and fome plants that are 
not found in any other part of the world. They have 
luoft of the fruits that are known in Europe, as peaches, 
apricots, figs, grapes, apples, nears, walnuts, chefnutt, and 
olives, but make no oilofthelafti there are alfo cocoas, 
mancoes, guavas, plantains, ananas or pine apples, which 
they have brotightuoni India-, they have likewile pomegra- 
nates, melons, oranf;FS, lemons, citrons, limes, and other 
tropical fruits ; and from hence the Portuguefe tranfplant- 
cd thofe fine fweet orange*, catted China oranges, which 
come to as great a perfeAion in Porrusal as in China. 
There is a great variety of fwect oranges, oefides thofe im- 
ported by the Portuguefe j fome of them are prefcribed to 
lick people, being roafled in the embers ; others are fqueez- 
ed flat, and converted into a ^• ;f fweet- meat, of which jan 
are frequently brought to Fng^v'l 

They have alfo fome frjit wyiih lo not grow in Europe, 
particularly the fruit li<A'> i; in |': -at efleem among the 
Chinefc, and is pecv'w (■ t!« 7>..jrtry. It is a kind of 
plum of the fire of a U-/* 'sulrnit, the meat iifoft and wa- 
terilh, and has a moft di:U::'o'.'. JUvonr, and has a long 
ilone : this fruit being dried t\iriis black and wrinkled like 
a prune : they preferve them all the year to eat with their 
tea, to which it gives a (htrpnefs mucn more agreeable than 

The largrft fruit that grows in China, it the jaka, which 
hat within it a great many yellow nuts, that afford a deli- 
cious kernel. This fruit grows to the body of tlie tree, 
for, it is faid, the tree is too weak to bear it. 

There are trees in the province of Quang-fi, which in- 
ftead of pitli, have a foft palp, of which they make flour 
of a pretty good taftc. 

The vamtfh-tree, whofe leaf and bark refemMedie rifh, 
fcldom grows more dun fifteen feet high. When it is 
about a foot in compafs, they make incilions round it with 
a pruning-k nife, and hang vcflfcls underneath them in dte 
evening, and find a confiderable quantity of the liquor in 
them the next morning ; but the people who draw the var- 
nifh, or work in it, are forced to cover themfelves from 
head to foot, or they endanger their healths, if not their 
lives. This vamilh prefcrvei the Wood, belides giving a 
beauty to cabinets. 

An oil is alfo drawn from another tree almoft like var- 
nifh, which has not thofe ill effeAs which the former has : 
this is fometimes called lack, from whence things wafhed 
in it are called lacquered ware ; but the words lack and var- 
nilh are moft commotily mixed together, and ufcd indif- 
ferently for each other. 

China is remarkable for a fort of white wax, not made 
by bees but 'gathered from trees, which they have in fueh 
atiaiidafice, diat it ferves the whole empire. It is found 
thtcfly in the province of Hu-quang and Shang-tong : it 
i^ produced by an infcft not bigger than a flea, which has 
• ititif fo fharp that it pierces dte bark .md even the body 

of thelmt. Tkecountry otofU gather the tgg* of ihit 
infeO in the fpring, from wnciue piciuetl wnrmt, which 
they place at the foot of the trees lliat arc proper lor thein i 
they creep u|> *nd difp« it ihctuli^lvca through aU (he 
brancltes, and |>uietialtiig lo the «cry pith, convert th«ir 
neuriflimont into wax as white a* fniiw, which tliey work 
out of the bole tliey Juuc nade i It hang* coivgcalad in 
ilrop* about the trti, amt tiwjMopW gather it and m.Ve It 
into cakes for tlic market. Tticir tallow, which i . • 
disced by a certain tree, will be loentionrd under .. .eai 
head of plaiiti. Neither doves, uuLmegt, mace, ur cin- 
namon, ^ow in China, 

Tliere is another fruit McuUar to them called touy«f», 
or ''ragon't eye, it itexaAly round, ytllowilh when it i» 

T, full of juice, and very cool and inotfcntive. Of 
their trees, their ' -tree i« tlic moft reinarkalile : 

it ia of tlic neight , herry-tree, lite Itat' Ihaped 

like a hcvt, and of . uvuly rod ; tht fruit it encloled 
in a rind divided tntu three iegmeiits, which open wiien 
it is ripe, and difcovcr three white kerne li a« bl| v • 
fmalt nut; tl^fc trees beiitg plwted in a ft rait line dit- 
quer-wife, this mixture of white and red makes them took 
idle a parterre of flower-pou at a ditUuce ^ but what this 
tret it moft valued for it the kctnel, which ha« .ill the 
qualities of tallow, both inrmcll, colotu, and conliUcncy, 
and they make their candlci of it) but the wick licliif 
made of a linall dry flick inftead of cotton, they ciiiiuit- 
pofliblt burn fo clear u ours, aikl create a very oiTeikliYf 

They have alfo n tite like tlte walnut-tree peculiar t» 
this country, which bears a feed -bout as bi^ at a pea, much 
like pepper, and wliich the inhal>itartf$ ule ii>ftead of it. 
Their Kitchen gardens aboimd in all manner of herbs and 
falladi, rooti, peas, and beans, and a variety of other 

No fountains are to be met with in any part of China« 
except in the Emperor's gardens. 

1 ea or tcha, ia a plant peculiar to this country : it 
ufually grows at the foot of fome mountain, and the heft 
upon a ftony foil ; the root refembles that of .i peadi-tree, 
and its flower that of white wild roles. Tlie tree is of all 
fixes,- from t>«-o feet to an hundred in height, and fome of 
them arc fo tliick, that two men cannot grafp them, ac- 
cording to the Chinefc herbal. But though Uiere may lie 
feme very high and large trees, as thorns will fomctiiiu-s 
rifeto a great height : it it accounted but a bulh or ihiub, 
and grows about as liish as a rofe-tree generally. It it 
planted upon little hillt, each plant about tlucc feet dif- 
tancc from another, and docs not commonly grow wild. 
A judicious traveller telli us, he faw this plant in the pro- 
vince of Fo-kyen, wliete it grew iiuon the fide of a liulc 
hill, and the plant was not above five or fix feet high ) 
that feveral ftalks an inch tliick a-picce weie joined tl^- 

? [ether, and dividing at the top into I'everol little branches 
ormcd a kind of duflcr like our myitle : that the trunk 
fecmed dry, but bore green branches viid leaves ; the Icavci 
are narrow, ending in a point, and were an inch, or iniU 
and half long, and indented; that tlic oldcft were white 
and brittle, and tafted bitter ; the youug ones were foft, 
fmoodi, redilh and tranfparcnt, and pretty fvvcct to tlie 

The three forts of tea commorUy brought to Europe, 
are all from the fame plant, and only the feafons of the 
year when it is gathered, the different manner of curing it, 
and the foil makes the difTerence. liohea or voiij, fo 
called firom fome mountairu in the province of Fo-kyri, 
where it grows, is the very firft bud gathered in die hc-< 
ginning of March, and dried in the made : the imperial 
or bing tea is the fecond growth in April ; and fingle or 
common green tea the laft, in May and' lunc, which arc 
both dried i» little paiiti over tli; fire. The tea Uu ub is »\x 
ever-green, and is in the flower from Oflobeikto laiiuaiy. 
The feed it ripe in September and Oflober following ; but 
for one frelh and full feed there are a hundred naught Its 
feed veflelt are tricapfular, each eapfula containing one jiut 
or feed ; but though there be the veftigcs of feveral, oiil^ ' 
one comes to perfetl ion. It nay be necclliiry to oblcrvs 
further, that we are alTurcd the bohca is cured by laying 
the leaves on hot copper plates, and the other is dried in 
the open air, and both the green and bohea Ikivc fome in* 
gredient mixed with them, which may contribute to pro-, 
dace the ill effeAs complained of; ior though all tea be 
iMturally green, yet that colour is heightened by fome in- 
gredient, and the bohca is changed yellow by another in* 
gredient) but how or with what drugs this is done, the 
Chinefc have hitherto concealed from us. We (hall onl^, 
add, that this fluub do'cs not grow cither in die coldeft or 




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the hotteft parti of die country, but Utwwn tw«tlt3r*<ive «ad 
thirty degrees of north latitude, and more in th« nroriaee 
of Kyang-fi than any other ; and though this plant will 
grow almoft in anv climate, it degenerates, and i* good for 
little if it b«trinMmiwtandcanriifdtB«njroounliyi tbougli 
lying under the ume pwallelt , .,. < 

Ginfeng, or iiiin-«tai>t (fo aiki, be«raft it^ iMil 4i9 
vides into two inindiiiiriaiteUint; • foaii'^ tt>ii^) *•,' 
ufed as • tea by tht Cfapocfet whom that pvrpoie iiumfe 
the leaves, and (bmetupn dMMW^tio.Mling water. Tiw 
natives afcribe the viitue ofeMrf (Hberfimpleto this planti 
but it is fo fcaree, uid eM^vMif 4i»t, that non* but 
the eouit, and people ptnnMmn, oa afford to puicbaft 
it. A fmgle duh it ^noiKh t(t «inl( at • time : m«rc 
wooU produce ;iU effitAt.' >:'Tw* i»8at|iei«d in Tarvirr» 
and the provintws >b6|^lfffiiK#l>nilt ftenativM c^ it 
tlie phnt whkb di|ftiiiHH|ia||pwtality|^^il«fidti other fom- 
I<ovs names. >' •'"• ( ■ 

I'he weeping.wUlott fmiintifch admired bj theQu- 
nefe, who plant ii onitlliiii^dai'of all their eanala and 
riven, and near motl (Mtt^Mnds in their gardens i thejr 
deem its (hade the moil pMfing^ any* *dA their p«((eral 
poets mention it witllfaBalikr le&tA. &>. 

iThe iron-triie is aUb i ftttiee of thia cotmtry : ito wood 
■3 fo extremely hai(ljUld>4bindile^!ti^lMKhort are formed 
of it, vhich, tiie Ghinew tttuta, will lafi longtr than 
thofe which are mad* (rfiron. -. 

The bamboo or cOWrtree, is MM^high and thick i the 
bud has an excellent#|V«ur, aafWjMt is very a^reeahle,^! 
eating i it grows in mtar&y gt ^ vm0k itvSeA in'.hwldincs,j 
and the tubas of it aM «ften ^vetted into mtif-fiMt. 

The herb of a thMhnd years alfo gtons^ in China. 
This, the nadvea |^iiMid« tevac dies ; andttny have a 
flower called mu>tin|/lbiKn •^tanted* which lacns like, 
arofe : and it it of «parple colour, IbeakedtM, white, 

and yellow, wMicl^t'*>*>*'^^'>P*>i* * ^^^ *" ')>*>' S"Ai*» • 
but this countfy d^ not p>^^odnce a great variety .«£ 
flowers. • ^^ 

Some of the Cbi^' teiMrort lute not thpoghk huT- 
bandry below their care. Their hiflories relate, that the 
Emperor Ven held theploiigh himfelfi and that his Eta- 
_prels planted mnlberry-trees, bred filk worms, aiid clotth- 
' ed her fuaV-y with the filk they prodnoed i and they have 
« yearly ielbval at the vfmal eqamoy, vrtien the Mverttors 
of^townt and pravinees, march in nroccliiili, td&the-in. * 
ftruments of hnfbandry carried bc^ne them. The Em- 
peror Hiaen, it is related, appliedhiiii&lf to the ploughing 
and fowine the ground three yeart (vcoeffivt 7, and fent 
petfons Ikilled in hufbandry, to tbe^moftntiftant ptovincet. 
to teach the people how to improve dieir grpiwdr: and 
many books have been wrote, by their prince*, on the ftb- 
je£t of tillage. 

Their animnls are, camels, horlet, oxea. (heep, hogs, 
fome few ele-|>liants, and all manner of wHd beaAs. I'heir 
beft hories are brought from Chinefe Tartary : thofe in tl^e 
fouth of China are aimall breed, not fit fordrauglit, or to 
carry burthens. The bhck hogs, with bellies that touch 
the ground, come from this country. Their Iheep ate 
like thofe of Turky, haviM; great tails. that weigh ii:/eral 
pounds. Here are alio rabbits and hares in great num- 
oers. They have ^U manner of poultry, and hatch their 
eggs in ovens, heated with horfc-dung, at in Fgvpt ; and 
here is an odoriferous ftag, which produces joSL. 

They abound alfo in fea and river fiih ; and befidet the 
common way of taking fiih in nets in their rivers and 
^anals, they make ufe of a large fowl, orcormonnt, whidii 
(lands perched on the fide of a boat,'anii!! when (he ijufier 
(^ives the fignal, the biM takeahit flightt andlodu out 
tor game, and having ftised a iiliit bnngt it to hit maf« 
tcr : fome fly great Ruil^en of thefe birds at once, and 
they will divide a river, at lake, amongft theto, and letam 
to their maftenwiditfw fifli they have taken t and if the 
fi(h are large, th^ will hdp one anodker IN> bring it to the 
boat, after whidt dwftalu their fiight agun in feaich of 
more : having fbtli^t afcont their necks, which prevent 
their fwaUowihg any. till dieir maftff kave* oiF, and then 
they are fufTcred to prey for themielvet. Bofidet the iifli 
we have, there are fiwie forts we want, particularly tb^ 
gold and filver filh, viiiich gentlemen keep in bafoqa in 
tlicir gardens. They are not much larger than a tnatt^i 
finger : the male it of a fine red to the im4dlc< aai die 
reft. With the tail, of bright yellow or gpM ccjour : me 
female is of a filver white ; the tailof eitter, gathered thick 
like a nofegay: but thefe need no fiirtherdefcription, at 
fome of tlKm have been brought alive, and are now to b^ 
icen in England. 

The Chmcl'e have auoet of copper, lead and iron ; 
'^ a 

and a mittcna «alhMl tBtMm, «rfiidi hai iIm iWemblanco 
of tin ) and ifil iald there am geld mine*. It it cettain^ 
gold it More olentifisl inChina than in any otfier csofKiy, 
which is the leafon that private merchants, whan th«f 
have made their fertiwet by trading in India, brinrhome 
their iMtb in ield 4dL «Ueh niejr MRhafe 
nlMBaeed aU &«^^ ' 

Mm the hiUa i0»lMHiri#cli bong a 
bdt thtfon,'the mtivee <nii% «h«w|falm. 
land* In fievet and bafont, and fty wa t i m dwfpjkl 
There ia ifaii fiiither raafen that ffieate iMMt bf|lg homo 
ingoUdnft the amonnt of the.rialiH' iftiy iMNt lemitad 
in India* nannly, becanftther^ra Mt pemiititd inlwiMc 
^^^£ng|and<an^ of the (oodt iammid bjr d» Eafl In^ 

OiteiVsir M «Mi«»t if i*f. mmifUhmmi trmft^ fitt, 

rr^HE eliWinaniifiiftvTaaaf Ckii^are, finc» porcelain 
' X Of ehuia-watc, and cabinW-work. The Chinefe 
pTis reckoned the fincft in the world. That wUtdli the 
native* efiaem the beil it n w rf a ee d in die pfoviiieat of 
Nan-kin and Clwky-4aKjM)tfi>iei|^iert(bt a giett va- 
lue on Aat of Capntu Qictt qnantitiea of rnr filk are 
hnported from thenw at prdent, at the tltiiiea (whkb 
were la^ foliigh diat diqr aoaounted to a prahlbition) 
have been ittdneed by aA of parliainent wroudiit^lib V 
ate alio imooflMl frwn Cbina by theEndifii E« ^!^: 
company j«|it thefe are exported again, being jtrchiMM' 
to be worn her*. Bodi plain and flowered filka art brought 
over, but the figutrt ate not railed, confifling only of dif« 
fcrentc61ourt and Oiadctj the pnncipal^pM i* nfually a 
dragon^ being the imperial armt whic|i Fo^i, die foun- 
der of the empire, pve, it is faid, four tbiwfiuid vcatt ago. 
They work another dragon in their filkt, called maav 
with four claws, which every one is pegnitted to vrear. 

They have alfo manufiifturet of velvet oepet, dri^gett, 
fergts, and ilammiet \ but they make Mo doth, though 
they have exceeding good wool. In tfie northern pro- 
vinces diey fet a great value upon Engliih datfa, of wnidi 
tht India company have bean obliged to fend ovet a great 
deal, and it was dearer than filk in China ; but fince fo 
many other European nations have traded to India, the 
demand for the Engliih doth hat greedy decreafed. 

There it a very great mannftAure of cotton linen in thia 
country, and tmomer fort of linoi made of a plant ctlltd 
to, which a«*s the bignefs of a man's finger, and it fiwnd 
nowhere eUe. When it it dry, they bindit up in (heaves, 
and water it like flax or hemp. _ The firft fldn oeing peeled 
off and thrown away, they divide the fiives of me next 
into fmall threads, and, without beating or fpinning, make 
a kind of linen of it \ which is tranfparent, and exceeding 
cool and light. The comnum people ufuallv near oeaite 
blue linen quilted with cotton, or lined wioi fliaepflunf 
in the winter ; and people of condition line their veftt and 
gowns with the fables or fox-fldns in cool weather : they 
only turnup their fleeve*, or border their ve(b vrith er- 
mines, which ate very fcaroe here. 

The Chinefe have two forts of raw filk ; one it made 
by wild wonnt in the fields and upon die tree* of ttw foreft, 
which hct no gjhilt, is of a grey colour, very fbong, an4 
wafliet like liaeh i it it highly valued, aiid coiU more than 
fattin : ibr die odier' filk, diey ietA the wonnt in their 
honfet, vrith mnlbeRy«Intet, forty dayt, and mam^ it 
attnEnrope. Th^ are ignorant of dw art of wiie-draw- 
ti^ and cohfequently have no gold and filver-thread : to 
fupply thit dcfeA, diey roll their filk in thin wire platet^ 
to give it the tiiwe ; arid fomedmet, infieed of gildiiij| ther 
thread, diey apjriy the leaf gold to die (ilk in the ^tce. 
Thit fp^lendid iineiy foon tami(hes, and is worn only by 
\ mandarint of high rank, and the ladiet of their &miiy. 

Another very confiderable manuiafture in this catiutrjr, 
it the porcelain or china-ware. It is made of a very fiiff 
day, or ladier, foft white (lone, found in the i^uaniet of 
the pravinoe of Kyang-fi \ the pieces whereof being wa(h- 
tA^ and fepaiated firom die other earth wherewioi it i$ 
mixed, an beaten to a ve^ fine powder, wbiehdicf nuke 
int^apalle, and knead and beat it a loi^ time aftei ii ai Jt , 
diat the water may die better incorporaie widi iC ' lliey 
ufe a particular water, which it not to be found in die (anw 
part of the countrv the eartli is ; it ■• imprMntatsd with s 
peculiar fort of £iit which purifies and rafinet the cky 
more than any other. W hen the pafte it faffidcndy knta^ 


^.% The new and U^IVEttSAL STiSTEM op GEOGRAPHY. 

•d, itxej fohn their veffels, iittf npafc ^heifn to rti« fim 
■mming tiv4 evening ; but tiiu tlwni in wiien Ike i«M h 
««o hot, or'it will vrtrp tlieiil. f hut they iliy llic veM» 
V <iegrees, wnd puint HKin m lliny <}n4 tJM Mrth proper W 
ttuive it. Thsir alfo ^(h over tihs com with « wrt of 
ly« iwvHnifli MMe ef the fiirae MtMMdw poradhm ii 
coin|wiM«f, wMch Di«W tham a p«ttie«alv Ini^rt. Aiktr 
thi* th«jr )Mke tbeni ta • AmMl. trhich tttav keM «rMk « 
. ^Mida wtiibnn fire, md fi>r ftar thejr flMulf iMeHw anjr 
ouMgeAoiathe air, tiMy-d«not<lrtw dMm rat imiM> 
diaialjr aft«r ituj are baked, but let than cool xradurily 
bafort Ihay erpofe themtp the ah: ( firoib wheiuie ft apMm 
that it fcmiina a great iaal of eare and patiaMs to Mm 
ihia neat wafe U> perfc^m I but if U agraat MiiOalM t» 
thinlc it take* vp a hundred years, as fome have -npeitMtk 
nay, it it evident that it it not many nKutbs ^bont ; for 
we fend them the patteioi of fevcrai yefSa from Europe, 
which they imitate, and return at the Vinds we propofed 
in a very Ih^it time. The voyaRt which formerly tooj^ 
up nine month*, it not* aeeempliflicd in «bo« fire. 

Their china-ware is of three different forts ; atkl it dif- 
tinguiihed \fy the different. colonn.: the firftis yellow, and 
though &it IS coarfer than cither of the other, yet it being 
the imperial colour, it ahvayt um in die Enmeror't court, 
and is not allowed to other neoipl;. The (eeond fort it 
grey, with abundance of iinall irregular line* m it crcHffing 
one another ; thcfe are the moft bekotifdl, but very rarely 
brought to Europe. The hit and Moft Common fort it 
white, painted with flowers, trait; and bird*, of a pure 
blue, which our merchants principally buy up. 'I'hit 
ware it valued according to itt fine^nuit, it» whiienefs, the 
fmoothnefti the painting and fi^ton. The ftienelt is 
difcovered hj the tranfparency, which may be judged of by 
the edget wnere it is thineft. The whitenefs it not to be 
judged of by the outward varnifli, but the earth itfelf is to 
he examined^ and this appears tlie whiter the older it Is, 
when the varnifh is m iome neafure vwrn e<F. if there 
be the leaft <rrhart or roughnefs upon the (nttiee it is ac- 
counted a very great fault t it ought to be pertisftly fmooth 
and even through jut. 

Their red pa' itin^, it is obfervaWe, are feldom very 
lively upon th .e veflels, though they'dd not want very 
fine reds in C. tina ; but their blue is eieceflent ; however 
if care it nottakTiby the workman, thewhitenei* of the 
porcelain wjUbe lullied by a bluilh water which flows from 
the colour. Their flowers, it is obfcrvcd, are pretty jttft 
in their painting ; but their human figures monflrous : and 
the reafon of it is faid to be, becauie- regular pieces are not 
fo taking in China as the nuf-ihapcn illpropoitiondl pic- 
tures they fend us. . - 

The procefs of pjnfirig the porcelain is fotnewhat tedi- 
ous, and employs a great number of hands ; it it the bu- 
finefs of one to make the coloured circle nfcar the edge ; 
another traces the flowers, which are painted by a third ; 
a fourth is employed in the formation of birds and other 
aniipals j a fifth forms rivers, rocks, &c and a fixth is 
eajjaged in the figures of men and women. Though they 
acquit themfelves tolerably well in drawing flowers, and 
in fome other imitations, yet their renreienntien of ani- 
mals are for the moftpartvery aukwaraly executed; which 
mtift be either the cireft of ignorance in the rules of fym- 
metry and proportion, or mutt proceed from an affcdation 
of the grotefque. 

They dip a pencil into the vamilh, when they pajnt in 
gold or fitver, and draw the flowen and binh they defen, 
and, letting it lie till it begins to dry, they hy on thin teaf 
told and filver, or piii-duft. Japan bcit^ th« country we 
ttrft received the fine cabinets from, we j^ve thk naine to 
the lacquered ware we import from China and Tononin ; 
and perhaps it is all denominated Japan ware, becaufe the 
Japancfe arc the greateft maflers in this art, 

Vaper in Chin.t is made of the inward bark or the bam- 
boo, or targe hollow knotted cane, which they beat, ai:^ 
make their Ihects ten or twelve feet long ; it is mighty 
thin and fmooth, and wafhcd over with a fort of varnifli, 
to piTvent the ink's finking : but it is not fo iafting a* the 
paper of Europe ; for being made of the bark of a tite, the , 
wonn is apt to take it ; and this it the reaianthcy have no 
antient manufcripts in China : their hbrariet ctmfift only 
of copies of autl)entic orinnals, being forced to tranfcribe 
or reprint their books in the fpace pf a linar years. 

The Chincfe ink is compofed of lampblac e«traAed 
from feveral materials ; but the bcft is made of hog'tgreaft 
burnt in a lamp ; the/ mix a fort of oil andper fu uw a widi 
it, which gives it an agreeablp ftneU ; having made it into 
s pftc, they fwiiT. it iiito liiiie long fquare iticfcs with a 
iBoJd, and dry then>; when thay write they rub tfib ftiek 

ki a NiMe water, tni it will make a iTmiing black ink« 
whieh urtwr flprcadt beyonu tiu llroke of the pen or pencil, 
ihou^ the paper it {o Am that it fiamctimea link* tlutiugh, 
and 4iigiw:ct the wiiting. 

Tka apkiitg«liak ia efieetiMd ■ very reputable emnk)y> 
mentin Chbuii and it even nnfced ajnong the liberal 
aim, 6tbm in vMtf.m the icitncif, we may icafoiiabl* 
Aiifgfr. hMlNlclqi u'Hoe^xbeoH, fimou* ioi the fincft 
inM, tka4nk<anktrt km* feveniliinaU apartment* Ugbasd 
up both day i|ml aigbl with lanqpa, where they manuiatture 
thit plirful aiticlei 

lb* Ckinefc eanry Mi t Very extettliTe trade widi fo- 
raignan, awft of ii(.4lM(jMH of Eufope importing tiie 
ptMuc* of tkeirxoyntry t n>i> Hktf .ne«cr make any long 
iwftigtt tkcMclMct. AVkUktit merchandifc ia tranlported 
•ofiwaf»l>rEimiMii|iMi bvtwilbaU tbenatkintor 
tedi* dMrChaaiA'tMe 'mmm MM boiMn*, tmd no peo- 
pleare more induflrious, or will run greater baaardi to 
inriieafe their fbrtunea ttua dwic ^pie will m the Indian 
Aw : ikty h*M Ufo « v«ft inUnd trade, irom «ue pro- 
vinee W aiotker, bf dieir candt, every province beiue 
fi yf W^d , bjr water>CHriagF>«'^ the mtKhandiae of tbok 
that li^the mofk^Oadtt imm them, The prait they make 
'of the Aika, chiMuwaae^ ModNr paoduee of their coantry. 
i* iaameafe: aafcircoupjriet produce the fame artidet, 
aheyiet.what price. dte^.p)eafe upon them, and receive 
chiefly filver in return ; and yet fa cautious they are, that 
tkey williMt ft#s'*r»atiQns that bring them all thit 
wealth to emer tktte <MM*. 

, Canmn it *h« only fbn we ta^ yiithi and then we 
are adt^itwi no fCciher dun the fiAurbt. 1 hey iiw how 
ahe Uuidi have dcpofed. mny of tfa« ladian ptiacei, laid 
ulwped the dominwn ^ ikcir M%*Aive counirits : diey. 
know that thnrfereet an notcqiM to Europeac anniet,: 
and, to (uf the truth, it it only tkeir inMt diflanoe from 
Europe, and the vaft exteM of theXThineie dofflinton.% 
that fccurcs them in the pofleflSaniiliftkiir country. If 
China by as near France as Germany does, the gndd 
-moiuKh would long ago turrc made )» conqOeft of it,'and 
mnf>nr/t]jied all ita lich produce. The Vuarii krould, ub 
<fand-<,' have done it, if Aey couU hvt tent colonies fuf- 
fic'ent to have kept fo 'large a kinotem in fakjcAion to 
-them. The fame pretencet woula have ferrod them to 
hare invaded China, at they made, tfe df for attacking 
Java, Maeaflar, and the Spice ifland*. which would have 
been aoquifitiont cquaKy valuabk to dtem. 

If the fotaign meickann do not Mle fomeprelimlaaries 
with the hippoa, or commiffionert «f the caftomt at Can- 
ton, before ih« fliipt fail up the river, they wiltbe noio' 
rieufly iwmefed upon in Chin*. The fap^cargoei and 
-eaptaint, theivfera, arc a4viied to remain at anchor at the 
Portuguefe ifland of Macao, till the meafutc of the flliip 
and ilw licence for a free tnde are adjofted ; and when they 
come up the river, prefcntt mud be made to the Cuftom- 
houfc oiiicers. or tiiey will be very troubkfome ; but it is 
more advisable to feed them from tianc to time with Tmell, than to advance taig* fumt i for if they are never 
(o lafgc, ihcy will be forgot, if their memories ate 'not fre- 
quenMy refireihed. An even temper and mild ianguioB, 
it ia oM*t>ved, are quatificationt very nccefiary for oar To- 
pcrcargoet ; tliey will do well to imitate the Chinefe in 
tbefe articles, who ar* greater ptoficicnta in tiie att of diC- 

Vci]> littic i* gained by aaiy merchandiie f:ni to China, 
the prc^tariA* if the goods imported from China ; and 
there ia the giaaim care in the worM icqniicd in the (mfu- 
earga ta pmvcnt hir being iaipolcd on. If he doc* not 
view Ike goodt wUb ah imagiMbie cantion, and examine 
their weight* and mcafaret, ke maft cspeA to be chcatrd: 
and atlaft they have fo many iticka, that it feemt need- 
fary to weigk.thegeodt iAEntlifltfcaieiaAeribem. Where 
men have ttnfted to tkcir padiag*, they kaac been m much 
deceived at in their weight*. They have, found chrfta, 
boxe*, andcaniflcrt, (kesaAly cauMatfeiMd and madK^ 
that they have not doubted of ifccir bcictE thtir own, whew 
they have been cbartMd for other*, iMed with damaged 
geodt, in the room c« tliob they bre«ght with them. 

Ow nMf«heiitt,befidesehin»-watat,te»^fiik«,and Ucqnered 
ware, brtna home quickfiiver, cay p ety campbire. fans, pic* 
tai«*, fev, Boras, lipw taaoi^ gaiineal and.ta«tna& atidv 
iiotwi(huflndkig> tha eiipe«tktia<» of g^dtit^aabihittd, iheii 
governor* themi-hiet wilt <%ll it claiidruinafy, and our 
metchant* may gain near fifty per cent, by it. Pieces of 
tiiicoincd filver ar» taken away by VNigbt, inftcad of money. 
When paymentt ar* made in plate, fuch at ditties, bowts^ 
tankards, bafons, &c. they will cut a piece out of thrm^ 
and try tlie finenefs of the fiivcr. 


tA S I A.] 

tt . t r U^ \ M 

\7 :i -A 



Oobdi carried MCiiin*, befidu platt and bullion, an 
cloth, perpeiuanat, camteti, red, black, blae and vioht 
coloart, which do link more than pay the duiiet, and 
bring the prime coil. Lead lumi to the bed account of<any 
thing fent thither by the company. A private trader may 
carrv coral in branchci, amberbeade, horfe-pidolt with 
gihmrreit.fwotd-blidet of about fourteen fliillingi a do* 
sen I clocka and watcbet that look well, but are of* fmall 
price, and an^ new toy, which if he can carry on fhore, 
without paymg the duty, he may make a better voy- 
age than with all fllver; otherwifehia chargea Will exceed 
hia profit. Thefe fmall articlca laft mentioned, the com- 
pany do not concern tlicmfclvea in i bat permit the offi- 
cera and private men to try their forluoca with them. We 
muft obferve here, that the watchea fome yean ago exported 
from England to thefe parta, being of fuch indifferent 
workmanfliip, our rivals the Frenqh have in a great mea- 
fure undernuned us in that branch of trade. 

In the laft century, the charters for monopolizing the 
India trade were onit looked bpdn as a natiorml griev- 
ance, and in the leign of Charles II. fever:il eloquent 
fpeechea wirfe made in parliament aninft mohofioliEera in 
general, and this of the India trade m particular, but with- 
out the defiretfeffeA. It was however, expeAed at the 
Revolution, that this trade would have been laid open. But 
the company, by their powerful intereft among fome lead- 
ing men in the ftate, procured an aA of parliament for an 
exclttfive trade;: which Wasfiirther fecurcd to them by the 
vaft'fuma of money they advanced for the fervice of go- 
vernment ; and the immenfe quantity of wealth that hat 
accrued to the company of late years from their trade and 
poiTcffioni in vafinus pant of the Indies, together with the 
emolument arifing from it by loans and otherwife, hat moft 
ftrongly cemented their- former good underftanding, and 
diablilhed their commerce on an immoveable bafii, 


0/ibt ChiHifi arts and fiinut, hugiugt, Uarning, mttM 
»f tiuMt'iony lauity Vc. 

TH E reafon that theChinefe fall fliort of the Europeans 
in the fpeculative fciencet, does not proceed from any 
defeA in their capacities or intelleAa (for they are acknow- 
ledgedby all to be a very ingenious people) but from their 
fituation, being liiparated fo far from the reft of the learned 
world, and convetling with none but people fo much infe- 
rior to themfelvet, it is rather to be admired they have made 
iiich great advances in arts, and fciences, than that they have 
gone no further, confidering they have had no advantage 
by travelling, or any foreign alfiftance ; their knowledge 
being very defeflive when the Europeans firftcame amongft 

Their knowledge of phytic it but trifling ; which is not 
to be furprifcd at, fince they are ignorant of natural philo- 
fophy, phyficr, and anatomy, which are the foundation of 
it; but pretend to mighty (kill in pulfes, and will pro- 
nounce what diftemper the patient la affliQed with, how 
long it will laft, and whether it be like to prove fatal, after 
they have duly confidered the pulfe. They are not al- 
ways to be relied on, the Jefuits obferve, but their ikill in 
tbii particular it wonderfal, though they can much eafier 
refolec what the diftemper is, than aflign a remedy for it. 
They have no apothecaries, but every pbyiician prepares 
bit own medicines, which are generally made up m pills, 
butfeldom purge, nor do they ever let blood or give a dy- 
fter t they imagine that dircafeai generally proceed from a 
malignant corrupt wind, which they endeavour to diffipate 
by applying red horneedlea or irons like buttons to that 
part I and thus they torment and cauterise their patients 
upon the flighteft indifpolition. ^ And Ibme difeafet, efpe- 
cially that called the mordccbin, which it a violent cholic 
mnd vomiting, occafioned by indigefiion, it cured by ap- 
plying a red hot iron plate to the folet ofthe feet; but 
nothing is more frequently prefcribed than cordials, which 
M-c extraAed from herbs and rooH. They abound in fim- 
plet, which have their different virtues. Their frequent 
drinking of tea is laid to prclervr them from the kiatica, as 
well as the gout and ftone, with which they ate never af- 
fliAed. The root ginfeng, which has been mentioned 
among their plants, it efteemed one of their beft cordialt : 
and the root called pao cliina is an excellent fudorific, 
aiid purges the humours and corrupted blood. Every nMn 
is permitted to praAife phytic in China ; no degrees or 
quaiiiicaiiont are required but a gco<j ■miranoc, fo uiai 
their phyficiant are generally no better than thofc pretcn- 
deri to phylic which difgrace thii country. 

They ha<e Ibng diligently applied tbemiclvei to aftro.^ 
nomv, and made above four hundred obfervationt, at well 
of ecliplct and comets aa conjunAioni : however in tbi4 
Ibey were not cxaA, but have regulated many tfiiitgt itndl 
the Jefuits came amaingft theui, and fafferad tbem tp re- 
form their calendar* but however the Chinefe may havd 
failed in the m*lh»malic», they are perfect. aflrolog»ri«^ 
there being liitle more requilite to render one matter of 
tliat fcience, than the being an expert jugkr, and knowing 
bow to lie artfully, in which the Chinele are faid to exceC 
There are, it feemi, pretenders there as well as here, wbd 
bytheftars foretel all events, and in their almaqac* fliew 
the lucky and nnlucky dayl for marrying, u^dertakinA 
jottrneyi, voyagts, or any bulinefi of conlequene*. . Th3 
Chinefe divide their day into twelve paMs, whereat w* 
make twenty four ; and begin their day from tbe hour of 
twelve in the night. They had no clocka or watchea till 
the Europeans carried tliam thither ; but they had fun.> 
dials, which were divided into four parti, each |mrtconuin* 
ing twenty four fubdivilions, which added to the four larger 
diviiions made the whole to confift of one hundred partti 
But they havfe of late reguUied their dials, and teckoil 
their time almoft as we do. 

The months in their almanacs are lunar ; and in theft 
are fpccificd the times when the fun enters into every fignt 
together witli the equinoxes, folftices, tbe cuurfes of rh4 
planets, and their places in the ecliptic, their oppofitions, 
OonjunAions and neighbourhood to fome . remarkabU 
fixed ftars ; but before &e miflionaries taught them, their 
tables of eclipfes were very incorreft. The people ima-> 
gined, when theVe happened an eclipfe of the fun, thatthettt 
ftood a great dragon m tbe heavens, ready to devour him t 
and therefore beat upon tlieir brazen pans and drums, to 
' drive him away; and dill it is (did, the magiftratfs and 
' great officers at Pe-king, when the fun is cclipled, fall upoil 
their knees, and looking towards the fun beg tbe dragon to 
have compaffion on them, and not deprive them of the be^r 
neficial inriuence of this glorious luminary, ^ 

Inflead of letters, the Chinefe ufechara£ter$, which com- 
poft a kind of Ihorthand, where one word figiiifiesa word 
orafentence; and though they have a different dialed ill 
different provinces, fo that the people do not undeiftand 
eacd other, yet tbe charaAers in writing are underftood 
by every one, as a figure of 3 oi 6 is underftood in every 
cour.!ry in Europe. There are 1 ■'ore than twenty tbou- 
fand of thefe charaAert ; and he is elleemcd a very learned 
man that is mafler of fifteen thoufand. Indeed great 
part of their hves is taken up in acquiring their ov^n lan- 
guage, which is tltought to be one reafou of iheir not be- 
ing better proficients m the fciences j but there are fehlont 
more than two or three hundred of them underftood by the 
common people. 

The method of printing in China is very different from 
that praAifed in Europe. The author of a book iit this 
country firft gets it fairly tranfcribed; then the engraver 
glues each leaf upon a fnlooth board, and cuts through tlie 
written paper ; fo that the cliaraAer perfcAly refcmblcs thd 
original copy, nor is there any difference betwwn the print 
and written handi Hence the boards ufed in priiiting a 
book of an ordinary fiie would fill a large room : whereat 
we fet a Ihect with the twenty-four letters, and having madd 
ah impreffion, diftribute the Utters, and fet another Ih«et 
with them ; but then their way of printing hat this ad- 
vantage bf ours, that they can have as many imprefliont as 
they pleafe ; there is no occafion to fet the prefs again, and 
there can be very little occafion for • correAor; for tho 
author having hit copy fairly tranfcribed, the engraver 
fpreadt the leavet on a board, and cuts through the pa- 
per, and, confequently, the copy pcrfeAly relcmbles tho 

Where men ftand candidates for preferment, they are 
required to have fuch learning as the country affords. Mo* 
ney will not do alone, where a perfon is perfeAly unqua-' 
lifted to execute the office he dclires ; though where two are 
equally qualified, a prefent, judicioully applied, will have its 
weight. When a young fellow has made himfelf, in fome 
meafure, mafter of the language, and been examined b» 
the magiftrate of the place where he rcfides, he is admitted 
a ftudent in fome college. For a fecond degree, he paflef 
an examination before the chief magiftrate of the proviiice. 
On taking a third degree, he is examined by tbe Emperor's 
comniiffary. And the laft degree is taken at the capital 
city of Pe-king, their travelling charges beirtg borne by the 
government. Here the Emperor frequently examines the 
I canuiiiaic in pcifcn, fci tus dignity of tbe prince is set- 
I tho<it',hl any reafon for exempting him from alearited edo- 
I cati^i ; and,, conlequently, he it genettlly qualiSod t<* 


judge of the iwrft of flMAtf . Wkcn ito MtMi, m Aey 
tre tcraivl, bwre paffc^ (kit exMRination, pNtoi* af (low- 
As or •fhcr tokiiu w A* EMfwror't finrMr an CMfcm4 
on the noft Arftnrng ; fo«e vf iW« b««t iiImu aCgoMl 
them in tfft Reyal •cadenjr, and ofcaMr raecM^ M (Im 
b«ft mA» i« the g6T«rnincM, m vwukim lM|i|icn. 

TheCliiMfc have no hcrtdiMy iwbilitjr, or anjr MiMr 
Aftmaion ofqwUty, bm wh« the eAc« ■ mm esecutn 
(ivei hSm ; (o that, except the defccmfamt* of ConAKiui, 
Ate whole kingdon it divided kite magiftraey and com- 
aionahy. There ate m bafc tcivMC*, their landi are pro- 
ferly their fteeholJi, hawing no fuaerior lord b« the Em. 

Crpr, and he can ky hit own aathority las all the landi 
ih of prieftt and people ^i he pkafet. There being no 
fcch thing u quality or nobility, the whole nation apply 
iKmrehes t* trade or huibandry, and have no idle handa 
Miong them, or dianei that live entirelT upon the hbonr 
«f other*. One of their Emperor* nlcd t« fay, that if he 
knew a flothfiil perfon in hi* dominion*, who refufed to 
wrork, he (honld think another af hi* fubjed* wo«M fuftr 
•n hi* account. 

Some writer* xflirM, that theChinefe hid the conpaff* 
long before u* i but if they had, they made bat little uie of 
k, never venturing out of their own narrow fea* j and, 
indeed, they vrere verv indifferent marinentnd (hipwright*. 
Th^y had no topmaftt, nor did they ever go ap nie main- 
mafi to furl the fail*, which conlifled of mattmg, b« let 
the yard down npoR the deck before they took it in : and 
their (hips wet« built with flat heads and ftem*, and could 
only fail before the Wind. 

They had aifo guk^powder and gm* when the £««>- 
peans came amongft them, but hardly knew how to mk 
them till the miflionaries inftruAed them : and it is fup- 
pefed, they were infliufted in the uf* of the compafs, a* 
Well as ii> makiag gun-powder, by the Arabian* and Egyp- 
tians, who IcMTtt thef* things of the Europeans, and had 
dblonies in the iflands 'm the Chinefe fea* when the Por- 
tugucfe arrived there, if they had not on the contineat of 

A gentleman who travelled to the Eaft Indie* in the reign 
of his late majelty George 11. hasciven the following cha- 
M^er of the people of China. The Chineie, by* he, ara 
a very ingenious and indoftritni* people, a* is evident from 
the great number ok curious mxnufaQuie* eflablilhod a- 
mong them : but thouck (kill in the handicraft art* fcea* 
ID be the moft valuable qualification in thi* people, yet 
their latent* are but of • fecond rate kind, for uey are 
much outdone by the Japanefe in thoiie manofiiftuie* which 
are common to both countrie* ; and they are in many in.. 
ftance* incapable of rivalling the mechanic dexterity of the 
European*. Their principal excellency is in imitation, and 
they accordingly labour under that poverty of genius which 
conftaiitly attends all fervile imitators. Thi* is confpicu- 
o4s in works which require great truth and accuracy, as in 
clocks, vratches, fire-arms, Sec. for in all thefe, though tbey 
can copy the diffisrent parts, and can form fome refem- 
Blance of the whole, yet they never could arrive at fuch a 
juitnefs in their fiibric as was necefliiry to produce the de- 
fired effeft. In (tatuary and painting, they feem ftill mace 
defedive ; their painters, though in great efteem, ively 
focceed in drawing or colouring haman figure*, or in the 
grouping of large compofitions ; and though in flower* and 
birds their performances are OMoh more admired, yet even 
in thefe, fome part of the mmit may be impiit«it to the 
native hngbtneii and excellency of the coloan, rather thatt 
to the flcUl of die painter, fince it it very unufual to fee the 
light and Ihade junly and naturally handled, or to find that 
cafe and grace in the drawing, which are to be met with in 
the work* of Eurc^iean artvfts : there is a fliffnefs and rai- 
Hutcnefs in moft of the Chinefe produAions, which are 
extremely difpleafin^ ; and it may be truly al&rted, that 
thefe defeAs m thetr art* are crxirely owing to the pecu- 
liar turn of the people, amongft whom nothing great et 
fjpirited is to be met witli. 

This people are remarkable for their diievifh difeofitioA; 
an inftance of which we fhall here infert : foon after com- 
mo'dore Anfon arrived at Canton, he perceived that fome 
perfon or perfons had ftolen a topmaft from the fhip's 
ftem. A reward being offered to any one that would dif- 
eover where >. was, the (hip's mandarin thereupon inform- 
ed' the "rx-wmodore, tliat fome of his attendaato had found 
the topmaft, de(iring that he would fend his boat for it ; 
whereupon Mr. Anfon gave the mandarin's linguift a fum 
of money to deliver to his nwfler as a reward ; which the 
linguift thinking fit to conceal, Mr.. Anfon dileoveted his 
rop^ery, and the ~iandsrii~> feized ail tliat the iinguift tind 
gained in the commodore's fcrvice^. which was near two 

ilMaflMMl dttUkr* ; and he WOT fofcverety baAiraKlecd, thai 
IM wa* in daiyr of being killed. The fdlsw aiicrwanit 
caM* a hcggitw to Mr. Aniim, and, being «pbc«idcd with 
ki* knavery, laid, •• Chintie nan be very great rogue," 
but intimated his betters vreie a* great villatM* a* k* wai, 
Thi* writer prMeed* to vriad, Omt «ke OkiiMfc felling 
every itiing by weight, tkey cramaMd ih< duck* and fowl* 
ihcy fold to the com«od*re with <Une*, and tkey died 
fooN after he received them. And the hogs lie bought^ 
killed by tke Chinefe butchers, were full ot water ; and 'd 
they were bought alive the peopfe gave them fak » mak« 
tliem drink, and fixand mcaiM t* pitvent ikeit di(<cha*Ring 
it by urine. Othet h*g* tixy fold, which died not toog 
aAir, and, when tkty were thrown overboard, tk* ChincM 
wew f«ady, with i)^ boa**, to take them up, a bog wUdi 
had died a natwal dcaifa being a* valuable with ifaan u s 
Uring one. 



Triafi $filnCh'mifimmartbf, thi c$njlitiitim tfthmr t*vim' 
mtmt, fiu€tfiim if tht trnimj uurii tfjifliu^ magtfirun^ 
hwi, Vt. 

THE monarch of thia great empiie rait* with m ab> 
fokate (way. Among the rdft of hia tide*, the En- 
pemr i* ftiled. Son of bcnen, Sol* Governor of the Earth, 
Great Father of hie peo^, tct. Hit tfaioae i* keccriitary 
unkf* he ihwk* (it to pais by tke next licit, and appoint 
another to foccecd him. If he akcr* the fuccefton, the 
aft nwft be ratified by hi* gueat council, confifting of tho 
prince* of the blood and great oficei* of flafr, who feme- 
time* take upon them to cppofe hi* defina, and atiempt 
to fet afide thofe whom he deemed to be kit nc>t heir*. If 
be cannot prevail with ihem to agree with him, he dif- 

E laces them tilt he gets a majority that will compljr with 
im i but this, it (inm*, i« nick a defpcratc experiment, 
that he feldom prooeeda to fechenreom*. ■ ' 

Notwithfianding the Empetot and moft of thcTartm, 
in the grand councS, were readjr to allow theChrilUans » 
toleration, yet ^cre being a majority againft it, the mo- 
tion WH dro p ped : and as thete a*e boards oi councils (or 
every branch of bufineis, the priiKe feldom t&t arbitra- 
rily, but lefera all matt*** to th* decilion of the court* to 
which they refpcAively belong ; neither doe* be apply the 
revenue loany particular ufe, until hi* orders are ratified 
by th* commiffieaer* of his treafiiay. Hi* forces are not 
fent on any capedition, without the concurrence of a 
council of war : but notwithftanding it i* related of thefe 
Emperors, that they are indc&tigable in bufinefs, they are 
furrounded, Uke other caAern monarch*, it appears, by 
crouds of ladie*, and (cldom llvew themfelves to &c people 
above once a week ; perhaps they retire, that they may be 
more at leifure to confider the complaint* of their fubjejts . 
And he ha* attendant* ot agenu in every court to overfiie 
the proceeding* of the jodge* and officer*, of whom, it it 
faiJ, the greatcfi ptinee* ftaad in awe. 

Governors of province* or town* arc oUige4 to (end 
faithful account* of thcB adminiftratioB to court, and a 
roifreprefentation, it is (aid, would be fiual ; but tliey are 
fo dextrous in blinding the eyes of thofe whofe bufinefs it 
is to be a check upon tkera, that their adminiflratien i* 
very feldom difiipproved ; and iadeed, uuleft the prince i« 
a fuprrioT genius to hi* miniftert, andean penetrate into 
their dark fchcmes, the beft kw* and regulations that can 
be made will be evaded, and they are evaded with a wit-> 
ne(* in China. Evcnr tkkig i* carried by bribery. Thejr 
tnay hove good law*, but they areliiaree ever put m execu- 
tion t the magiftratm, as well a* people, aft in open defi- 
ance of tliem , a ciecuhtion of baoeiy run* through every 

Large funu of BMMey are frequently extorted from the 
governors of provinces by the great oiCcers and prefidents of 
the faperior courts ; and thofe governors no iefs opprei^ 
and fleece the goveraors of the town* in their provinces, 
who are obliged to do the like by their i-^feriors, in order 
to make up At fumt required of them ; d whoever com'-. 
plaint, runs the faaianl of being ruined : a general conni. 
Vance prevails amongtbe officer*. The Emperor, probn~ 
bly, is die oitly peifon that it not acquainted with dieir 

Seme of the diildien of viceroy* and great men aic al- 
ways kept about the court, on pretence of giving them a 
good education, and thi% indeed, is one very good reafon ; 
but it is luppofed they liave a better,, namely, "die fecuring 
the fidelity of their paceutt.a •^i-.i *t-- v : 


tA S t A.) 

t H Ai 

There are courts of juftic* in every province) h&mblihs 
thofe in the capital ; but no I'cntcnce of <kath ii executed 
till tite cafe i> reported to the Emperor, and he ratifiei it. 

No law ii more religioudy obferved among theChlnelii 
Uian that of fubmiflion to pventsi If a father complaint 
hit fon ii difobcdient, there needs no forthar evidence to 
put him to death : if a matt Ihould deride or ftrilu a pa- 
tent, the whole neighbourhood ii inuncdiatcly alarmed, 
and rifa to bring the criminal to juftice t he ii fentenced 
to b« cut in pieces, and afterwards burnt, his houfes and 
lands deftroyed, and to rcnuin fo to deter others from 
committing the like crinici The fovereign himfelf it 
under a neccility of giving oiKdience to this law. It it re- 
lated, that one of their F.mperor's having banilhed his mo- 
ther for fot>e gallantries Ihe had been guilty of, the people 
ne«r left petitioning him, till tliey had compelled him to 
lecal her. They would not defift, tliough he had caufed 
feveral of them to be beheaded for their infolent advice i fo 
tenacious are the people of this tenet of their law. 

The Chinefe punilh trcafon and rebellion with the 
greateft rigour , tlie criminal being condemned to be cut in 
pieces, the executioner ties him to a flake, aiid firft fleas 
nil forehead, letting the Ikin hang oveir hit eyes j for a 
very wife reafon, as foroc pretend, namely, that he may 
not fee bow barbarouHy he it mangled ) and having cut 
and tormented the oSenaer till he is weary, what remains 
of him is torn in pieces by the mob : and where the crime 
is very great, the children of the offender fuffer with him. 

They punilh murder by death, which is infliAed dif- 
ferent ways ; the mealier fort are beheaded, at being deem- 
ed the mod ignominiout punilhment: and perfoni of 
quality are flrai\igled, which of all deaths it looked upon to 
be the moll Teproachful witli us. 

Theft or adultery are not puniflied to death, unlefs fome 
great violence is done to the party, but by the baflinado ; 
or the offender has a thick board hung about his neck, and 
cxpoied every day, the crime being written on the board.-- 
As no criminal is executed but by the Emperor's expreft 
order, malef^or'i are confumed m prilbiu : the prifont 
in the great cities arc fo large, that ttiey coniift of feveral 
itreets with market places. In Canton alone, it is faid, 
there are not left than fifteen thoufand priToners. The 
offiuidert are allowed to work in the day time for their 
livings i the Chinefe not being much given to aAs of cha- 
rity, and the Emperor's allowance it but mean. 

A very common punilhment among the Chinefe is the 
baftinado, or feveral blows of a cudgel on the buttocks as 
they lie on their facet on the ground, from which the man- 
darms are not exempt, nor it it reckoned very fcandalout 
among them. The offender, if he be able, atter this dif- 
cipline falls down befere the magiftrate and thanks him 
for this kind correction, though one blow is almoft enough 
to lame him, if the ext-cutioner be not bribed, which it 
is faid he frequently is. It is a common tiling for men to 
kt themfelves out to be baftinadoed in the room of the cri- 
minal ; which, if true, difcovers no fmall weaknefs or cor- 
ruption in their magiftrates, thus to defeat the intent of 
the law. 

In China, courtezans are allowed by public authority, 
and are under the regxilation of tlie fame officers who take 
care of the temples and the Emperor's facrifices. 

They have no lawyers or advocates, but every man ma- 
nages his own caufe : for we arc told, tliat the plaintiff 
having drawn up his cafe or plaint in paper, in fuch a 
form as cuftom requires, comes to tlie tribunal ; and hav- 
ing beat on a drum at the fecond gate, falls on hit knees, 
raifmg his hands as high at his head ; after which he deli- 
ven his paper to an ofhcer, who carries it to the mandarin. 
If the fuit appear to be frivolous and vexatious he is feverely 
baflinadocd ; but otherwife it is given to the proper offi- 
cers to examine, who having made their report, it is either 
confirmed or altered by the judge But thefe writers are 
not pleafed to inform us, whether tlie defendant be fum- 
moncd to anfwcr, or in viliat manner he makes his de- 
fence, which is I'ucli an omiflion as can hardly be forgiven: 
but as it is impoffible to determine juflly in any caufe with- 
out hearing both fides, we inufl conclude that no man it 
forejudged without being pcmiitted to offer what he has to 
fay in his dctence, among fo polite a people as the Chinele 
are reprefcntcd to be. There is a liberty of appeal, it feems, 
to the fuperinr tribunals, or a man may pafs by the infisrior 
courts and bring his caufe bctbre the higher judicatures at 
firft, if ho apprchaids juflice will not be done him at 

Th? I»W« of China nr§ fo niain, and tlicir T^licvfuch- 
that the Emperor may dilpatcli all the buiinefs relating to 
the empire by applying lumlelf to it but two hours in a 

di^t thtt to Mty dM wh« etMUm Am oiultita^ b^ p^k 
pie under hit goVcnunenli uA cMkfequentlr the gntt Va- 
riety of bufindt hcrii irtaft kt txka on i» bupoffibU i 
neither * few houn or t whota Am tin be r«flkS«at to km 
over the petition* only th«t aif M foppoM to be pnftftt- 
ed him in thli n& empirt. ntmvtt teftunly be Inform- 
ed of the purport of thedt bf hi* oflkers, and deterhlilM ai 
Ihcv are pltafed u nprt&nt £iA* to him. Thus It it iti 
all kin^domi in Europe, aild eanhot be otherMrife in Chitut 
which 11 much larger tJian anv of them. The moft that 
can be expcAed of a prince wnofe dominiont art hot ex^ 
ceeding fmall, it to make choice of able minlfters, and Id 
prefetve his people from notorious oppirflions : as for read* 
ing all petitions, and determining of all caufes which leomd 
by appeal to the fuperior courts himfelf, the J«foits nujr al 
well tell us he worlu miracles, which they themfelVes alftf 
pretend to in that part of the world, and they will M 
equally believed. 

When the Empert>r of China, attehded by a muttltVide of 
tlie great officers in their robes, the prince of the bloody 
and tributary kings, who fallproftrate on tlieir faces before 
him, gives audience to arobafladors in a large room of ftatet 
fupported by four rows of varnifhed pillars, whcte thi 
tlirone it placed, and the roof it covered with (hinihg ycllo# 
tiles. The throne is about three or four feet high)_ in di4 
falhion of an altar, and covered with fables, on which tli# 
Emperor fits crofs-legged, after the manner of the Taitari. 
When the Czarifli ambaffador had his audience Of leavCi 
the Emperor was featcd on his throhe, and 1 herald hUed 
aloud to the lords of the court to fland up and boW to t|M 
earth ; uhich they did three times i Ad in the mean tiin# 
the drums beat, the bells rung, and the mufiC played; and 
the ambaffador being brought within eighteen feet of the 
throne, was placed between two Tartar princes, while h* 
made hij compliments to the Emperor. At he returned* 
he obferved the Emperor's guards flood in the fourth 
court, clothed in red callico, with figures as big u a crown 
printed upon them ; and that tliey had little caps with 
yellow feathers, being the Emperor's colour, and wera 
armed with fcymitars and lances. The ambaflador wai 
conduced in one of the Emperor's chariots drawn by an 
elephant, from the palace to his apartment. 

The Emperors ol the prcfcnt Tartar family (hew thetti« 
felves to the people about four times a month ; whereat 
thoft of the Chinefe race feldom appeared in publici 

The Emperor vifits the frontiers of Tarury almofl 
every year, at which timet thirty or forty Tartar jprince* 
attend to do him homage. He commonly ridet poll whert 
he vifits the orovinces, with a frw of his officer!) guards 
being planted along the road fo' his fecurity. But the Em- 
peror never appears in that fpl.-ndor, we are told, as when 
ne goes to facrifice in the idol temples. Upon this occa- 
fion there marches firft fojr and twenty trumpet* with 
golden coronets, and as -nany drums ; then twenty-fouif 
men witli gilded trunch'.ons, after v i -v coitie one hun- 
dred foldiers with fine halberts ; aftei u'- w hundred fer- 
ieants at mace, who are followed by fi n hundred fin<i 
lanterns, and as many gilded fiambeaut ; alter thefe comd 
two hundred lances, followed by four and twenty baniwra 
wi^h the figns of the xodiac, and fifty-fix more with the 
conflellations painted upon them ; then four and twenty* 
magnificent umbrcllos, with a cupboard of gold plate homri 
by the officers of the court ; after tliefe tlie ElBperor fbl.< 
lows on horfeback glorioufly dreflcd, his houfen and furni- 
ture covered witli gold and precious ftonA'< aftd he it fhadad 
with gilded umbrellot held over hit head by the pkgei of 
honour : he is followed by the princes of the bloM, v1m<< 
roys, and minifters of Hate in their robe* ; ajhfr WhoBl 
come five hundred young gentlemen, attended by a than' 
fand footmen dreflcd in Canution filk, and worked widi 
ftars of gold and filver : after them is caaied an open chair^ 
like a triumphal chariot, by dtitty.^ men, and afio<bci' 
follows it carried by a hundred antl tweiity tatOt to ittgtp 
that it would ferve for an apartment: afbr tlieftetwM 
two chariots drawn bv elephants, and two more by horfeti 
each chair and chariot having a guard of fifty men ; ana 
the proceffion is dofcd by two thouCmd maodarins, an* 
as ffiany officers of the army richly drell. 

The Emperors of China do not in general live in(t||| 
iplendor and luxury to which other eaflem aiomiid)* tt0 
to much accuftoiBed ; but content thcmielvas, «i<Mt«a 
public occafions, with a moderate attendaace« a decent 
frugahty at their tables, and a well-tesulattid ocoAoBy ii| 
all their public expencet< They divioc! with thdu nisif- 
•crs the cst»? of <"j??rnn«at-, ilet ityina »k> «/|io]« Iniiltrt 
on their ihouldcrt, while they indulge thcftifelte* ih cafe 
and pleafure ; they are indeed obliged, by thrkwSOf theif 



ii The new and UNIVERSAL feVSTEM" er CEOORA^rtV. 

couituV, (0 tkLe « confMertble f1)ar« of the troubM uport 
tlieinfislvet. ind to read mif anlWcr petitiont and rrmon- 
Arincei, H'lic itccellity of ^ll\ice m him tendj to iiMk« 
Mqi wife and bitelligeftt, and rendcri hhn the idol of hit 
peopit : • he dnea Hoi pofTeff. hii authority as a conqueror 
or a Icgillaturc, but as a fiithtr ; il a parent he reign*, go- 
«eriu, rcwarda, tfnd punifhet Nil two fovereign couirHi 
in, |. The extra-couhcil, tfompofed 6f the prtncci of the 
blood roval ; and, 2. The council in oidinarv, which con- 
iM[» of tliofe priiicta, and fevcral miniften, wno jointly in- 
veOigate rtiatteri of ftatc, and make report to ttic Emperor 
«if their proceediiwf. 

The revenue ofthe Eilineror it hnrnenfe, amounting to 
tipwan)' of tv«cnty-<ine millioni per anmim ; and hii army 
ioaCnt of feven hundred and feveitty thoafattd nnn. l\e 
ta$ an unlimited power to declare war, proclaim peace, or 
Conclude treaties. How the Chinefe pay their cinl lift and 
five millions of fuldiers (computed to be the whole number 
of towns in the empire) with about twenty millions of 
Olnocy, Is not eafy to determine. 

The public revenues are not farmed, rmr do they pafs 
through the hands of fevcral under-receiveri ; but thectiief 
iTiagiflrates of each city regnlate and collcA the levies, and 
icmit them to the treafurer-gcneral of the province, who 
tranfmits the furphij to Pe-king, after the refpeflive go- 
Vcniprs, ofBcers and foldters of 3ie province, have received 
their pay, and defrayed other neceflary charges ef govern- 

With refpeft to the Chinefe money, copper and filvtr 
in their only currept metals, as there is no gold coin in 
^e' kingdom : that metal psifl'es rn trade as a commodity, 
and even filvcr is not coined, but cut in pieces for particu- 
fir payments -, and in that cafe it is eflimated by its weight 
alone, and not by any mark or device Damped by ro^al au- 
thority : they pay capital fums in ingots or bats ot filrer. 
Moft rrading people carry with them a balaitce. This ba- 
buice refembles thelitUiards, and will give the precipe weight 
of the minuted thing, to the thoufimdth part of an ounce. 
Their foot is much about the length of ours. Their cop- 
per money is the only fort that is (lamped with any cha- 
ncer or mfcription ; hut they du not itnpTefi it with the 
head or image of the Emperor. 


Trttis tfthi rtligltn, lemples, and futirftUitIt tj iht Chi- 
nift ; alfi tf thtfragrtft o/lbt Cbriflian rtlii'iiH in China, 

Y T is remarked by writers of undoubted credit, that 6f 
1 all idolaten upon the face of the earth, the Chinefe 
have fallen into the feweft abfurdities ; for that being Ailly 
convinced ofthe being of God from the works of creation, 
they have ever adored and worlhipped the deity as the one 
fupreme God, the King of heaven and earth, or rather that 
eternal mind which they imagine animates both heaven and 
earth. Though there are feveral inferior deities which tlicy 
wpTlIiip, as; the firft inventors of arts, mountains, rivers, 
^sV yet they never facrificed to vice, or worfhipped fuch 
impure deities »i the Egyptians, Grecians, and Romans 

Religion in China is divided into three feAs : firft, the 
followers of Lao-kium, who lived, as they fay, above five 
faiindred years before Chrilt. He taught that God was 
Corporeal, and had many fobordinate deities under his go- 
Ver,ni.ncm ; his difciples flndy magic, and pretend to make 
tUat drink which Win give men immortality. The fecond 
^e the fc£i ofthe teamed, who are the difciples of the fo 
much celebrated Confticius, who left many admirable pre- 
Mpts of morality, and inftruAed tlie people in philofophy. 
He fpcaks gf God as a mod pure and perfeA principle, the 
fountain and eflenCe of all bemgs -, and though we are told 
he prohibited idolatry, he has temples and images erefled 
to hirti, and is worfhipped with the profmindeft adoration, 
as appears from the Fope's decree againd the Jefuits for 
allowing in their converts this idolatrous worihip. There 
Is a third fcft much more numerous than either of the 
former, who worihip the idol Fo, or Foe, whom they flile, 
the only god of the world. This idol was imported from 
Indja about thirty two years after the death of our Saviour; 
pis prltfts, the bonzes, teach feveral moral precepts ; and 
that there ia a date of rewards and punifhments after this 
fife. They alfo inculcate into their followers, that it is 
hot lawful to kill any living creature, or to drink wine ; 
and do not forget to indruft them how mvh it is their 
duty and intercd to entertain and nourilh their priefts, and 
to DuiM them temple: and mcnatlcno, and perfbnu tlie 

, , mees they mioin. If thry neRleft thefe things they 
threaten them with the greiteft torincnts after dca^li ; or 
that their foult fhall animate fome vermin or b:id of 

Wc are told of one whom the bnnzes had prevailed on 
to believe that hrs foul IhouM gn into one of tlie l.niperur'* 
pod-horfes, and that they h;id adtiletl him to cat little, and 
endvre it |iatiently, and God might lie iiidiirfd (hi- next re- 
move to let him polTefs foine nntoii of iinaliiy ; hut the 
man was under fuch horror at the npptchciifiuii of King a 
pod-horfc, that hii being ■ man ot ligure ntti-rwards gave 
him but litlh fatisfafVinn. Ik-cnuld not llccpday or night, 
but hearing that the Chridians did not vnderfo thofe 
changes, and were men as well in llir mIut world a« here, 
he fent for the fiffher to baptize him, who affures ut that he 
died a very good Chridian. The dodirine of Confucius !•» 
the religion ofthe F.mpcror, the princes ofthe blood, inJ 
all peo^e of learning and didinftion in the empire. 

The bonzes, who are the prieds of that fc« who wor.« 
fhip the idol Fo, undergo the fevcreft pcn.inces, by wiricit 
they imagine they merit much, and r f 11 apply their merit* 
to whom they plrafe. Jn their templei is an image of im- 
mortality, reprefenting a fat man, fitting cmft-lcgged ; 
another called the imagi; of plealure, twenty feet high ; anj 
between them another im.igc thirty feet high, with a crown 
on hi* head ; befidcs which, they have a great number of 
littlt images in their lioufes, which they wotlhip a* well a? 
Confucius and their anccdors. The fun, moon, and llaiSt 
are alfo the objefts of their .iHora'ion. 

A living man, whom they dyle, ihcGrtat Lama, is wor- 
fhipped by the Tailars ; his prieds are iioin him called 
lamas : he is alfo called, the eternal father ; and is never 
feen by day-light, but in his temple by the light of lamps : 
he fits in a railisd tloor, drelFcd in the robes of a fovercif n 
princ< ; and thofe that approach him tall prodrate on the 
ground, kifling his feet ; and his difciples Iwlieve that he 
lives for ever. The Tartar ptincei do not think theni- 
felves fettled on their thrones until they have obtained his 
bleding; and the Emperor of China goes annually into 
Tartary to adore him : however, the Kmpcror, on a poli- 
tical account, pays an eoual regard to the piieds of Dotl» 
religiom. He honours Confucins, and facriticcs m tlio 
Chinefe temples ; and the tniflionarics pretend, that it wa» 
only reafons of date that prevented his profeiring the Chrif- 
tian religion ; though at other times they are plcaftd to 
confefs that he declared he could not believe, much lcl:i 
embrace it. • 

It is a received opinion antong the great men in China, 
and even fome of their Emperors, that it is poiFiblo foi- 
men to obtain immortality even on earth. Innumerable 
books have been written on this fubjcft ; nor can the daily 
inflaiKes of mortality, even among tliole who have the 
greateft ophiion of the preli:ription >\hich is to cflcil thi:» 
change, and prefcrve them from all corruption ami decay, 
convince them of the folly and abfnrdity of rlnir opinion. 
One of their Emperor's, v»ho wai confident he had pur- 
chafed the immortal draught. Was cured ofthe wliimfy by 
one of his favourites in the followini; maimer; The Em- 
peror having a cup of this water of lite before him, and 
declaiming upon the virtues and excellency of it, while he 
turned his back, the favourite had the aliurance to drink 
off part of it ; whereupon the Emperor in a ra^c threaten- 
ed him with immediate death : to which the witc miniller 
calmly replied. Do you fuppofe yon can deprive uic of 
Hfc now I have drr ik of the immovtal cup ? If you can, 
what hare you lod : if you cannot, I am tiecome equally 
immortal with you. Ihij Ihort way of reafoning, ic 
feems, reduced that prince to his fenfes, when all other 
arguments feemedto be ineficflual. 

Mahometanifm has obtained a great fov;'ing in China, 
fome of the I'artar tribes on the frontiers being of that 
religion, and there was rcafon to imagine that the Kmperor 
of Chiita was a Mahomet-tn. 1'hcrc are aUo great num- 
bers of Jews in China. 

Without the gates of every city almoft there is an idol 
temple, and others on the (ides of highways far from towns, 
where travellers are hofpitably entertained ; and near every 
temple is a tower erci(ed to the memory of faint or 
hero, filled with im.iges, and lamps that burn coiitinuallv. 
To every temple belongs afocicty of priefts, who oHef Ti- 
qnor, rice and other provifioiis to tlie genii of the piaic, 
of whom people come frequently to imjuirc what lucceli 
they may expert in their undertakings. 1 here are cloif- 
ters alfo of religiour devotees, who unjiergo -.inheard-of 
penances to obtain the name of faints among the people, 
and merit the happincfs of annthijr ftarj 
'1 lie C hinefc liave as great i'aitii in tlicir aflrologicn ntid 





(At I A.J tnOS 

U t K A. 



is an idol 

fom towns, 

] near every 

tic Taint or 


hootfef i\~ 

the piacc, 

liat I'ucccla 

are. cloif- 


pe people, 

logOTS nnd 


lbttunc«t«llen ■• in th«ir (odi : lh*f govtm *U tht<r kffiiln M 
by (he dinAion ot' thcfo peoi>lr, irtd will not undertake ■ i 
journey, or »nv hiifineCi of rantncnt, without firft con- 
fujtiiig when will b« the moft fot tuniite day ot hour to be- 
sin it. Thefe tortune-tcller^ alfo pretend to cikulite n» 
livhiet, and, by knowinR the d«y ofanian'i kirih, will 
lill him what Ihall hereafter befall him in Ihewnrld ; nor 
tlori itafTeA their credit, how often lb ever the people are 
deceived, for, lilie their 'brethren on lliin (idc the kIoIm, 
Hiey flill follow the deceiver, and will not be {lerluadcd 
Ithey Are impofedon. 

The Chriftian relicinii wan TirA introduced into China 
by the I'ortuRuele, who aliout the year 1498 made fertral 
fettlementi, and planted k\tn\ eol^ntei, on the cotft of 
the farther India, and in the Spice illand^, and arrived at 
Canton, in China, in the ye»r 1517, where thev were per- 
mitted to traffic, and fix a colonv on the little ifland of 
Macao, at the mouth of the river of Canton, which the Por* 
tuguefe poflefl at thi< day ; but ai fnhieAs to the crown ot 
China. Their miflionjriei Were not permitted, however, 
to go over to the continent, till fotnc yeart after l''rancis 
Xavicr, from hii in<letiiti|;able labours filled the apoftle of 
the Indie)) who died in the year i s j3, and was neve; fuf- 
fered to frt hit foot alhore upon the rnntinent of China : 
The Hottugncfe laboured for more than thirty yean after, 
in vain, to get their miflionaries admitted into that king' 

It is univerfallv allowed by liiftoriDis, who have tiiated 
bf th« affairs of dhina, that Roger and Riccii, two jeAiits, 
were the iii ft tlut were permitted to rcfide on the conti- 
nent, who became very accn)(able by their fkill in the ma- 
thematici -, but tlik Chintle ruri ama7.ed, when they 
ftw them produce i map of the wrtrld, to f5tid that China 
Was I'o verv fmall apart of it. Thefe Jeftiits were (jcrmittcd 
to compofeacatcchifm, andexplaintheChriOian doftrinrs, 
and gained great numbers of converts among people of 
figure; but at thcfametime wereinfulttdhyfhf mob. They 
continued their ntidion, however, for l(^ven yc,irs till a new 
Viceroy came to Canton, and oblittd them to retire to 
lAicwo; however, they were foon alter recalled, and, being 
joined by other mifltonaries, obtained leave to rcUde in the 
capital city of Pe -king, whither they canied prefents for 
the Emperor, among which wc»^ a clock and repeating 
watch i but a little Wore they arrived at Pe-kinj, they 
were flopped by aneonuch, acoramiflionerof the cuftoms, 
and imprifoned, on pretence tiat a crucifix, which they 
carried m a portmanteau, was a charm, which might affeA 
the I' mperor's life ■, however, an order foon after arrived, 
fcr bringing thofe foreigners up to Pc-king, where they 
were well received by the Emperor, and tlicir prefents ac- 
cepted, and a houfe and maintenance were afligncd them, 
with the liberty of making what profelytes they could ; 
among whom, they relate, were many princes of the blood; 
and the converts increafed fo faft, that in the province of 
Kiaiig-fi alone, there were ninety churches, and forty-five 

The bonats raifedfevernlprofecutionsagainftthem; but 
nothing proved more fatal to them than the oppofition 
they met with from the dominican friars at Mhcso ; or. . ^f 
this order declaring, that the Jel'uit$ had a deiign to opp ^Ic 
tlie Emperor, and ufurp his throne ; that the pla«»S they 
were fettled in, between Canton and Pe-king, favoured 
their defign ; and that the Dutch fleet which was then 
upon the ccnfi, was intended to proteft them -, that the 

Jovetnci of Pe-king was in their intereft, and that the 
^hrii'.iins of Japan was ready to join them when a fevour- 
•bk opportunity offered. 

'/Vhen tlie inteiligenco of the pretended confpiracy was 
b'.'ought to the viceroys and governors of tlie provmces, 
tliey were exceedingly alarmed ; and one of the milliona- 
riej, pafling through Canton before the forgery was dif- 
covered, was condemned tothcbaftinado, under which he 
died ; but R iccii was proteded by the Emperor at Pe-king, 
and the filfity of the report being proved, he lived in that 
capital in peace till the year 1610, when he died, aged 
eighty-eight years, twenty-feveri of which he had refideil 
in China ; and the Emperor had fuch a regard for him, 
that he ordered a piece of ground to be fet apart for build- 
ing him a tomb, which was afterwards tlje burying-place 
(U the Jefuiis. 

In thiiycar 1617, a perfecution being raifed at^aiiift the 
Jefuits and their profelytes, they were all-obliged to retire 
to Macao 1 but there happening a war witli the Tartars in 
the reign of the fucceeding binperor, he recalled fhein, 
knowing they would be very ufcful to him in the manage* 
mtnt of hif. artillery, and they lived unmolefted in the 
l^jniidom till tlie year i6a8. Two years after the Jefnit 

No. 5. 4 

AdaAi Shall, feforted to tHe court of Pe-kinjj, in^ 


highly carerted bv the Emperor *t\A hit miniltns, on ac- 
count of lili (kill in tfie nia'hcinancs) and the fame year 
the domiiiicans and francifvaiii ^rr^admitted into China« 
where they and the jeltiitt boallcd of having made a grrit 
number of eonrerti ; and, notwithftanding the revolution 
that happened in 1640, when Xuh chli king of Nou-trh« 
made » comiuelt of China, the lefulti maintained their 
ground, and were no |ef» in favour with the Emptron at 
the prefent Tartar race, than thr y were with thofc of Uu 

Adam Shaal was made prefident of the fociety 6f ma* 
thcmttlrUns by the Emperor Xun-chl^ which had been 
under the dirrftion of the Nfahometans for three hundred 
yean before. He reformed the calendar, which increafM 
(lis intrreft at court 1 and the Emperor was fo fenfible IK 
the ferviCe the learned Europeans were Capable of doini 
him, that the fent for fourteen more of the miflionarin 
to Court, among whom was father Verbicil , and the Jefaitt 
inHnuate, that they (hoiild have made a convert of thft 
Em)ieror, if the ladies of the court had not prevented it, 
on his reproving that prinCe for entertaining one of them^ 
but thr more probable opinion is, that the Emperor Will 
offended, on their adviling him to part with hit woman } 
that being n fubjeft which few princes will tseir to Ub 
touched upon ; however, it is faid, this Eraparor profeflid 

great friendlhip for Adam, and fent fur him when on hit 
eath-bed. I ather Verbicfl, who lud ferved the fubttflbf 
of this Emperor in quality Of mandarin, and alio Ih^ 
flru£lcd him in the mathematics, dying during hit raigtl 
in t6S8, he caufcd him to be kiried with great funcm 
pomp, allowing two hundred golden crowns for that pur* 
p«>fe, and, at the »omb, exprerted his acknowUdgmentt 
of tlie great fervices he had contributed to himl^lf atid thi 
Itatv, the great affection he had fur him, and how much 
bewailed his death. 

When Kang-hi. the fon of Xun-chI, the flrft Tartal" 
Emperor, afcended the throne, Ad.iin Slin«I was niaJil 
preceptor to tiic young monarcli, who w.!* then but eight 
years of .ige, and the bonzes (priefta of Fo) were ex- 
pelled the palace ; whereupon they prcfented a petition to 
the rcgcnu, letting foitli, that tl-.c Jefuits had been ba- 
niflied their country for their ililWcflitm to their natural 
princes, and would infallibly railb a rebellion in China: 
that they had introduced a multitude of foreigners inta 
the empire, who travelled through the pitvinces, and 
made plans of their ftrong towns, and that they only 
Waited a favourable opportunity to raife a reb:l]ion. To 
this petition lliey annexed a book publilhed by Adam, con- 
taining a lill of tlirlr churches, and of tlie converts they 
had made, which the bonzes fiiggcftcd was the muder-roU 
of an army, which they could bring irito tlic field on tlt9 
firft fignal; that their beads were ftutks Whereby the coii- 
fpinitors knew one another, and (licwed, in the popifli 
books they diftributed, the pidlureof Chrift enicified, fay- 
ing, " Behold the God of the Chriflians nailed to a croii* 
" for attempting to make hinifflf king of the Jews ; thli 
" is the God they invoke to favour their trcafonaUi) 
" confpiracies ap:iinft the government." This charge 
againil the Jefuits being brought bcftre the tribunal of 
rites, they were imprifoned and laid In irons, and the 
Chrinian religion was declared to be a falfe and pernicious 

Adam Shaal was condemned to die, and though tli4 
fentencc was never executed, he died under the hard' 
fhips he fufFercd in the year 16661 twCnty-five of th(» 
mitlionaries were banilhed to Macao ; but four were nUI 
permitted to remain at court, who fome time afterward* 
procured an order for recalling the reft of tlieir brethren* 
and procured a declaration troni one of the principal 
tribunals j " That the Chriftian law had been un« 
" juftly condemned, and that it taught nothing incon- 
" iiftent with the wcUare of the ftate." The Clirifti.ins 
were thereupon tolerated, and put into polTclTioa oif 
their churches again, in the year 1071. Father Verbioft, 
as we obfctvnl before, taught the Emperor matlicmaticsj 
and caufcd light brafs cannon to be ciilt, which gained tho 
Emperor advantages in his wars, by which he bccams 
fo much in favour, both with prince and people, that mul-* 
titudes of converts v»-erc daily made, aud Verbicil wrote to 
Europe for more miflion.iries, whereupon Lewis XIV., 
fent over fix Jefuits from France, atAoug whom was Lo 
Compte, who refided in the Chincfc court many ycar*< 
and wrote the beft hiftoty of that kingdom which has beea 
publiflii><}; Thtfejefv.its irrivru ai Wimpo in China, in 
the year itSS ; Vcrbicft bein;; dead before their arrival, 
they were prcfented to iltc Emperor fooiVafter, who alwava' 
O kepi 





:l -y 

keyt fomc ot lliem ncai lii« ptrfoiii wlio improved liiin (o 
far ill the matliciUiilict, tlut he wrote a book upon that 
fubieit. Some of the viceroyi in the ttiOant priivincea, how- 
ever, raifc'ti i pcrfccutiDii a^aiiill the Chtiniaii«, iii which 
they were cuiiiitenunad by lome tribtinala, aiiU it waf m 
much at tlw Km)icror coulJ <ln to proleA llkcm i he ad- 
vifcd them to be very circiiinl'iicA u> their coiiduA, and 
give at little ofTcncc at poiril)lr, or hii appearing their pro- 
IcAor mi^ht cndaitKcr hit throne. 

The niilTionurict luving received great encouragement 
from the KmjKror, nioie of them were fent over from 
FratKc ) and tlie h rtnch King, Lewit XV. fettled an an- 
nual revenue of nine hundred livrei a year upon twenty 
of them that were fcnt to China and India. The fa- 
then Gcrbillon and Hourct having cured the Emperor of 
an ague, he gave them a large fum tnwardi building a 
chuiui, which they finithcd, and made it one of the fincll 
templet in that part of Alia. 

Such was tlic coinplaifaiice of the Jcfuit miflionariei 
to the Chinefc Chri(llan«, in fuflfcring them to retain the 
woilhip of Cuiifuciui, their anccllort, the heaveni, (*c. 
that they might have remained iii China, and made pro- 
fclytes to this day, if the Dominican and Francifcan (riari 
had not oppofcd tUit pra£lice, and charged the Jefuitt 
with countenancing iUuIatrVt which created great fcudt 
among the fathen i fo that they profccutcd one another 
in the courtt of China with great violence, reprelenting their 
opponenti a* difaffcAcd to the government, and fevcral of 
tliem were imprifuncd, and feverely ufed bv the Chinefc 
inagillratet. At length both partiei appealed to tlie Pope. 
The Icfiiiti rcprcfcntcd, that unlefi they complied with 
the Cnincfe in thel'v articles, the Chriflians would infalli- 
bly be expelled the country ; and infifted, that thefe com- 
phaiKca, when thev proftrated themfelves bcforehii image, 
out only to |ay iheir rcfpefls to him at a legiflator ; that 
the libation) luid ceremoniei obfcrvcd before tlie imaget 
of their parents, only cxprclTed the veneration and affec- 
tion they had for their dcceafcd relations ; and this they 
procured the Fmpcror of China to certify to the Pope. 
Whereupon hit Holincfs, deputed tlieCardiiial de Tournon 
hit vicar in CJiina, with fuU authority to examine and de- 
icrmine this matter. 

The Cardinal having admonifhed the miffionarict to 
lay alide tlieir animofitici and difputes, which had given 
preat fcandal to the infidels, as well at to tliofe who had 
been converted to Cliriilianity, he decreed, and commanded 
all tlie miflionarics, cfpeciaJly the Jefuits, 

I. That in their writings and fcrmons they fhould dif- 
•pprove and condemn only fuch doArincs and cuftoms of 
the Chinefe as were inconfiflent witli the Chriflian faith. 

a. That they (hould declare, that the offerings m:idc by 
the Chinefc to heaven, the moon and other planets, to fpi- 
rits and inventors of arts, were only due to God, the 
creator of all things ; that they Ihould condemn particularly 
the offierings to Confucius, and the adoration of the pic- 
tures of dcccafed men, as inconHftent with the fcrvice of 
the true God, and with the declaration of the Pope, the 
only infallible guide of the Chriflians in all matter! that 
concern religion. This decree was dated at Nan-kiu, 
38th June, 1707. and figncd Charles, Patriarch of An- 
tioch, Cardinal, ttc. 

The Jefuitt and miflionaiies of other order* conti- 
nued to wrangle on thefe heads until the year 1720; 
during which time the Jefuiti were careiTed at court, while 
the others were thrown into prifonsand feverely perfecuted. 
Atlength a deputation being fent to the Pope, to know 
if he would admit of no alteration in the decree of Cardi- 
nal de Tournon, Cardinal Mcflaharba was litft fern over 
with the Pope's anfwer -, but the Jefuits fo managed mat- 
ten, that he was not permitted to fee the Emperor for 
fome time, and could only read the anfwer of hit Holinefs 
to the mandarini. The following it the explanation of the 

I. The miflionaries may tolerate In private houfet the 
ufe of tablets, containing only the name of the dead per- 
fon, putting on the Cde of it a convenient explication. 

a. I'hey may tolerate all the Chinefe ceremonies to> 
wards dcceafcd perfons, which arc not fuperflitious, but 
merely civil. ■ 

3. I'liey may render to Confuciui a worfhip merely 
civil, adding a convenient explication; and it may he 
lawfiil to light candlet, burn incenfe, and offer meat, by 
way of oblation before the tablets. 

4. They may permit the reverencei of genuflexion niid 
proftration before the correfted tablets, the tombi, or the 
dead bodies themfelvei. 

meatt and fruiia before the tombt df the deceafed, ai a cU 
vil honour and aii of piety towards ihtra, without ob- 
ftrviniaiiy fuperflilioui rile. 

Thit drcico wat ligiMd, "CA. Aleitndrinui It Lf 
gaiui Apollolicut," 

'I'hcle atlKlri having been fubmiitcd to the judgment tit 
the mandarini, they declared, that the F.iuperor would bu 
fatisfied with ihii aiifweri but iiuaics the Jefuil oblervcd 
to them it wat all a Hick, for the woidi, ■• I'hi* it th« 
feat of the foul of the deceafed." were to be omitted 1 
however, the Jefuitt and iiiandaiiiit being of another opi- 
nion, the anfwer wat tranflated, put in writing, and carriMi 
to the Emperor. 

T'hc Legate wat admitted to an audience on the )oth of 
Nov, i7ao, and direAed loappaar in the famceccleliatlical 
habit he wore in Italy 1 but the Emperor prcfenteJ him 
with liii own robe at the audience, put it over hit Euro« 
pean habit, and afier an entertainment, at which hit M»> 
jetty gave him a giaft of wine with hit own hand, he pro- 
ceeded to alk the Legale Icvcral cjueftioni, particularly* 
whom thole piAuret rcprelcntcd, which the miffionariet 
brought from Europe / He anIWcred, They might be th* 
piQuiei of the Lord Jelui, the blelicd virgin, or of fonM 
faiiui or angcli, *' fiut why," lavi ihe Emperor, "do 
you put him on wingi I Tbii it what the Chinele cannot 
underttaiid : it it ahfurd to give wingi 10 men." Tha 
Emperor than taking up three piccet of (ilk ofl^ the table, 
one white, the lecond red, and the third yellow, and ad- 
dreflin^bimrelf totheafleinblv, faid, " If any one (hould 
maintain that the led wat white, and the while yellow, 
what would any of you think of it i" intimating, ihatth* 
miflionitie* required them to believe inconliftenciei, In 
their pretended explanation of the Chinefe ritei, u well 
at in the dodrinei they taught. The Legale anfwered, 
Chrift being afcended to heaven, had conUiiutcd the Pops 
and hit luccriTuit hit vicars on earth, to deierniiiie con- 
troverfies ; and that Clement 11. enlightened by hit Spirit, 
could not be deceived. The Emperor replied, " Can tna 
Pope judge of the met of China, which he hat never had 
any pcrfoiial knowledge of, any more than I can judge of 
the affairs of Europe J" The Legate anfwered, " fie doe* 
not pretend to be judge of the afTairt of China, but of 
what cuflonis and ufaget the Chriftiant fhould be allowed 
to praAili:, and wliat ought to be prohibited, as inconliftent 
with Chiillianiiy." 1'he Emperor told Ihe L^ate, that 
be had tried to unite all the miflionarics of dilierent na- 
tions, Purtugucfe, French, Italian* and German* ; but 
they wcic always quarrelling among thcnifelve*, and even 
the Jefuits could not ngree together i he was furprized at 
their dil'union, at they all protefled to propagate thd^fame 
religion. And he wondered the Poiiccould give any credit 
to tlicm, (ince fome alfii med what the other denied : From 
fuch contradi£kory rrprefentaiion*, how can the Pope taks 
upon him, fays hit Majefly, to judge o> the affairs of 
China i the Legale anfwered. He wa* affifled in hit de- 
terminations by the Holy Spirit, who never fuffered hit 
Holinelt to err in religious matleri. Hit Majefly anfwered, 
" I love your religion much, I adore the lame God y6ti 
do, and if there be any thing you do not underiland in 
ouriitct, 1 will explain it toyou)" intimating again, that 
tlic Pope could be no judge of them, for wantoffufficient 
evidence ; adding, that the decreet concerning the Chi- 
nefe ritei, had not been made with a view 10 religion, bat 
were levelled purely againft the Jefuitt. At another ao- 
dience, the Emperor faid, he Ihould not fufTer tlui Pope to 
determine any thing concerning the Chinefie rite* 1 that be- 
longed to him, hit viceroy* and goveinort ; and when 
Mefljdiarba defla'd he might remain fuperior of ihe mif- 
fionariet in China, he received no anfwer to that, and tho 
Einperor confirmed the dicrcc of the tribunal of rite*, 
" That no Europeans fhould for the future be fuffcred to 
propagate their law," which he apprehended might pro- 
duce fatal eifeAs : and the Legate was foon after infulted 
by the mandarins in a moft outrageous manner, for main- 
taining the authority of the Pope's bull, and declaring 
his determinations inf.illible 1 and feveralofihe Domini- 
can and F'rancll'can milTionarics were li:nt to prifon 1 Mcf- 
fabarba, however, obtained the rcleafeof the prifoneri, and 
then retired to Macao, where he refidcd lix months, and 
ill the year 172} ictuiiied to Europe , about which time 
tlie Emperor Kan:;- hi died, and, being fucceeded by Yong- 
tchin, ali ihc milfiunaiis* weicbmiifhcd to Macao in 1723, 
and upwards of thicc hundred chutchct were ciiher rafcd 
tolheground, or convened, to profane ufes. Some Eu- 
ropean niatlieinaticians, who were ufeful to the court 
I (namely, the jcfuiis) were fulTered in remain at Pc-kingi 

They may pcr.-nii tiblci iu uc fei with ail manner of ji but the Chinclc convcitt who tcfufed to apolUtize, and 

" return 


[A S I A.] 


N A. 



tize, and 

tctarn to their tntierii niptrflition, tnMonling to iboot 
three haiidrcd thouCjml fouli, Wf t« ufed with grctt rigour i 
oiieof theprincctol the blood, in partictthr, with hit ft- 
mily, (mouiitinp to three hundred of lioih feici, wertb**- 
riilhed lu the dclcrli ot Tarliry. Many convert* were 
impiifonrd, unHrrweiit the iMtlinado, and other punilh- 
menu : but the Cliinclt had more mercy on them, than 
Chrifliani m thi< part of the world have on one another, for 
few of them were condemned to die for I'.it religion they 

1'Im jeAiiti were the chief prnmniert of the profecnilonof 
Cardinal Tournoii, formerly the Popc'i vicar inChlna,,for 
ihey did not ceafe to accufe liiin to the Emperor, till they *f- 
leAed hit ruin i and however the Jrfuiti may apologitw for 
their conduA in thit and otiirr intlaiiceiof the like nature, 
itappeari that the late Pope K'liedin confirmed the decrcci 
of nil predecefTori aaainfl the worlhip of Confuciui, re- 
preacbmg the general of the lefuiti with the praAicea of 
their order in China, and prohibited hit fending any more 
iniflionarlei thither without hii leave ; from whence and fe- 
veralothcr circumflancei, we may conclude, that the Jefuiti 
have never been intirely expelled from China, but arefufTer- 
ed to make a kind of halrChrinianiftill; that ii, fuch ai 
worfhip both Popifh and Chinefe idoli ; which hat pro- 
bably given birth to the aflertion, tint Chtiftianity ii lole- 
raieti in China I whereat, on the contrary, we are inform- 
ed, ihaifince theabove-tnentioned fatal period, theChrif- 
tian religion hath been I'o far from gaining ground there, 
that it ii more peifeculed now than ever, anifthit thofe are 
expofcd to the mot\ fevere crueltici, who have courage 
enough to appear in iti defence. 

0/ iht Chlnift marritigti and iivtreiu 

THE union of the fexei by marriage, or rather the 
bringing them together, is ihoucht of fo much id- 
vaniace to the Hate, by incrcaling population, that it ii dif- 
graccful for a man to live fingle twenty yeara \ but thefc 
niatchei are very improperly termed marriagea, becaufe 
the confent of the partict ii never aflced ; the parent or 
guardiani enter into a contraft, when both the boy and 
girl are infantt in a literal fenfe ; and when Ihey come to 
}eart of maturity, the young gentleman fendt the lady a 
prefeiit fuitable to her quality ) a fplendid cavalcade ia 
made, the bride it conveyed to the houfc of her fpoufe, 
and thii it all the cerrmonv that it ufed on thefe occafioni. 
Her fpoufe never feei her tilt Ihc enterihii doort ; then he 
uiilocki the chair that hringi her, and ii either furprixed 
with her beauty, or fbockcd with the fight of fomeihing he 
does not like. However, he ii at lilxrty to return her to her 
friends that moment, if hr it content to lofe the prefeiits 
that have beeit made her, with which he may be faid to 
have purchafed his wife; for he never receivea any fortune 
with her, befidcs her cloaths. The lady hai not the like 
option ; if her hulband will keep her, (he it not allowed 
to retreat, how muchfoever he proves to bt heraverfion, 
and how many wives and concubines foever he may have 
bcfides. Thus it is in all eaftern nations, wh;re a plurality 
of women is allowed bylaw. There feemi, however, to 
be onr, who may properly be faid to have her hufbind't 
heart, to whom he gives the command of all the reft ; fo 
that the lady inftcad of being his companion, if (he is not 
the favourite, may more properly be ftyled his (lave than 
his wifb i nor are her children in a better condition than 
the children of h>* concubines, who have all an equal title 
tohis eflate. If it be demanded, where they find femalei 
fuflicient to let cVery man have a number of wives, (ince 
the Chinefe do not follow the praAice of the Turks and 
Perfians, by importing them from other countries f it 
maybe confideied, that at tlie men marry at twenty, and 
Xiie girls at twelve yeari of age, all the females between 
thofe ages are fuperiiuraeraries ; belides, the poor- people 
in mofi countries, who are much the majority, are forced 
to content lliemlclvci with one wife apiece, and then it 
will be no difficulty to furnith their fupcriors with a variety 
of females, out of thofe are above twelve, and under 
twenty, nolwithlianding it is admitted that there arc as 
many men born as women in every nation. 

The friends jf the parties, before every marriage, en- 
quire of I'ome prieft or pretended conjuror, whether it is 
hkcly to prove a happy match, and wbidi it the luckieft 
day or hour for conCummation: when the man hat once 
rrcrivcd his wife, he cannot turn her off, unlcft it be for 
^uttery, orlbiuc notoi lout crime i but in thefc cafes ho 
.* 4 

mtv fell h«r, and purcbaA anotbtf with ibii nwMj, not* 
witnftanding lb* Chinefe women arc iifuall|f|uardM with 
grmt Itiiftnefi, and not fufltred to let lh«ir nearclt mala 
rrlationt i yet fonie hulbandi have given tbtir gillanti ftm 
lihcrt^to vilii them ) and th«re are women who havt ore* 
vaileJ on thofe that have the difpoAl of tb«m, to infill vk 
the lilwrty of having her admirers rtfoit 10 hitr after ti>tr< 
riaga ; but thii it fo much abhjrrcd by the ctncrallty ol 
the Chindic, that their ilFue are not allowed the priviMfM 
that other children have. At to the common people they 
feem to be fo much alhamed of living (Ingle after lh« ajp 
the cuftom of their country rtquirei Ihem to marry, or 
Ihey have fuch a ftroiig propenfity towards matrimony, 
that ihev willfometimei confent to become (Uvti, on con- 
dition they may have a flave in a family for * wife, when 
Ihey are not in circumliancei to purchale one. 

The Chinefe Udici being feldom fuffered to appear in 
company, either within doors or without, never have any 
concern with trade, but aroufii themfeWes with painting or 
necdlc-work, or with birds, dngi, or otlier ajtimali, at 
fome of the fcK do here. 

It is cuftomaiy in China to give three names to their 
fons : I . The common name of the family, or furname ; 
a. A proper lume ; and a third when they are advanced 
to any preferment or employment. The daughters are 
called by their father's furname, even after marriage, and 
drftincullhcd only by their fenioritv, being called the 
firft, fecond, or third daughter of their fa'*- .r. 

I'here In'ing a great number of eu'.uchs in the Em- 
peror's court, and in the families of the great, who have 
not only the care of the women, but the management and 
direAion of mofl of their affairs i the poor women fre- 
quently caftrate their fons, in order to qualify them for 
preferment ; which is almoft at barbarout a cu(iom as ex- 
pofmg them in the ttreett and highwayt ; or (InfiglinK 
them with their own hands, as they fumetimes do, iftl y 
find they are not able to maintain them ; for poverty feemt 
to them worfe than death. 


CtnUlni an «ce»uni if iht fi/tivali, fmurali, and l»mli •/ 

thi Chiitift. 

THEIR two principal fe(\ivals are celebrated, one in 
the beginning, and the other about the middle of 
January. 1 he furiuer is celebrated by vifiting, fcafting, 
making prefents, ftc. The otlier is called the feaHs of tho 
lanterns, when evciv fiimily, both in the city or country, 
on the fra-coa(t oron the rivers, light up Urge painted lan- 
terns (luck full of wax candles or fmall lamps which re- 
prel'cnt cavalcades, (hips under fail, armies ennging, horfet 
galloping, fpcAret, and other objeAs ; thcic reprefenta- 
tions or figures are fet in motion by perfoiis ' "ncealed, by 
means of (Iringt or pulliet that cannot be perceived at a 
diftance. Some Chinele doAors have aderted, tliat thi* 
feai\ of tho lanterns originated from the hanging up lan- 
terns in the ruins of the palace of Ki, Emperor of China, 
who, being an effeminate prince, ercAed a lofty towor 
adorned with guiu, for one of his concubines, wheio 
living for fome time in (hameful eafe and indolence, hit 
fubjcAt caufed him to be depofed by a neighbouring 
prince i and the magnilicent palact being afterwards pvUed 
down, lanterns were hunt up in every part of tite city to 
perpetuate the event. Ouiers derive it from the fbllowing- 
circumftancc : A ccitain mandarin, who was greatly ca- 
reded by the people, having an only daughter driwned by 
fiilling into a river, he looked for hei a whole night by the 
light of lanterns, all the tnhabitintsof the diftriA tbllowing 
him with Lintems and torches to .iflift in fearching for the 
lady. The particular aflisAion which the people had (or 
their mandarin, or ell'e the fmgularity of the adventure, 
fet thcin to work with their lanterns the fame night of the 
following year, and this cui^om cradually fpreading, occa- 
fioned .1 public annual feftival to be obferved in the manner 
above- mentioned . 

At a third leflival, the Emperor himfelf always attends. 
Afterthe example of his ancellors, the prince goes every 
fpring in great pomp and folemtiity into a ticld, and plows 
up a few ridges ot land. This is in order to encourage 
and animate the pealUnts in the bulinefs of agriculture ; 
and the mandarin:, intheir refpedive provinces, go through 
tlie fame ceremony. 

Another felUval is alfo kept by the Chinrf<?j the chief 
ceremony of which conliilti in carrying about tlie country 
a monlltuus cow with gilded hortu ; thu cow i* formed of 





ebif i »ni behtn4 it walks • lUtlc child, with otie foot bare, 
bcatii)g the cow with » red, at if to drive her forwanU< 
A, company qf comedian) att«nd thcin, plftyiug all kindi 
of antki. J hui tliey proceed to the palace of the man- 
darin or governor of tJie diUrift, whsre they break the 
€ifyf in pieces, .and ti»ke out of her belly a great number of 

'-^ little cows forqi$d alfo of clay, which they diftribute to 
;:r/tl^ multitude; and the cercmoay concludes with »fpeech 

' '' ii) jpraife o( at^rigulture, pionouncui by the inantjarin him- 

- felt. Some ofVbeie cows, which are eonfidcrcd M emblems 

•f labour and induUiy, are fo large .and heavy, that forty 

iqen caji fcarccly lunpott litem. This feftival ii celebrated 

by country>peopl« and laboorcrs, who drag after them tlicir 

, fcveral .implcinents of hufbandry. 

, With rciseft to the funeral ceremonies of the Chinefe, 
we muftobferve, that no fooner do tttefc people come to 
years of difcretion, than they make proviiion for tlieir 
deaths) every man furnifhes his houfe with a coffin, 
imiong otiicr moveables, to put him in mind of his 
fportality : and wealdiy people inclofe a piece of land 
for a burying-grounti, wlierc they ereft a tomb, and a 
magnificent tempi* over it, to which tl»ey are brought 
when they die, though at never fo great a diftance from 
home ; but fuch tombs are generally ereftcd in folitary 
places, or by the highway fide, at a dillancefrom towns. 
None are ever buried within the walls of a city. The 
poor have a common burying-place, ;dfo, at fome diftance 
from the town they die in. Their coffins are made of a 
very lading wood, feven or eight inches thick, which 
raaKLS them appear much larger than ours ; but tliey aac of 
the fame form, and finely japanned without, which virry 
much picl'crves tile wood, and makes it the more durable, 
as well as beautiful. The f-gyptians, as well as tlie.Chi- 
r£fe, we find endeavoured to preferve their remains as long 
as pullible, imagining, we are told, that as long as any 
part of the body is left, the foul continues about it. 

The death of a gentleman is no fooncr known to liis 
relations, but they meet and perfume the curpfe, drefs it 
in the bell cloaths, and, having placed the body upright in 
a chair, his wives, children, .and friends, fucccflivcly fall 
down before him, and lafhent their lofs. Three days 
after, a large room is hung in mourning, that is, with 
white linen ; and the third day, the corpfc, being put in 
the coffin, is laid there in ftate, an altar erefted before it, 
and an image of the deceafed placed upon the altar. The 
rtslarions then attend again, bringing lighted wax-torches 
and incenfe, whici) tliey burn, and proftrate themfelvtes 
Kforc the corpfe : the fons then place themfelves on one 
iide of the coffin, doathed in white, and his wires and 
daughters (\and on the other, behind a curtain, bewailing 
themfelves in moft moving ftrains ; the prieft at the iiime 
time tinging mournful hymns, fuitable to the occafion i 
difhes oT meat are fervcd up for feveral days fucceffively, 
and placed upon a table, arid at night the priefts divide the 
meat among them. The coffin being very thick and 
clofe, no olKufive fmell can be perceived. The funeral is 
iireqoently put off for feveral montlis, and fometiraes years, 
a paper being fet up over the gate of the houfe, reciting 
the virtues and commendable qualities of the deceafed ; 
the fons lleeping upon mats about the coffin feveral nights, 
and eating no flelh, or drinking any ftroog liquors, or hav- 
ing any commerce with their wives ; nor can tlie fon en- 
ter upon any office or employment for three years after the 
dtath of his father : and it is reckoned impious even to 
laugh, or take any manner of pleafure, during the time of 

Ij^ The friends and rehtions of the deceafed, being invited 

" by the Ion to attend his father's corpfc to the grave, the 
pcoceftion begins with thofc that carry the images or pic- 
tures of men, women, beafts, and birds, attended with a 
great number of torches ; trophies, triumphal chariots, 
pageants and tables, with difhes of meat, alfo arc carried 
l>efore tlie corpfc. Then fallow the pricfts with drums, 
mufic, and jinglmg bells, and next tlie coffin, under a 
large arched canopy, carried by twenty Of thirty men, tlie 
fons follow the coffin on foot, fupporting themfelves with 
crutches, as n«t able to fiiflain themfelves without. The 
women then advance in clofc chairs, covered with white 
filk, rending the air with tlicir cries ; and befides thcfc, 
OK Other women, who are hired to make a difmal roourn- 
iul noife on thefe occaliot)';. Hcing arrived at the tomb, 
vhich may be taken for a p.ihcc, the company enter it by 
' a grand portal, having a Wis gate on each fide of it ; and 
tlie corpfc being dcpofitcd ill it, an altar is erefted before 
Jr, and lights left bnrning on the altar; the friends of the 
deceafed vifiting the toinb at certain Icafons, and iiroftrat- 
ing themfelves before it, with their faces to tlic ground. 

They burn incenle, pour out witic, and offer difhes of 
meat to the deceafed, which they are iu>t ignorant becomes 
an entertainmei^libc the priclh when tliey arc gone. The 
cbarafler of the deceafed being engraved ou marble, i^ 
placed bcforetlie altar. Every man alio has a tablet in his 
houfe, whereon are engraved the name.i of his great grand- 
father, lus grandfather and f.alier, whom they worlliij), 
■ and their great men have teiuplcs erefled to tlieir memory^ 
and a yearly facrifice offered to them. 

Both men and women, during the £rft year of mourn- 
it)g, wear white courfe linen, almoll torn to rags ; the 
<i»-ond year their cloatlu are Ibmctliing better, uud tha 
t.-ird they are allowed to wtrr white filk. 

A widow mourns tlirce years for the death of a hulliand, 
and thi. 'nan one year for his wife, and one fur a brother. 

Great men, whofe drcumltances will allow it,erc£l tern 
pies to the memory of their anceftors, when a yearly fa- 
crifice is offered. The Emperor facrificcs to feven of hii 
ancellors, the tributary kings to five, and a isuindarin tu 


! i r'sJl^-Wf" 

CiHtaiHtng thi hijltry of China, fram tht t«rl'nji ecctwiH, tt 
thi cnxjuiji if that tmpirt by thi Tartars. 

WE were^ about three hundred years ago, as llttls 
acquainted with this country, as witli the conti- 
nent of America, or the new world, As we owe tlie 
difcovcrv of both to navigation, or the knowledge of tlie 
compafs, China might with as much propriety jiave beeit 
denominated anew world, as America ; for though it was 
fituatc on the fame continent with Europe, neither the 
Egyptians, Greeks, or Romans, give us the leal! intima- 
tion, in their hiltoiies, that there was fuch a country o» 
tli; (jtsz of tli: globe. It is ama/.in j, that when the Egyp- 
tians end Phoenician fleets failed asfar as India, and broa^t 
Ikome the fine f^icc, that they fhould never meet the Chi- 
nefe ihips, or hear of this country when they vilited tliofe 
very feas that border nponChiiia : but fo it is in faft : 
we can expert no light, tlierefore, from any nation but. 
their own of what happened befme the firtecnth century ; 
and what tlte Chtnufe call their hiftory, is little more than 
fome fhort minutes, csntaining the names of princes that 
probably never had an exiflencc ; wc may be allured that 
tlie fii-ft part of their pretended hiftory is fabulous, and for 
the reft, by their own confelTion, their records have been 
loft oi dcfiinyed ; atul tlieir paper is f<>l'iibje£l to the wortrv 
that it will not laft many yeari^. Wliat they have recorded 
therefore of later years, are only copies of copies; thtic 
are no originals to be found. 

If we might credit tliofe wljo prctciul care hajr 
been taken to preferve an impartial liillory, as never was 
obferved by any other people, the hiftory of China, 
would exceed all others ; for they relate, that there are a 
certain number of regifters appointed by the govcrnineut 
to record all material tranfa^lions, and daily to minute 
down the words and actions of their princes, with their 
refpcflivc remarks upon them; and that without contult- 
tng one another, they throw tljeir fcveral papers into an 
office, which is never opened while the reigning prince, 
or any of that family remain upon the throne ; but when 
the crown devolves on aiiotlicr houfe, the doon are opened, 
and all thefc records are put in order and examined, out 
of which tlie hiftory of tlie pstceding reigns are compofed, 
and the exarnplcj of their lieft princes recoininended to 
their fucceflbrs, whilft (ho coiidu£l of others is fcvcrtir 
animadverted upon. Thus their princes, like ihofe of 
Egypt, undergo a kind of formal trial aftir their deatlu, for 
the inftruaion of their predccclfbrs. 

Our time would be employed to little purpofe, werewetrt 
tike notice of auv fails which are faid to liave been tranf- 
a£lcd above four t)ioufand years ago, lieeaitfc they admit 
that hufbandry, and all ni;uinet uf arts nijd fcienccs, weie 
introduced within tlut period. If tht- world had continued 
more than one hundred thoufand years, as fome of tlieir 
hiilorians relate, no doubt but planting, fowing, cloittliiiig,, 
and other ufeftil and nt-CBlliny .irfs, muft have tiourilhed 
much fooncr; hut the Cliiiid'e, hoivevcr, appear fome- 
thing wifcr than manv of tlic ..ntient philoliiphers, wl'.o 
lield that the wotld was made by chxice. 

Mofl legillatorsand founders of kiiii^doin'-''aving judged 
it neceifary to derive tlieir origin and a.ittiotitv from 
heaven, to induce their fubjefls to fulimit to their do- 


iitt^iiafviit r U-Ulf 

who U i*Li;]pafed to lave Uve4 about Uo uinc oi tlic tioodU 



" ::-,u,:--^_.?^ii.---.' ,**«■■', 

flY. . ^ 

olTcr dithcs of 
imraut becomes 
»rc gone. Tl«s 

ou marble, ii 
i a tablet ill his 
lis great grand- 
1 thty worlliiji, 

tlieir muniotyf 

^ear of mourn- 
n to rags -, tlic 
litter, uud tlia 

li of a hnfliand. 
For a brother. 
'W it, crcft tem 
len a yearly la- 
to (even of hii 
a luundarin to 

Kift autunlt, a 

mars. ''iii 

i ago, as little 
with the conti- 
s we owe tlie 
jwledge of the 
iety have been 
r though it waa 
pc, neither the 
: Icalt iiitima- 
h a country on 
hen the Kgyp- 
ia, and brouf^t 
meet the Clii- 
ey vi filed thofe 
it i» in fa£t : 
my nation but. 
ccnth century ; 
ittic mort than 
of princes that 
)c alTured that 
lolous, and for 
ords have bcca 
ft to the woiin^ 
' have recorded 




ily care ha» 

as never was 

oiy of China, 

there arc it 


to rauiute 

with their 

thout confult- 

pcrs into an 

gning prince, 

but when 

)rs are opened, 

xamincd, out 

lue compofcd, 

rainended to 

rs is fcvcrtiy 

like thofe of 

,cir deatlu, for 

fe, were we to 
;e been tranf- 
'c they admit 
fcisnccs, weie 
!iad continued 
lorn; of thcii- 
iig, clor.thiiip,, 
,ve tiourilhed 
appear fonie- 
tijpheis, wlo 

''aving judged 

ithorirv from 

to their do- 

» ,:>-*• 

tivii, i'U-UI, 

of tlic liood, 




-'. • 

V , 


¥ ■ 





■ r 


' ! 

. in 


■ ■ > 

' ' 'ff ■ 






^ J 







::f\ ■ 




% - 









[A S I A.] 

tt 1 .N 



MeMif^d that he wm feiit from heaven to inftruA and gO' 
tern mankind. Their hiflorieg relate, tltat this prince 
tauduthem toufecloatliine, and diOinguifh the fexes by 
diwhabits, and tliat he firA invented their charaAert and 
mafit i and after he had reigned one hundred and fifteeen 
yean, wa» fucceeded by C.'-ing-tongi and in thii they 
^gree with facred hiltorvt tliat tlie antit,)'- lived to a great 
age. The Emperor Ching«tong taupl' n hufbandry 
and pby <ic : Hoang-ti, his fucceffo'. '< <.o have uoght 
them aftronomy, the art of fpinning : , :aving (ilk, na- 
vintton, and the ufe of wheel carriage; . iv the next prince, 
Chao-hao, they afcribe their dividing the country into prO' 
vinces, and inllitutin^ civil government. And their fifth 
Emperor, Tchuen-hio, annexed the prieflhood to the 
crown, and prohibited all men to offer facrifica but him' 
(elf, or thofe he depoted. Their feventh Empcro/ gave 
bis fubjCQi the liberty of taking as many wives as they 
eleafed, and had four himfelf. Their eighth Emperor 
Tchiafting tyrannically, was depofed by the grandees, 
•nd fttccceaed by his brother Yao, who is faid to have 
been a prince of uncommon virtue, and ever employed 
his authority ibr the good of his fubjeAs ; that he was 
frugal and aoflemious, never affeded ftate, and remarkable 
for his piety and modefly : that he made canals, drained 
the bogs, and cut the mountains into level fquares, to 
oiake them fit for tillage ; that he dilinherited his fon, be- 
caufe he proved a vicious prince, and transfinred the king* 
jom to Chun, a minifter of great probity, who began a 
new race of kings, about two thoufand two hundred years 
before Chrift ; that he vifited great part of his dominions 
once a y:ar, to enquire into the conduft of his officers, 
promoted hufbandry, and encouraged his people to write 
whatever they thought deferved cemure in iiis adminiftra- 

Chun was fucceeded by Tai-kia, who, comingveryyoung 
to the throne, one of his prime minifters locked him up 
in his father's tomb. Or rather in the palace ereAed over it, 
for three years, and then reftored him to his throne. He 
afterwards made an excellent governor, and ever refpeftcd 
as his father the mmifier who had confined him. 

It was decreed by the Emperor Tai-vou, that the old 
people in every town, that had not any fubliftence, fhould 
Be maintained out of the public treafury. 

_ Lin fin was a moft luxurious prince : it is reported of 
him, that he commanded his miniflers not to bring any 
matters of ftate before him, left he fhould be difturbed in 

Tcheaou is reprefented as a very tyrannical prince, hav.- 
ing a queen as cruel as himfelf, who was ever inventing in- 
fhruments of torture, and, among the reft, had a hol- 
low brazen pillar caft, which fhe compelled tlie obje£l of 
berfiiry to embrace, and then heated the pillar to that de- 
gree, that the miferable wretch was roaftM to death. But 
the people detefting the cruelties exercifed in this reign, de- 
^fed the Emperor, and raifed to the throne one of another 
nmily, named Vou-bang, who began a new race of mo- 
narchs, about one thoufand years before the birth of 

About the year 177 before Chrift, in the reign of Ping- 
Van, feveral of the tributary princes rebelled, and rendered 
themfelves independent of the Emperor. From this reign, 
their great philofopher Confucius began his hiftory. H« 
was made prime minifter about the year 537, and wr(Ke 
the hiftory of the civil wars, which lafted Hear two hun- 
dred years. Confucius, not finding his advice regataed, 
retired from court fomc time before he died. This |reat 
and good philofopher was equally efteemed for his lllliode- 
ratiun and candour, as for his genius and leamiM, In 
all his anions, as well as in his difcourfes, he iMorted 
precept by example. His fyllem of religion was ftfyftem 
of natural law, which ought to be th« ground- Wtffk of all 
religion, the rule of focicty, and ftandard at govem- 
ineiu. He taught, that realon was an emanation of the 
Almighty ; that the fuprcmc law confifted in aft hvmony 
between nature and rcafoii ; that the religion which was 
repugnaiit to rcalbn, would not come from heaven. He 
lived frvcnty-three years, and had a-magnificent monu- 
ment ereftcd to him, near the city of Kio*'few, the Chi- 
nefc crui 1 tain a high veneration for his nMnory, and h.ive 
a chapel JcJicated to him in almoft every city, where ob- 
lations arc |)rerentcd to him ^cr the manner of a facri- 
fice( which honours were very contrary to the principles 
of Coiit'ucius, who ni'vcr allowed of fuch homage and 
worlhip being paid to a creature. His works are now in 
fuch a-ithority, that the Chinefe appeal to tliem in all dif- 
putcs, and his pnftcrity arc the only nobility in tlie king- 
doin, exci-pi llie niinces of the bloodi 

t\o. 0. I 

During the rcij^n of GiM-tfong, about the year of am' 
Lord 1144, the I'artars made themfelves matters of tli4 
nbrthern provinces of China ; and in the reign of To* 
nantfong, the weflern Tartars conquered part of Chirw) 
and Chi'>toong, their prince, made Pe-king the feat of 
his empire. He caufed the ereat canal to be cut, which 
runs from Canton almoft to uis city of Pe-king, being one 
thoufand miles : he alio cut abundance of other canals* 
for the convenience of tranfporting merctUndin ttga 
oncprovince to another. 

Tai-ting, who was the laft Emperor of the Tartarian 
race, loft his crown by attempting an alteration in religion i 
he countenanced the Lama's, or Tartarian priefts« which 
united the Chinefe againft him. l°heir leader was • 
bonze, or Chinefe prieft, who, about the year 1400, 
having driven the Tartars out of the country, mounted 
the throne. 

In 1408, the Portuguefe, having doubled the Cape of 
Good Hope, began a trade with China, and, poljeffing 
themfelves of the iiland of Macao about the year isfit 
monopolized the whole traffic to that country for upwards 
of a century. 

Several Tartar nations, having in the mean time united 
under tlie King of Niu-lche, invaded the northern pro- 
vinces of China, again in the year 1640, under pretencd 
of having been impofed upon and cheated by the Ch'mefd 
merchants, for which they could obtain no icdrefs at tho 
court of Pe-king. The amies thereupon taking th* 
field, feveral battles were fought, but none of them deci< 
five, until a ft .nine happening in fome of the fouthern 
provinces of China, occafioned an infurreAion : and Ly- 
cungz, one of the chiefs of the mal-contents, marched 
with a numerous army up to Pe-king, and laid fiege to that 
city, which was betrayed to him by the eunuchs of ths 
court. The Emperor, and moft of his family, feeing all 
refinance vain, chofe to die by their own hands, rather 
than be made prifoners by the rebels ; wliereupon Ly- 
cungz caufed himfelf to be proclaimed Emperor, and then 
advanced againft Ufanguey or Ou-fang-gucy, the imperial . 
general, who receiving advice of the ufurpation of Ly-. 
cungz, made peace with the Tartars, who confented to 
join him againft tlie Ufu'rpcr. This obliged Ly-cungzto 
retire to Pe-king, and not thinking himfelf ftrong enough 
to defend that city againft their united forcesj he plundered 
the town, and marched into the province of Chen-fi, whe- 
ther he was purfued by Ufanguey ; but Xun-chi remaining 
at Pe-king m the mean while, caufed himfelf to be pro- 
claimed Emperor in his abfence : however, upon the re- 
turn of Ufanguey, after the defeat of the rebels, Xun- clii 
offered to divide die kingdom with him, and Ufanguey 
not being then in a condition to force the Tartars to aban- 
don Pe-king, fecmed to confent to tlie propofal, and re- 
tired to the provinces which were allotted him, where he 
raifed forces, and having augmented his army, required 
Ly-cungz to quit the kingdom, and on his rcfufal levcral 
battles were fought, in which Ufanguey was generally fuc-» 
cefsfuli but being killed in a futtire engagt. nent, his army 
difperfed, and the reft of the provinces were reduced 
under the dominion of Ly-cungz, the Tartar, about 
the year 1644 ; but he did not long enjoy the tnrone, he 
died foon after the conqneft, and was fucceeded by his 
fon, an infant of fix years of age, leaving Amavan, hia 
uncle, regent, till his fon fhould come of age : and the 
regent dil'charged his tnift with that fidelity, that every 
thing remained in peace during the minority, and his uncle 
had the pleafure of^ delivering up the kingdom to him en-> 
tire, both the Tartars and Chinefe princes fubmitting to 
his government. Amavan did not uiink fit to make any 
alteration in the laws and cuftoms of China : he only 
compelled the Chinefe to cut off their hair, and take the 
Tartar Ivkbit, that it might not be difcenied how inconfi- 
derable^ a P'op'^ '''^ Tartars were, when compared with 
the ChinMc. In every thing clfe, he rather Courted than 
oppreffed the natives ; he fuiTend many of them to retain 
their pofts in the government, and remitted feveral fpecies 
of their taxes. 1 he Chinefe feemed to be rather gainers 
than lofes by the change. Their country was t'.ie fesit of 
government. Tartary became a province to China, and 
they were exempted from tlie charge of maintaining ar- 
mies upon the frontiers after the union. However, the 
Chinefe, who were moft averfe to the Tartar government, 
fled to the Philippines, Java, and othei iflands In the In* 
dian feas, where retain their hair and former habits ; 
and the pofterity of Ly-cungz remain upon the throne 
of China to this d.iy. 

China having acquired great additional fhength by her 
union with Tarsary, lass now no enemy todrcwii iKirWeip 

P *,viBr 


j6 The N£Wand UNiVERSAL SYStfeM of CEOGRAPHy. 


ever the opalence power, grandeur, andglory of the Clli- 

Sefe empire greater than at prefent ; at home, it hath all the 
leflings of peace, and abroad it isrefpefted: it hath en- 
joyed a pertba tranquility for upwardu of fevcnty years, 
and is unrivalled by all otlicr nations for its pulilic works 
gfart, having thirty-twro royal jialaces.'^o hundred and 
feventy-two grand libraries, fevcn hundred and nine 
Halls, one thoiifand one hundred and fifty^hie triumphal 
arches, three hundred and one I)cautiful htWges, and fix 
hundred and eighty curious tombs. The Emperor Yong- 
tchiii (that is, Lilting peace) the name he took on his 
acceflion to tlie throne in 172*, mtwitliftanding his de- 
crees againft tl>e Chriftians, is generally acknowledged to 
Be a prince of .great virtue, and an excellent governor; 
and that he conuantly applied himfclf to promote the hap- 
pinefs of his people. 

According to Uu Halde, . tliere happened a dreadful 
earthquake at Pe-king in this reign, in the year 1731, 
which demolilhed g?eat part of that capital, and buried 
itiore tlian one hundred tnoufand of the inhabitants in its 
ruins : but there i j fome reafon to doubt of the trutli of 
this writer's account of this event, becaufe feveral Eaft- 1 ndia 
daptains who 'were at China in that year, had heard notnihg 
of it : and though Canton, the part the Europeans trade 
to, be a thoufand miles fouth of Pe-king, yet a calamity 
fo remarkable as tliis mud have been known by the cap- 
tains of fhips and merchants trading to that city. 

The Chinefe empire hath been fucceffively governed by 
twenty-cwo imperial families, and hath been eftablilhed 
three thoufand nine hundred and eighty-four years, dur- 
ing which fpace, tv'o hundred and tliir^ Emperors have 
reigned. ... .....',.'. 

. .. S E C T. XV. 

■ / ' ' 

--^ 0/ the iJJands fubjtll h China. 

FotMOSA, Aynan, 011^ Macao, tre tht principal Cbi>if/i 

THE ifland of Formofa is fituate in the Pacific ocean, 
between one hundred and nineteen and one hundred 
and twenty-two degrees of eaftern longitude, and between 
twenty-two and twenty-five degrees of north latitude, one 
hundred miles eaft of the province of Fo-kyen in China ; 
its circumference is between four and five hundred miles. 
It abounds inthe fame kind of fruits as the fouth of China 
does, near which it lies, and is agreeably diverfified with 
hills and vallies. The Spaniards fent fome colonies from 
die Philippines tliither ; but they did not think it worth 
their while to continue there. The Dutch afterwards at- 
tempted to bring it under their dominion, but were driven 
from tlience by the Chinefe. The Dutch relate, that the 
people of this irtand were republicans ; that every province, 
and every town in the ifland was an independent (late, re- 
fembling thofe of Holland ; but finCc they luve been re- 
duced under the dominion of China, tliey are governed 
by a Chinefe viceroy. They are Pagans, and have their 
bonzes, that is, priells andprieftefles, as on the neigh- 
bouring continent. The Dutch relate, they had many 
Chriftian profclytes j but it is probable there are no Chrif- 
tians tliere at prefent, or the Popilh miflionaries would 
have made tl)ein a vifit from Macao, and have mentioned 
them in their travels. Their mountains, it is faid, arc 
full of brimftone 1 which makes the idand fubjcft to 
eartliquakes. The women here plow, fow, and manure 
the ground, and the men fpend tlieir time chiefly in hunt- 
ing. Their boufet are built with cane, and arc but one 
ftory high. Their female priefts pretend to a knowledge 
of tuturity, and are often conl'ultcd as oracles. 

The next ifland we (hall mention is Aynan, or Hay- 
nan ■, it is fituate in the Cliiaefc fea, between one hundred 
and feyen and one hundred and ten degrees of ead longi- 
tude, and between eighteen and twenty degrees of north 
latitude, fifty miles fouth of the continent of China ; be- 
ing of an oval form, and about three hundred miles in 
circumference. It is faid to be a plentiful country, and to 
afford both gold and pearls ; but as no travellers have 
given us any particular account of the reft of the produce 
of the ifland, -or of its inhabitant'!, we mvt conjcflurc, 
from its fituation, that the principal grain is rice, and Miat 
cocoas, mangoes, giiavas, plaiu^iln^, oranges, aud other 
tropical fruits abound in it. 

Alacao is fituato in one hundred .-ind thirteen dtijrees of 
caft Ifdigitudc, and twenty-three degrees of nortli latitude. 
It is a Imall jllaad in the mouth cf the river Canton in 
China. The Portuguefe tobkpnlTciTionof it in tluir full 
voyages to China, and have carried on a great trade tliere 


fb'r upwards of one hundreij veal's ; and though they ir^ 
now fubjeft to China, tliev are permitted to govern tHeil' 
own people by riie Itvvs of Fortug*!,- iiid to proftfs the 
Chriftian religion ; when the Popilh miflionaries are drivcii 
out of China, they rcfort to this place. 

There are a great number *>f very finall iflandsi tlmt lid 
between Formofa and the Philippine ifland. As the chan- 
nelsamongft themarebut little known. Lord Anfon ndvifes 
rather to pafs to the Aorthwsrdor fouthward, than through' 
them i the Centurion (liip of nafled through them be- 
tween Grafton and Monmouth iflands ; but in getting 
through, the fea had a very dangerous sifpeft, for it rip- 
pled and foamed with all the appearance of being full of 
breakers 5 but this agitation of the fea, which had alarmed 
them, being occafioned only by a ftrong tide, tliey got 
through it very fafely. 

Having before barely nientioned the great Chinefe walH 
*e (hall here give a fuller defcriution of that amazine 
work. It wr»s begun about two thoufand years ago, and 
is a mafter-piece of induftryand genius : It is principally 
built of brick, and cemented with the (Irongeft mortar, 
ilifomtich tliat though it has ftood many centuries it ftiU- 
continues firm. It is about five hundred leagues in Icrigth;'- 
including is many turnings and windings, nnd itsintermc-- 
diate fpaces fupplted by the mountains, which reduce* thrf 
real wall to about one hundred leagues. TheChinefe, befbrrf 
the conqaefl, guarded this wall with a million of foJdiers, 
but only particular parts of it are now defended from in- 
vaders. Its grcatel^ elevation is about thirty feet, and its 
breadth is nearly fufltcicnt for eight men to ftand abieift 
on it. Some parts of this wall being built on high ntoutt- 
tains it confequcntly rifes and finks with the farnce of tbtf 
ground ; which circumftance accounts for the ftupendon* 
height given it by fome authors. When Iflrand Ides« 
the Ruffian ambaflador to the court of Chitu, faw this 
wall, he tells us it was iii as gsod repair ai if ic had not' 
been built twenty years. 



CtHlaining an acceunt if Chintfe Tartary, 

CHINESE Tartary 'extends from forty to one hnit- 
drcd and thirty- five degrees of eaftern longitude, atii 
lies between tliirty • five and feventy-two degrees of northern 
latitude ; having the Frozen ocean on the north ; the Pacific 
ocean on the esril ; China, India, Perfia, and the Cafpian 
fea, fo«th ; and European Rufiia on the well : but in dirs 
chapter we (hall only treat of Chinefe Tiirtnry, which is 
fituate between one hundred and five and one hundred and 
thirty-five degrees of eaftern longitude, and between forty- 
one and fifty-five degrees of north latitude j being bounded 
by Ruffian Tartary, sr Siberia, upon the north-, by the 
Pacific ocean, eaft; by the Chinefe provinces of Ly.«a-" 
tong and Corea on the fouth, and by Ruffian Tartiry oit 
the wefl J the river Amour and Yamour, called bv the Chi- ' 
ncfe Sagahan Ula, feparating it from Ruffian Tart.^rv on 
the north ; and the river Argun dividing it from the Ruf- 
fian dominions on the wcfl : and hears the general name 
ofNiu-tche, or Manchew Tartai^ ; but i/ uf'tially fubdi- 
vided into the provinces of Keching Tartarv on the cart j 
and Tigurran and Solon Tartary on the weft. 

Chinefe Tartary coiilills, for the moft part, in barren 
mountains and defcrt plains : tliere h-avc been fome good 
towns in it, but moft of them run to ruin after the Tar- 
tars coni|uered China, whither the feat of the go\enimcnt 
being removed, all the Tartars of diftinttion have followed 
the court tliither, and are advanced bv the fovercign to the 
chief pofts in eiiipirc j and by their intermarriage and 
coinmereb"with the Chinefe a.e become the fame people 
in a manner, and look ujion tluir original country as a. 
province of China In tli.,- north, the people differ littla 
from tlie Laplanders of Europe. They hunt fablcf, er- 
mines, and other animals for their furs in winter, and fpend 
their time in fifhing in the fuiimier. The gentlemen in 
the fouth of Tartary make hunting of deer, and other gam, >, 
rather their eirtployment than diverfion, and procure the 
bcft part of their food tlist way ; but their hunting differs 
much from our*; for they fiinim m all tlieii vaflkls and de- 
pendants to attend tliciii, 'and lurroinid a larj;c trail of 
country, driving the game Ixjfore tlieni, until they have 
brought them into a very fhi;\ll coinpafs ; then they ilioot, 
or take them with n:ti ;u plcalur.-. 

Kirinula is the chief town at prefent, and is (ituate in 
forty-four degrees noftlr l.ititude, on a iiionntain, the an- 
tieiit feat of the Manchcw or Niii-tcluan Taitars ; and 
here are the tombs of tlu anccftors of the picl(;iit Kmperor. 
I'll! Tartars are a much mcr; robuft and harJy p;ople- 

till a 


)ngh they irS 
I govern theii' 
profefi the 
rics ate drivcil 

■ndr, tlmt lid 
As the chan- 
Anfon ndnfcs 
than through' 
ugh thetti be- 
ut !n getting 
ft, for it rip- 
bclng full of 
h hud alarmed 
ide, tliey got 

Chinefe wall", 
that amazine 
rears ago, and 
: is principally 
ingeft mortar, 
ntaries it (liU- 
;ues in Ici^th^- 
id itsintermc-- 
cl\ reduces' thrf 
:;hinefe, befortf 
}n of foldiers, 
nded from in- 
f feet, and it* 

(land abreaft 
n high tKoun- 
he ftupendou* 

Iftrand Ides« 
lina, faw this 

if k had not' 


y to one hnn- 

ongitude, atiJ 

!es of northern 

th J the Pacific 

d tfie Cafpian 

l\ : but in this 

tary, which is 

e Hundred and 

ictwcen forty- 

icinp hounded 

lorth ; by the ■ 

tes of [ y-tiu- 

n Tar' ry on 

A bv the Chi- 

iit Tartary on 

[■fpin the Ruf- 

gcncral name 

iil'imlly fubdi- 

on the cad j 

Irt, in btirera 
pn feme good 
fter the Tar- 
^ gmcrnmcnt 
liave followed 
I'crcign to the 
narriagc and 
fame people 
I country as u 
ke ditfer littla 
kit fabK-i, cr- 
ier, '<md I'pcnd 
'gentlemen in 
1 other gam.', 
procure the 
piuing differs 
hflaU and de- 
Jirgc trail of 
Itil they have 
l» thty llioot, 

is fitnate in 

|tiin, the an- 

I'aitars ; and 

lilt Emperor. 

\:ui)' people 


[a S I-A.l C JH I, N E S fi 

ilian tileir Chineliart neighbours in thp fmuh i ind their 
Jlorfes, and other cattle, »refupetlor to theirs. TheChi- 
Utfe troops are fupplied with horfes chiefly froin this 
country; and from hence cortivs that valuable hWb ginfene, 
and the rhubarb root. The air of thecoutitrv is exceflivery 
cold, though they lie under the C.ime parallel its we do ; as 
it is obfcrved with refpeft to the weftern cgritinent of A- 
tnerica, that it is as cold iii the latitude of fifty, as it is 
with us in fixty : the fame is obferved of that part of Chi- 
nefe Tartary, which lies in the latitude of fifty, Which is 
bccilioncd by tliewind blowing over a longtraft of frdzen 
country in th» winter. 

The Tartars ear all manner of meat; except hogs-flefti; 
but delight moft in the tlclli of wild horfes, which they 
hunt M they do otliar game. Their drink is water or 
mare's milk. They have very little wheat or lice : oats is 
aluioft the only grain thoy have, of whieli they make both 
bread and drink. I'lieir religion is I'aganilin ; and, bo- 
lides tlte Chinefe idols, they worlhip the great Lama. 
Tlicfe people formerly burnt ttleir dead ; but tliey new 
t)ury tlicm, like tl)e Chinelc. 

The weftern Tartorg live in tents, and remove from 
place to plac« for convoniency of palture, their herds of 
cattle, and what they get in hunting, being their principal 
fubfiliunce. Tlie oulern 1-artars Uve in towns, but are 
noitlicr fo- numerous or fo regular and beautiful as the 
towns of China; many of them lie in ruins, and are per- 
iL'itly debrted tor warmer feats and a more fruitful country : 
fur, as has been obferved already, upon the conqueft of 
China tjicir Emperor invited all the little Tartar clans to 
join him, and tranlplant their families to Pe-king, in otder 
to eftablilh hiinfelf and fecure hisconquefts ; and from that 
day to this, all men of any fpirit, who are not deftitute of 
^bition, have reforted to the court of China, where they 
]>avc almoll a certainty of meeting with preferment, and 
'confcqucntly their native country is abandoned and left in 
a more wr<!tched condition than before tlieir union with 
China. They had the honour indeed of being conquerors, 
and fetUng a prince of their nation upon the throne ; but 
are lioiwitliftanding become a province to the kingdom 
Miey coriquered : thty aic governed by a military force, and 
garrifons placed in all their ftrong towns ■, the manners and 
cuftoms of the Chinefe alfo prevail more and more amotig 
tlie Tartars every day. However, the Tartars that remain 
in tlieir own country, and do not attend the court, muft 
be allowed to dift'cr Vrom the Chinefe in many refpeds : 
They are neither fo effeminate or luxurious as their more 
Ibuthern neighbours, nor do they apply tliemfelves to traf" 
fic near fo much ; hunting, horfcmanlnip, and other manly 
exercifes take up great part of their time. They would be 
alhamed to be lecn in chairs or litters, like the loft Chi- 
nefe, but eftcera it much more glorious to be found at tlie 
head of a troop of liorfe. Like otiier northern countries, 
tliey alfo allow tlieir women all innocent liberties, and both 
iexes convcrfc together with freedom ; and poflibly it will 
be found a very jull obl'ervation, that the braveit people 
have been ever the leaft troubled with a fpirit of jcaloufy, 
and kept their women under the leall reftraint. 

The Tartars are not ftmous for arts and fciences ; nor 
do wc hear much of their laws: the will of tlic prince feems 
to he the only meal'urc of their obedience j nor have they 
Miy books or hidorics among them, which give any light 
into their oiiginal. 

'treat! of iht Chinr/tan Tartar iiitgJimt ani Jiatn. 

TTISTQRIANS have divided the Tartara into in- 
I A numerable tribes or liords, but we fhall here give 
fome account of tlie neighbouring kingdom of Thioet, 
and tlie Ullieck Tartars. 

The kingdom of Thibet is bounded by the Cal- 
tnucks land on the north, hy China on the eaft, by India 
on the fouth-weft, and by Ufticck Tartary on the weft. 
'J'his coutitry is iituatc in an excellent clioute, between 
thirty and forty degrees of north-latitude ; but is very 
mountainous, which probably obftruAs the paflage between 
India and Chi Aa by land i aiUt Iccms to have been one rea- 
fon that we hr.d no communication witli the Chinefe, be- 
fore the Portugucfc found out tlie way to China by fea. It 
is certain they are a very potent people, and more dreaded 
by the Chinefe ili;i;i any other iLilioni They arc govern- 
ed l)v a Cham or Chun, which li,^,nilics a fovcreign prince 
in that part of the world ; but whether they are abfolute or 
limited monarcU<, hiHoiy docs not iiifurm us, though the 
fi'imer is moll provable. Part of them are Pagans, and 
p;\it Mahoni'.tau::. i hcfc that boiJcr upon China have 


T A, R TA it y. 


the fame idoli and bonzd prieftt as the Clunpfe have-; ari4 > 
thole are fftt the mcft par( Maliotnetaiis which lie next to . 
Mongalia and Ulbeek I'artanr. , . , . 

Ulbcck Tartary is bounded on tlie nbrtti, hy the coun- 
try of tiie Calmuoks ; on the eaft, by Tliibet i on the, 
foiltli, by India; and on the weft, by Periia and theCaf-" 
pi m fea. The moft iconfiderable rivers arc tliofe of the 
Oxus, which divides it frbni Pertia ; and the Silhin, whicH 
runs from the fo^' '.h-e^ to tbe nbrtli-weft, and discharges 
itfelf into the Cafpian fea. It is a fine fruitfi;il country, 
lying between thirty-five and forty-five decrees of nortli 
latitude, and carries on a brilk trade bqtb with the eaftem 
and weftern countries of Afiai The chief town was Sa- 
marcand, fituate in Hxty-fix degrees of eaftern longitude, 
And forty degrees of north latitude, once tlie tcfidence u^ 
, thegreat Tamerlane, and the nxetropolis of his crnpii«. 
The prcftnt Capital is Bochiifk, fituatE on the river Oit- 
us, about fixty miles fouth-weft of Samarcaud, and fre- 
quently gives name to the country. The people here, as 
in other T^ir countries, are divided into a great many 
hords or tribes, butfubjeA to one monarch, their grand 
Cham. This is a polite nation ; and their ftature, fba- ' 
tures, and complexioii hotto be found fault witli, efpe-' 
cially if compared with the Calmucks, their northern 
neighbours. The religion of the Ufbecks is Mahome^- 
ifm, arid their rites and cuftoms much the faihe iis thofe 
of their brethren in Turky; Their great leader, or peat 
Cham, I'amerlane, Was the fort of Zam, Cliam or Chan, 
the chief of all the Mogul tribes : he flrft diflinguUhed' 
hlmfelfby repulfing tlie Ruffians, who liad invaded his 
country, and having given them li total defeat, obliged 
tllcm to fubmit to fuch terms aj he thoiight fit to impofc. 
He married the daughter of his uncle, another Cham or 
Chan of the Moguls, whole dominions he fucceeded to on- 
his uncle's death : the Chinefe invading his country, he 
was not content with repulfing them, but carried the war 
into their own country, and demolilhed part of the wall 
they had erefled for tlie defence of it,»Tnade himfelf mafter 
of the capital city of Pe-king, and the Chinefe Emperor 
tributary to him : the fame of his actions having reachcif 
the weltern kingdoms of Afia, they feht ambaludors to 
him, to implore his proteftion againft the furious B^^.jazer,. 
emperor of tlie Turks ; whereupon he aflcmbled moft of 
the_ Tartar tribes, and being joined by a body of Ruflians, 
it is computed his army amounted to near a million of 
men, with which he marched throueh the countries nortK 
of the Cafpian fea, and then hendrng his march to th& 
foutliward, palled mount Caucafus, continuing his match 
through Circaffia and Georgia, and the countries fituate 
between the Cafpian and Euxine feas : thefe countries be- 
ing in alliance with him, and furniHiing his army with 
provifions in tlieir march, and as they were Chriftians, 
looked upon Tamerlane as their deliverer frotii Turkiili ty- 
ranny J he did not, however, rely entirely on his confe- 
derates to furnifh fo vaft an army witli provifions } but his 
fleet, on tlie Cafpian fea, attended the aniiy in their march 
with all manner of necefliiries, infomuch that his foldiers 
were not fuftered to plunder, or take any thing by violence 
in the countries Arough which they pafled : if a foldier 
took but an apple or bowl of milk, wiuiout paying for ir, 
he was put to <featli. Sebaftia, in Armenia, was tlie firft 
city that oppofed his march, the earrifon returning very 
inlolent anlwers, when they were umttioned to furrender; 
whereupon he invefled the place, but did not make any at- 
tack for a week ; in the mean while, the inhabitants look- 
ing upon the town to be impregnable, on a fudden their 
walls and towers fell down, having been undermined} and 
the garrifon feeing tliemfelves laid open to the enemy, 
were forced to furrender at difcretion ; according to the 
Turkilh account, Tamerlane caufed tlie foldicrs of the gar- 
rifon to be bound liand and foot, and tlirowa into pits 
that were dug for that purpofe, where they were buried 
alive ; but though tliis uoes not fuit with the charaAer of 
this humane conqueror, yet the ftory ought not to be 
totally rejeAed, for it is evident raaiiy great generals have 
done the like on the firft invafion of^a country, in order 
to ftrike a terror into their enemies ; and if that was hi* 
dcfign he had his end, for fisw towns refuted to furrender to 
him afterwards at the firft fummons. 

When Bajeiet had received advice of Tamerlane's fuc- 
cefs, he advanced towards him with an army of one mil-" 
lion of foldiers, _ when a bloody ^battle was fought in the 
plains of Stella, in which tlie Turks were totally defeated ; 
and Bajazet, being Uken prifoner, was at firft treated by 
Tamerlane with great humanity \ but afterwards behaving 
with infolcncp; was confined by ihe conqueror iii an iroii 
cajje, and carried with him wherever he went , but the 



- ,tsij ^., oi-fcti.^;..;.!. J .1 v!? L^B, t 

./iis.i.Ji . 


iMn»btv Turk, noi^ behrK aMe ux brook tUt i^nominioin | after wkkh hi returned back to hit ovrn country, and die J 

kind or punilhment, dauied out hit braini igainft tl)e ban in the year of our Lord i ^4. But u tliefe tranfaftkiw 

of hit moveable prifon. At for Tamerlane, he foon after ^have a more immediate reference to Tutky, we lh»U treat 

fabdued the greiiteft part of Lefler Afia, took the city of of them mere largely when we oome to that part of our 

Ferfia in Bythinia, conquered Syria* and reduced Egypt ) work< 


O F 

C O R E A. 

THE kingdom of Corea, or KOrca which it a large 
peninfula, fituate between China and Japan, and 
lying between the thirty-fourth and forty-third degreet of 
north latitude. It it about four hundred and fifty miles 
in length from nortli to fouth, and about two hundred and 
twenty-five in breadth firom eaft to weft. It it divided 
into eight provinces, bat two hundred cities, with many 
caflles and fortified places. 

In the northern parts of the kingdoms the climate is ex- 
ceeding fevere ; and the fnow fomctimet falls in fuch Quan- 
tities, that the people are forced to work a paflige unaer it, 
in order to go from one houfe to another, fixing a fraaU 
board to their feet, to keep them from finking into the 
fitow. I'he inhabitants, m the northern part, live upon 
barley, having no rice, and clothe themlelTes in fieep- 
ikins and coarfe hempen cloth i but the foothem parts pro- 
(fuce every necelTary of life. The Japanefe have lately 
taught them to plant and drefs tobacco, which Is fmoked 
by both fexes. They have alfo filver and lead mines ; all 
forts of cattle, tame and wild fowl, hories, wolves, and 
^gers, but no elephants ; and there are many crocodiles 
in their rivers, tlie moft confiderable of which are Yorluy 
imd the Tu-meri. 

The Cnccant are In general well-fhaped, of a comely 
aipet>, friendly to ftrangers, but treat barbaroufly thole 
who are fo unfortunate as tobefliip-wreckcd on their coaflt. 
I'hey are at the fame time efFcminate, much given to plea- 
fure, and of a timid difpontion. People of condition 
drefs in a purple-coloured filk gown with long and wide 
(leeves, and a fafh ; they alfo wear fu' uaps and linen buf- 
kius. The common people wear cotton or hempeitcloth. 
In the country, th . houles are mean, except thofe belonging 
to people of diftir Aion, which are handfome and fpacious. 

Contrafts for narriage are made at the age of feven or 
eight years ; br : are prohibited to the third degree of kin- 
dred ; the femr les are in that cafe brought up by the father- 
in-law, excep . an only daughter. A man is allowed to 
have feveral ,vives, provided he keeps only one at home ; 
but the grariees are permitted to keep three or four at hi;i 
Houfe, one of whom a£ls as fiipreme miflrefs. I'hey in 
general treat tlicir wives as Haves, and divorce them at 
plcafure. The moft confiderable part of the fitther's fub- 
fiance devolves to his eldeft fon, and the reft amon^ the 
other male children, the daughters beit^^xdudr'!. 

The Coreans bury their dead only in ^fing and autumn, 
and in the mean time place die ccrpfe in a kind of hut made 
of rufhes, raifed upon four flakes in tlieir courts or gar- 
dens. The deceafed lies in a double coffm, clofely cement- 
ed together, drclTed in his beft apparel, with fome toys ly- 
ing near him. They f«t out in procefTion with the body 
at day-break, the bearers finging all the way, keeping exau 
time with their fteps and voice, while the- reft of^ the com- 
pany fill the air with doleful lamentations. 'I'he graves 
for the common people are five or fix feet deep, but people 
of rank are depofited in ftone vaults, at with us. After 
the funeral is over, they make their offerings to the de- 
ceafed monthly, at the full of the moon. Children mourn 
three years, with great folemnity and abftinencc, for tlicir 
fathers, theiT drefs, daring this time of fadnefs, being very 

They do not much concern themfelves about rdigious 
worfhip, the whole of whidi confifts chiefly in external 
ceremony. But here arc fome of the followers of Confu- 
c'ius, and others who efteem the religion of Foe, tliere 
being many' temples confeerated to this deity. Moft of 
them believe the do£lrine of tranfmigration, and a future 
ilate of rewards and punifhments : they have alfo a great 
number of monks amongft them, who go bareheaded, and 
refrain from any conncftion with the female lex ; neither 
arc they allowed to eat the ficfh of any animals. There 
are alfo two monafteries for religious women : one for 
daughters of the nobility, and the other for young women 
of inferior rank. 

The Coreans are exceedingly igtroranf of geogia|tkyv 
fuppofing the globe to confift otrly of twelve kIngdonM, 
and extend their maps no fiirther that* SvUtt. Thar lan- 
guage hat a fet of charaAers peculiar to itl'rlf 1 but the lite- 
rati adopt the Chincle, whole method of printing they foU 
low. The education of their children i« free from all fere- 
rity : they implant into their tender Aiindr a fcnfc of hon-- 
our : the principal part of their learning confift* in the 
knowledge of moral philofopky,! taking the great Confu" 
cini for Uieir model. 

Their chief trade i> with the' Jtpanefe, particularly with 
the iflandcfs of I'fairima fubjeA' to Japan, who bring to 
their h&oryy at Poufiin in Corea, fweet-fcented wood, 
alum, paper, pepper, buffaloes horit»>. &c. and receive cot* 
ton and ginfeng in exchange. 

The only fpecies of money ufed by the Coreans are criU 
ed cafis, wnicn are' current no fiirther than the frontiers of 
Chinar : in other parts they make tkeir ]^yiiieuts it vn-* 
flamped wedges or ingots of filver.. 

Tiiough uie king of Corea is AO more than « VafTal to 
the Emperor of China, he rules with abfolute fway, keeps 
a great nfinber of houfliold troops in his fitrvitc, which 
guard his palace, and attend him wherever he goes, '^'heit 
his Majefty is pafTing, none muftprcfume to look at him.. 
He ir lord of all the lands in the kingdom, and beftowa 
them on wftonifoevcr he pleafes, and for whatever t^rm of' 
years he thinks proper : he has n council of ftate co^pofett 
of feveral minifiers ; but none may give his opinion till 
firft afked by his Majefty, nor meddle in any Itate cor>- 
cern without his permifTion. It they behave well, they ar« 
continued in office during life. 

The Coreans diufe their magiflrates of cit'res, arki go- 
vernors of fortified places every (bird yer.r. Theft are 
either banifhed, or fentcnccdto lufltr death, if found guilty 
of mal-praflices. 

I'he revenues of the crown confift principally in the 
rents of land granted to the people : tlie king has, befides, 
the tythe of every tiling prodndivc of profit, cither by land 
or fea. 

In Corea, the penal law* are extremely rigorous. Re- 
bels and traitors, together with their whole families, are 
cut off widiout the leaft mercy, and their kibitations le- 
velled with the ground. If a wife kills her hufband, fhe 
is placed up to her ihouMers m the earth in fome high ready 
md a hatrhet is placed dole to licr, with which every on» 
except thofe of noble family, is obliged to give her a chop' 
at he paffes by her ; and where a murder of this kind is 
conmitted, tne magiftrates of the place is fufpended front 
the execution of their office. But though a woman is fo 
fevcrely punifhed for murdering hec hulDand, yet the laws 
jullify and proteft the man who kills his wife deteded ii> 
adultuy ; or if be gives lier up to juflice, fhe i« condeinn- 
d to die, but is allowed to chufe the mode of her fufTciing 
death, in which cafe they generally cut their own thrtotst 
It is afferted by fome writers, that hufbands, efpccially if 
they arc,of fiipcrior quality, are punifhed with death for 
adultery. If an unmarried man be detected in criminal 
converfation with a married woman, they punifh him 
liy ftripping him down tothcwaift, and leaving, him only 
a- pair of druwers on ; after which, they linear hks- face with 
lime, pierce an arrow each of his cars, and tic a 
kettle on his b.ick, which is beat upon as lie palTes throuplv 
the ftreets, and lafl of all he icecives the baflinado. T he 
perfon who kills a frec-mtn is obliged to l^.allow a t|\ian- 
tity of vinegar with which the botly of the muijercd per- 
fon has been waflied, then the criminal is trampled unJcr 
foot, and kicked on the belly till he dies. N«iiy the lams 
ptiniflimcnt is inflidked for tlicft. 

■^I'he baftlnado here is (generally given on the poftcriois, 
and fbmetimes on the Itiins and loles of the fc.-t. VVlieu 
on the fhins, they hind the fiiffcrer's k\i to a couple of 
benches, the one at his feet, anj the othrt unJer hi j liJ^ms ; 
and ill this pouure they flriU him on tlw U,^$ with a Ibrt 




ry, and die J 
ft Ihall treat 
patt of our 

t^ 4 I A.) 

i N 



r gecpmpfcjr^ 
Thar lan- 
tmt the Ute- 
ing they fol* 
rom all feve- 
Icnfc of hon-- 
nfifis in the 
;reat Csnfu" 

icularly with 
rho bring to 
ented wood, 
1 receite cot* 

'cant are caH'' 
e frontiers of 
acuta ia un- 

>n a taflid to 
: fway, lieeps 
;rvi*c, which 
g«es. Wheit 
look at liim. 
and beftows, 
ifevcr tprm of 
:ate co^pofed 
s opinion till 
ly Hate con- 
well, they ar«f 

ties, ani^ go- 
, Theft are 
f found guilty 

illy in the 
las, befides, 
[ither by land 

(row. Re- 

jfamilies, are 

tbilations le- 

luftand, ihe 

le high roady 

:h erery on» 

le her a chopt 

this kind ia 

tended fron* 

roman is fo 

yet the laws 

deteded ii> 


lier fuficiing 

]wn threats t 

ifpcciaily if 

|h death for 

in criminal 

lunifli him 

|e.hini only 

lis face witl» 

and tic a 

fcs t1iroup,h 

»do. 1 lie 

bw a tjvian- 

rdcred per- 

olcd under 

By the fame 

I poflcriors. 
It. When 
1 couple of 
I hi; liains ; 
(ivich a l>>rt 

of Ia(h, but not more Qiait thirty Al'okei at a time, which 
they repeat two or three hours aftci-wards, till the whole 
oftlie lentence is executed. WheA an olTender receives 
the baftinado <)n ihc foles of his feet, they compel him to 
fit down on the ground, and then tyiiig hi} two great toes 
together, fix them in a wooden friinc, and thus infllA tlie 

Sunilhment. Women and ipprentices ccnrrally receive 
je baliinado on the calves of their legs. Perl'onj irt arrears 
to the king, or wli -> rcfufe to pay their debts, are baftina- 
doed on the (bins every fifteen days till they pay the money. 
Sti'c criminals are tried by the grand royal council. 

'The n^ilitary government in Colca very much refcmbles 
the civil. Each province has a general, or chief of the 
thilitia, with four or five colonels under him, each of 
Whom commands a rcgiihcnt ; and that the King mAy 
know the exa£f number of foldiers he has in pay, the in- 
ferior officers 4rc obliged to keep ar\ accurate lift bf all the 
men belonging to their refpeftive corns, which they trinf- 
mit at ftated tiinei to their fuperior officers. 

Their fhips of war hav< commonly two mafts and about 
thirty oars, with fire or fix men to each oar, which, with 
(he mirines, make about thice hundred men in each Ihip : 
their ftores chiefly confift of cannon and pot-granaJocs i 
and every province has its particular admiral, who is ob- 
liged annually to leviftw the Ihips of war belonging to his 
province. They have always a number of (hips in commilfi- 
on, every city being compelled to fit out one complete (hip. 
Corea was originally inhabited by difl^erent people, 
who each had th%-ir refpcftivc princes, law maxims, and 
cul^oms i but they afterwards became one nation. The 
moft confiderable of thefe early n.-itivcs were defcended 
from the I'artars, and named Kau-kiu li. 

The firft king of Corea is faid to have been a nephew 
6£ Gheon, Emperor of China, who, for fome mifdc-' 

itteandbK feiiied and tlvrew him into fome Chlnefe prlfohi 
but (th'con, hcihg afterwards dethrotkd by Vou-vana ttii 
founder of the thirtefnth family or dynaiiy, the nephew, 
whofertame wAs Ki tfe, was reftored to his liberty. He 
retired to Corefi, where he introduced the Chinefe laws; 
civilized his people, and conduced the public affairs with 
great wifdom and prudence; but at the fame time har- 
boured the reflc^ioii thatVbii-vang>*aS an ufurper, anit 
had deprived his family of the imperial crown. Tliia 
event took place in the year before Chrift 1 1 ao; 

Ki-tfe's UiftelWrs enjoyed the throHe of Corea ntkt 
nine hundred years ; but Trhuang-fiang-vang, I'^ltnperot 
of China, ^t iertgth fubdned tlie Coreans, and reduced the 
title of their king to that of HcAn, ot' Codnt, with a very 
limited authority. A prince of the family of Ki-tfet 
nimed Chun, aflunietl the title of King, but wat foon tf- 
ter dethroned, and the race of Ki-tfe became extinft it 
his death. 

Vcy-nan, who vtia i rtative of Chini, then felted hit 
way to the throne nf Corea ; and, in order to fccure hii 
ufurpation, courted an alliancewith the Emperor of China; 
and obtained the title of Vang or King but thcfovereigntf 
did not long continue in tlie family of Vty nan ; for hu 
grandfon was malfacred, aiid the Chin.-fe profiting by the 
confuriot\ ariling firom this event, conquered Corea a ft- 
cond time. In procefs of time it was reftored to its an- 
tient monarchical forrn of covernment ; artd the King fub* 
mitted to pay a tribute to the Lnipcrors 6f China. Sinai 
that period, Corea has undergone various revolutions i being 
fometimcs uhder vafliilage to the Cliinefe, at otlier time* 
tributary, then independent, and alnioft always at war 
With that nation. It is tributary it thi$ time ; and the King 
of Corea, on his acccflion to the throne, receive,! his con- 
firmation upon his knees from the Emperor of China; 




IN D I A. 


^ivijim »/ Tonquitt, itsfilualltn and btundariis, rivirs, (!!■ 
matt and proi/iiicts \ dtfcripthn tf tbt natives, iheir haiils, 
manu/ailuris, prtduci of tin ctuntry, animali, language, 
Jciinces, governmtnl, t^c, 

GEOGRAPHERS ufually divide India into two 
parts; numcly, India beyond the Ganges, and India 
on this fide of it. Wc (hall lirft enter upon tlie defcrip- 
tion of tltat divifion which lies beyond the river Ganges, 
becaufe it adjoins to China, which we have laft treated of. 

This country comprehends, i. 'Ihe kingdom of Ton- 
quin. 2. Cochin-China, and Chiampa. 3. Siam, in- 
cluding Malacca, Cambodia, and Laos. 4. Pegu and 
Martaban. 5. Ava, Arracan, Tipra, and Acham, e xlu- 
five of tlie idaiids ; the whole lying bttw;en ninety-two 
and one hundred and nine degree; of callcrn longitude-, and 
between one and twcjuy-eight degrees of north latitude. 

The kil^gdom of Tonquin, which is the firft of thefe 
divifions, is bounded by China on the north and caft ; 
by the bay of Cochin-China, <m the foulli and Ibuth-eaft, 
and by the two fraall kin^'doiiv; of Laos and Bowes (bor- 
dering on Siam) on the Will : It is fituate between one 
hundred and one hundred and nine degrees of caftern longi- 
tude, and between twoiity-oiie and twtnty-feven degrees of 
north latitude ; it is about five hundred miles in length, 
and about four bundled in breadth. It ij divided into 
eight pro\ inccs, viz. call, weft, north, and fouth pro- 
vinces, Tenay, 'I'enlioa, Ngeaiii, and Cacliao. There are 
fcvcral fniall idands at tlic extremity of it. 

In failing up the river Domea, a fine level fruitful coun- 
try prefents itfclf to view ; in which tlicro arc no trees, 
except about the villages, but an agreeable variety of rice 
ground and nafturcs. Further within land, on the north. 
It rifes into hills, The air, in dry feafons, is generally 

Ti'.c foutiictn part of this country lies in the form of a 
No. 6. ' 'r 

crefcent, about a fpaclous bay of the (ca, near one liuri- 
dred miles wide ; the depth 111 the middle, is about forty- 
fix fatlioin, and there is good anchorage inevery part of it. 
The rivers Rockbo and Domea, ruii into this bay, which 
rifiiig in the mountains on the north-weft, take thtit 
couife to the foutli-eaft, and, running ahnoft parallel, dii- 
charge thcmfelves into the bottom of the bay, at about 
thiity leagues dillance from each othvr. Th? Eliropeani 
trade with the natives, up the river Domea, which is near 
two miles over at the mouth ; but there are fo Ihany faiids 
at the mouth, flit a (liip cannot be (iarried over the bar 
without the alTiftance of a pilot. 

In this coilntry, tlie ycir is divided iiito the wet and 
dry feafon, as in tliofe places which lie betweeii the tro-^ 
pics. The wet feafon begins in April or May, and lafts 
till the beginning df September : in which time, however; 
there are confiderable intervals bf fair weather, efpecially 
in the mornings ; tlie three firft ItiontHs of thif (ufon are 
very unhealthy. Ill September the rdin ahd wind are ge- 
nerally moderate ; and yit in that month arid OAober 
happen theTuffoons (Typhones), which are fuch violent 
ftorins, that no (hips venture out of tlie harbour during 
that time. The fufl^oons happert ufually about the new 
or full mooh ; it is fair, pleafant Weather, and little wind 
twelve lioUrs before the uonn begins. The wind having 
blowil very fiercely for twelve hours from the nortli-eaft; 
and attended with thunder ^iid lightriing and heavy rnins, 
it grows calm on a fuddcn ; but in the (pace of an hoitr 
changes to the fouth-wcft, and blows with equal violence 
from that quarter. 'I'hey have the faired Weather wheh 
tlie fun is at the greatelt diltance, which is the cafe i& 
moft countries between the tropiis. The rains ate heavieft 
when the fun is vertical, but the feafons alt not always 
alike : fometimcs tUey have not rain enough for their riccf 
whidi commonly grows in water, or a very moift foil. 

Cathao, or Keechio, the c.iiital city, n fituate aboiit 
one iiuiidicd miles up the river Domea, in o^e hundred 
and live degrees of call lonjimde, ruid t'.vciity-iwo decrees 

Q, thirtj^ 


tfiirty minutet north latitude, on an cK-vatcd (itiution, 
Ikaving neither wall or moat about it, 'I'liere are about 
twenty thoulaml houfes in it, nuift of tlirni low thaldicd 
(ottages, andfomc few built of brick ; thvir flrecti wide, 
but ill paved, aiul fcvcral muddy ponds, which are very 
offenfive in the dry fcalVm. 

In the middle oi' tlic city ftands the king's palace, which, 
frith the parks and (gardens that furroiiiiJ it, is eiglit or 
vine miles in circuit. 'There u aiiotlKT palace meanly 
built, in which thechova or general i elides , before it is a 
grand parade tor exei-ciline the fuldicrs, and a houfe where 
the train of artillery, conliitinp; uf tifu m lixty iron guns, 
are lodged, and lumc mortars. 'Ihca- is all'u a ftable of 
war-elephants, and another of the Kin^s horfcs near the 

. ThcCowii of Domes is fituate about fixtecn or eighteen 
Vkles up tkc fwne river, where tlv: Dutch ihips, which trade 
to this country, ufuallylic; but the tnglifh ride three 
Btitf a higher. The Dutch have a faftory at Domca. 

Upon the fame river, about eiglity miles from the fea, 
{lands Hean-, itconliftsof about two thoufand houl'e<i, and 
has a gu'.ifon of foldiers in it. The Chincli?, who trade 
between this place and Japan, have fa4iors here. 

In the flat country there arc abundance of villages, 
vkliicH ore furrounded with walls or bunks of eartlr, to de- 
fend tliem againft the annual Hoods. 

The natives of Tonquin are of a middle ftature, tawny 
complexion, black long hair, which falls down on their 
Ihoulders; they have black eyes, and their teeth are dyed 
black. 'I'hey wear the nail on the little finger of the left 
band sit long as the finger, as the Chincfc do. They ate 
very faithful and diligent, fubmiinve to their fupcriors, and 
fairer dealers than the Chinefc. 

Their provifion; are drclled and fcrved up in an elegant 
taftc i and they perfume both their tables and their dimes. 
Their uliial fare confifts of rice drclfcd various ways, eggs, 
pulfe. roots, fowls, <i(h, buffalo, pork, beef, and frogs 
They have neither table-cloths or napkins ; .ind iaHead of 
folks, uleivory sreboay tticksas theChincfe do, and cat 
n';arly in the fame manner. The food of the common 
people is rice, dried filh, and pulfe, and tea is their ufiial 
drink ; but the higher clalfes mix arrack with their tea, 
and often become intoxicated with it. The grandees have 
halls in their houfes, for the divcrfion of finging and danc- 
ing in the evenings ; and evv;ry villa hath its houfcs of 
mirth and paftime, where the people allemble, cfpccially 
on their fellivals, and caufe plays to be a£led. They have 
i'cveral kinds of mufical inllruments, fucli as kettle-drums, 
trumpets, violins, guitars, and hautboys. The aflors arc 
generally about half a dozen in number) and the dances 
are performed by the women, who fmg at the fame time. 
They have likcwifc merry-andrews, to excite the laughter 
of the fpe£lators. 

The tonqunefc, is agown girt about with. a< fafftr tlie 
foxes are fcarce diftinguifliablc by their dfcfs. People of 
condition wear Englifli cloth, red, blue, or green, or clfc 
lllk of their own jnanufAflurc; their caps made like the 
crown of a hat, of the fame materials as the gown ; the 
common people wear cotton or calicocA^the foldiers the 
f^e, but Ihorter, and allof theirv wear cwton breeches, or 
drawers, which reach down below their knees. 

The common people arc good mechanics ; but their 
lords, who are owners of the lands, keep them fo mifer- 
ably poor, that tliey are frequently forced to remain idle, 
tor want of materials to work upon. The Dutch, who 
marry temporary wives in this country, employ them as 
tlieir faflors to buy the mateibh ; and fct the poor people 
to work, and have their goods ready againft tlic (hipping 

bilk and laccjuered v.-arc are their chief mannfaftures, 
rhe country produces alfo turpentine, lignum-aloes, line 
perfuines, and wood for dying, refembling logwood. 

The principal grain thiit grows here hi rice, but tliey 
have cocoa nuts, gua.v8s, irungocs, plaintains, orangcj, 
and all otlier tropical fruits : tlitir foil alio produces betel 
and arek root, which they are extremely fond of. 

There .ire great numbers of elephants in. tins kingdom, 
and the reft of the peninfula, alfo Ibme horfes, oxen, buf 
felocs, and the fajiie kind of hogs we meet with in China, 
'["hey have fcarcely any Iheep or wild bcafts ; but plenty of 
fiih and poultry. 

They hav» no mines of gold, or filvcr ; but there are 
iron and lead mines ia abundance. Silk worms arc alio 
here in fuch plenty, thatfilkis almoft as cheap as cotton. 
Sugar canes likewife thrive well in thi'! country ; and they 
have a fort of tea which they call Cliia bang, tlr.- leaves 
uf wliich tlicy boil i as alfo another kind called chia way, 

the Iwf of which is not fit for any ufe ; hut ih'; (\ovie.\ 
when dried before the fire, luakcj a very agreeable liijuof 
by infulion. The oranges of Tonquin are tiiid to cxtcf 
all others for richnefs of fI.-kvour: heie arc alfo various 
kinds of flowers, and among others, \cry btiuliful lilier jafmines, though the Toiujuliteli! do not diltovcr 
much tafte for this elegant ornament of n.iture. They 
have commonly two crops of lice yearly, ^slilch htinj. 
their chief food, the cultivation of it is tl»e peafam's whole 

.••nakes, fcorpions, and other roptilei and mfcfl.*, are 
as troublcfome here a« in oiIkt hot rt.i.itricsi but none 
more fo than the ants, which niaicli in large bodies, uii(i 
devour every thing thrv can iienitvate ; they will eat 
through a bale of iilk in a few hours time. 

Tni«]uin having l»en a I'tovinic of China, their lan- 
guage is a diaIcO of that nation, and their cliarancrc th« 
wime; their learning conliOing chieliy in undci Handing 
thcfe charai^crs, they aie examined what piogrefs they 
have made in this ftudy, when tlioy ibiiid candidates for 
any place, .is in China. In the ma'liematics, aftronr.niv. 
and other fcicnces, they equal the Chini;fc, and have been 
improved like them in thcfe fcieiices, hj- the Papijl) miflii- 
onaries who -lifitcd this cointry (ioaj F.uroric. 

The Sovcrcijrn or Bova, has harciv the title of King : 
he has no (hare in the government. 'I'lie Goncral is veftcit 
withtlte regal power ; he makes the King a kind of pri- 
foncr in his own palace, but allows him It) appear at cer- 
tain times, and leiieivc the homage of his fubicfls, andP 
the general himfcif fccms to adore him bi:f(ire the pcoj.iie, 
declaring, he takes upon him the adniinilliation of the 
govcrninenr, only t« eafe Ir; i^'eneieign of the trouble of 
it, .-ind that he may eiiioy hi? plcilurei witlu'Jit intcrri;)-- 
tion. His Majefty's (ervants art all appointed by thj (>t. 
neral, and have orders luit to fuflcr any of the leftof h!» 
fubicfts to come near him. The (ieiieial diriiofcs of all 
offices, civil and military ; has a guard of two hundred 
elephants, befides his horfe and foot guards, and ul'ually 
has aftanding.irniy of thirty thc)u!"i:i.l men in and alout 
the capital city, .and fixty or fevcnty thoufand men in other 
parts of the kingdom, partiolaily en the fmutiers of 
China, which is the pf/wer.they Hand nirjft in of. 
When the army marches, the geiurals and ,r; c'iiccrs 
are mounted upon elephants j a c.nllle orralhcra ircat lomii- 
being fixed upon the b;ick of this mondrciis (K-all, ilk. 
which a dozen men may be accommodated, andciiiihargc- 
their mutkets or (hoot their arrows. '1 hcv have no naval 
force, only fome little coalling velTels, with which thev 
never venture far out to lea. They have no fails, but 
make ufe of oars only. 

Among a great numlier of fcfli\als celebrated by the 
Tonquintfe, two of them are kept with more than onlT- 
nary folemnity. The Hift is h:ld at the bepinning of tht- 
year, which w<h them commences with the new moon 
neareft to the end of January, and fomctimcs ihreo or. 
four days foonrr; this fcall continues about twelve d.iys ; 
buttlic-firft days are rather fpcnf in Ihnientation than re- 
joicing i for then they fhut u|) their h.ihitation, and keep 
within-doors, for fear, as th'iy pretciul, of meeting with, 
fome unlucky objcft in the I'rcrt, which might prove to 
theni an omen of ill fortune tlic enfuing year. On the 
following d.iy they begin their feftivity, when booths and 
flagcs .ve crcfted in the flreets, in which arc ifpicfented 
difltrent kinds of ihows; nothing is then heard but the 
found of mufical inllruments, and the wild uproar of riot 
and licentioufnei's. The fecr:ul crandfellival is kept in the 
fixth moon, wi ■•; (ame kind of mad merriment. Kx- 
clufive of thcfe, ihey obfervc two monthly feaft?, in which 
relipion has fome Ihare, it being uuftomary at thcfe fralts 
to iacriticc to their aiictfrnrs, by oblations of provificns ' 
at their tombs. Another of their folemn fcafts i.scnilffd 
can-ja, on which their Ki::; gi^es his puWic bcncdiftiori 
to the couiHrv, and plows two or tliite furrows with h's 
own hands for the encouragement of agriculture, 'i'he 
natives praftii'e falting and prayers liy Wov of proparatinn, 
for this feftival; whiah ciil'tom tliey have viinlnubtc^'y 
borrowed from t!;e Chinel'e ; as m.'y be Iccn, in our ac- 
count of that people. 

The officers ot ftate and chief rnagiftratc!; in Tonquin 
are generally eunuchs, who are an iuipeiious fct of p«opIe, 
difficult of acccf-, and cxceedini'Jy covetous, though tliey none but llicnifclvts to u'.ake proviiion for ; »r.d in- 
dcrd it i) a common obfei-vation, that they who have tl e. 
Icaft occafuin for money, covet roUl ; >!xi whatcvsr an 
eunuch has fcrtpcl tO!;etfcDr, falls t) the frov::nmcr.t, 
when he (i\t~ . he ha-^ not even the j or.vr to djlpofc of ;iny 
part of it by v:ili ; ^ni this i-i tl'.w realba thit their extc i- 

itcil by the 

than orilT- 

ii;; of tht- 

ncw mnoii 

cs thico or. 

L-lvc d.iys i 

tlian ru- 

eeting with. 

;ht prove to 
On tlie 

booths and 
ird but tlie 
■oar of riot 
kept ill ihii 
nent. Fx- 
■, in which 
tlicl'c fcalts _ 
provificn'; ' 
ts i.i callffd 
with h'.i 
urc. Ttic 
in o'.ir ut- 

of pcopIc» 
Jough tiicy 
and in- 
have tl e 
hatcvtr 2u 
lorcof uny 
Lif cx;t 1- 

iion» and oppitir.ini art (o rouch connived at : but to tJief* 
hial-pni£ticc4 arc imputed the extreme poverty ami want of 
trade in the lower claf» of people, who have no citcoura|;e- 
mcnt to work, ppfli , nothing they can call their own. 

The religion of . '; .opleofToiujuin differs but little 
from that of the CIi i..'.i:, Confucius i< adored with equal 
veneration by one part of thcni ; while ollien are wor- 
fllipperi of roe ; but they have foine iinagcn that arc not 
met with in China, particularly the elephant and thchorfc. 
The temples or pagodas arc very Imall, fomc of thcni 
but jult big enougti to contain the image. Their pridls 
have cells about the temple, where they attend to oifi'r.up 
the prayers of the devout, who liring thciu their petitions 
in writing, which the piieft reads aloud before the image, 
while the difciple lies prollratc on the ground in a fiippli- 
cating pofture. People of figure feldom come to the pa- 
goda, but peifoim their devotions before an ihiago placed 
upon an altar in one of the courts of their own houfcs ; 
fome dependant reading tlie petition inflead of a pricft, 
while his maftcr proOratcs himfclf on the earth. On the 
paper are enumerated (he fcveral inAanccs of the petitioner's 
good fortune, for which he returns his thanks to heaven, 
as for riches, honours, prel'ervation, iic. concluding with 
a prayer for the continuance of them ; after which, the 
paper ii burnt in a ptn of inccnfc, and then the poor 
neighbours and de|)Cndants arc called in, and made to par- 
take of an entertainment the inalter has provided for them. 
'Whenever they make their addrclles to heaven, the poor 
are lure to be relieved ; the devout fupplicant looking 
upon this as the readied way to obtain a favourable anfwer 
10 their rcquefls. 

The Tonquincfe areas muchaddif^ed to fuperftition as 
their neighbours. They, like the Cliinefc, confult the 
*ftrologer, or pretended lortuno-tellcr, whenever they are 
a,bout to undertake any thing of moment, and have their 
lucky and unlucky days , and as every hour of the day has 
the name of foinc animal, as the liorfc, or the like, the 
beaft thi'.t marks the hour a man is born upon, is always 
carefully avoided by them. 

It appears from the relation of a late traveller, tliat the i 
court of Tonquin flicwcd no inclination to einbiace Clnif- ( 
tianity, but lie fuppofed that many of thv poor jicoplc had 
been induced to profefs it, on account of the rice the milii- 
onaries diftributcd among them : that the fathers lived as 
merchants at I lean, and tho,ight prppcr to conceal their 
lliilTion , apprehending, probably, they were nut accept- 
able to the court, who made no other ufc of them, tliaii to 
karn fome branch of tire invhematics. 

Young people arc not fuffered here to marry without 
the confent of their parciUs ; and females arc Icldom dif- 
pofcd of in marri.ige before they arc fixtecn yeais of age. 
VV' hen a youth ib difpofcd to marry, he £rU ;tpplies t» tlie 
fitthcr of the maiden, and makes him a prcfeiit. After 
tile articles are agreed upon, the man fends to the houfc of 
tlie young woman fudi prcfents as have been lUpulatcd ; 
and on the wedding-day the fathers of both parties, accom- 
panied by their friends, conduft the bride to the houfc of 
the bridegroom, where the ceremony is performed in 
great hafte. They have always a feaft, which lalls for Jirec 
or more days, on thefe occaiions. 

Here, as in mod other Pagan countries, a plurality of 
women is allowed, and very little difiiprencc is made be- 
t\vccn awife taken upon contraft. and acoucubine. Their 
children are equally entitled to inhciit, and the iutive.< arc 
fo far from being didurbcd by jealoufy, that it is laid, they 
will offer their women to the European merchants, or ra- 
(lier let them out, for tli(y expert fome conlideration for 
the favour. Here men arc allowed to take temporary 
wives, as the Dutch do, to tiaufaft their affairs in their ab- 
fence. And by this commerce the women fometimts 
raifc fortunes, and ;iflcrwards become matches for the moft 
confidcrable nun in the country. The men are alfo at li- 
berty to di\orce their wives for any Iritle almoft, but then 
they inuft reUoic the ciTcfls Ihe was polIi:fied of at the 
^ime of the marriage, and keep ilic children ; but the wife 
f annot obtain a divoicr unlets the hulband is diargcd with 
fome very notorious crime. 'I'lic punilhment of a \vo- 
pan convided of adultery, is to be thrown to an elephant 
bred up for fuch executions ; who, taking her up with )iis 
trunk, toflcs her up in ;.hcair, and when (lie falls, tram- 
ples her under his feet,.crulliing her to pieces with as 
much cafe, as oiic might kill a moth. A man may fell 
both wife and children here, which makes a divorce very 
unnecellary on the man's pait ; for tliis amounts to fomc- 
thing more than a divorce. In a fcarcity, the j)oor people 
fell their children with very little reluflance; tor by this 
jneau!:, they tVequcnlly lave their children's lives, as well 

at tbcir <mn. And in thi» pait 0^ the wotU, w6 fee peo- 
ple very ready to part witlv tlicir children, to any one that 
will maliltain thcni, without demanding any confidctatiort 
for them : and why is this more unnatural tlian tjie Ton- 
quinefc felling tb'.ir children to preferve themfelvei } 

Their fuiier.ih differ very little from tliofc of iltc Clii- 
nefc : we Ire the like proccfliona and the tikq mourning, 
only they burn the corpfc,'and put tht allies into an uin 1 
they carry pruvilions to tlic tomb where the uru ii dcpo- 
litcd, whicli arc dilh ibutcd aiiiong ihe firiofli and poor peo-t 
pic, after they have been offered to the decoafed, and th« 
idol placed on an altar before tl\e corpfc -, over the lonibt 
of jKopk of condition, they cicft a wooden toW!r four of 
five and twenty feet high, and the pried afcending to thtf 
top of it, makes a funeral oration, enumerating the virtual 
and good qualities of the deceafed : after whicTi, he come* 
down and lets tire to the tower, which is foon confumeii 
to afhcs, l>cing built of very flight materials 1 and then tlkd 
people fit down to an entertainment, which is provided for 
them. I'ifty hogs have been drel'cd and diftributcd at a 
funeral, with the grcatcll quantity of fruit that ever he favr 

When the King dies, he lies in l^atc Ilxty-five days af' 
tcr his dcceafc, and his table coitlinues tc be fcrved evcry 
day as if he was alive ; the meat being dil\ributed every 
evening among the prltfts and poor people. After whicli 
a very fpleiulid procclGon is begun towards the roval bury- 
place, which is about two dnys journey fnun Cachao : but 
they feldom reach the tombs under fcvcntecn daysi Tba 
mandarins, great officers, and magillratej, are obliged W 
mouin three years for the i-iincc, the gentry lix months, 
and the common people ihi'T-c, and nodiveriions are alloW' 
cd for thicc years after the iuneral. 

There is great emulatioiii.mong the opulent, in provid-' 
ing cofTins fur themfclves ; in tVu.uing tiiefe cofiins, they 
cement the boards to;.;c'.her ; but make no ufc 01' nails, Iclt 
that Ihould have the appcaiancc of layitig a conflraiiit oil 
the deceafed. 

With refpcft to the origin of the Tonquincfe, and th« 
revolutions in their kin!;dum, little can be laid with ccr- 
t'.inty, as they were for many ar.cs ignorant of the art of 
wtitiiij. One of the llill kin^s mtniioivd in their hifuiry 
was Din-;, laid to have reigned ico years bcl'orc Chiil>« 
and to have been raikd to the throne by a troop of lawlel's 
robbers i but a.s he peeved a tyrant, his lubjcas revolted, 
and nuirdered him. Long wars enfued ; aftur which, Lc- 
day-h.iu was vleOud Wing, in whole reigii the Chinefe in- 
Y.idtd and ovLT-ran Oie kingdom 1 his prince, however, 
deli'iided hiinlelf with great bravery, and defeated thtm fe- 
veral times, but could not drive tlivm out of the country. 
On the death of Lc-day-han, Li-hal-vic was pl.iccd on ths 
throne, who vaiKiuilhrd I'.ie Chinefe, and drove thcin out 
of his territories. The pollirity of this prince leign.-d 
peaceably for teveral gcneiations , and the Lift king ot this 
family le.iving behind hiin but one daughter, this princefs 
Ihared the throne with a nobleman whom l'-' cfpouliid ; 
but another grandee, named Ho, confpired againft tho 
queen, fubdued her hulband in Ij^ttle, put both of thein 
to death, and topk poffefiiou of thecipwn 1 which treachery 
and cruelty or^^oncd a reyoit of his fubjcfli, who applied 
to the Chinefe fiir aid, and theaby occalioncd their en- 
trance into the kingdom wit!) a numerous army, which 
drove uway the tyrant, and aj a reward for their lervices, 
poifefied tliemlelvcs of the govcrr»ment, obliging the Ton- 
quincfe to accept of ,1 viceroy from China, who introduced 
till Chinefe laws and culloms, and iniircly changed tho 
form of tho coiiltitution. 

In procefs of time, however, the Tonquincfe, headed 

by Li, who was a man of a moft intrepid fpirit, revolted 

from the Chinefe ; and, taking up arms, put them all to 

the fword, and compelled the hmpcror to confent to a dif- 

honourablc tieace. Li was tlicn crowned King of Ton' 

quin i and all that the Chinefe were able to obtain, wa», 

that the Kings of Tonquin Ihould hold the crov/n in fealty 

under the Ewpcrors of China, and pay them a triennial 

tribute. This treat) was concluded about tha ^-car 1 2CO 

after Chtift, and both nations liavc faithfully • bfervcd thtf 

articles ever iincc. \'v'hen tlic Kmpcror ot China fcndi 

ills ambairndois to Tonquin, to coUcft the tribute, they 

behave with the utmoft haughtinefs ; infonivich that when 

the King has oecafion fo treat with then* on any matters of 

importanue, he is obliged to wait upon them, inftead of 

their attending on him ; and a prince of Tonquin muft 

previoully obtain a contirmation tioin the hand of the Em; 

peror of China, before he can afccnd the throne of his an- 

ceftors. The dcfcendants of Li fat upon the thrniie tor 

two centuries, . after which enfued u;u;iy Kvoluiions. 

j • About 

' ".^ ':-','-Ci^?. 


«l The new and UNl^feRSAL SYdTfiM br GEOGRAPHY. 

Ahont »h» ytir 1400 of the CWlftUi* »rt, a Ample fifti- 
ermaii, nimed Nfick, ufurixd the crown, h«i( wm dc- 
Ihroned by t'rlng, and the ufut'per, who coloured hit ufur- 
pAiion wtth the pretence of rcuoring the fiimily of Li to 
the throrte, md accnrdinitly caUrcd a young (irince of tlui 
ht>ufe to be crowned; hut he i«):Tvea to himirll'ihe re(;4l 
power, under (lie rtainc ol chova, or geiMral of tlie renlni, 
ohiy bcliuwingon th« prnice the bnre title nflbvcteign. 
Thi< ul'irtper, TritiK, hadl ftroiher-in-law, whole name 
wa« Hoavingi fcn « it go»enior of the pvovtiicc of I ing- 
vra, to Whom 'I'ring liiy ander forae particular (ibliL-ntionst 
for this gnvcrrwr had not only thevm great fiicndiliip to 
him, in utHlttng him in hit entcrprilo wtlli the trnopi of 
Irit province, but likewife gave him hii daughter in ninr- 
liage i and, befidei, on hif death-bed, ciitrulted to lilni the 
guiirdianlhip of hi« only fon, who was the above-mention- 
ed Hoaving. UcfleAirTi; with great roiicrrn on the con- 
diifl <if his brothcr-in-hw and gviardiarv, in liavm); cni- 
plnyfd hi« Stiver'! forces to fet any other than himlclf on 
thr throne ofTonquin, Hoaving conceived on thcnccalion 
liich ;i I'pirit of rcl'entment, that he not onlv rtful'cd to do 
homage to the new King, hut openly took up atnH, nudv 
himl'elf matter ofCochin-tMiina.antiently a province of Ton - 
quin, and, after the example of his hmtlirrin-law, caultJ 
nimlelf to be proclaimed ehova at the hind of his army. 

Theft two general!) governed with abliilutc authority, 
the one in Tomjuin, and the other in Cochin-Chiru, r.mi 
wajcd war with each other as long as they lived, with 
nearly equal fuccel's on both lidrs. They tranfmittcd the 
title of ciiova to their fuccclTori, and their delcciidaiitj en- 
joy it to this prefcnt period of time in both kingdoms. I!ut 
\re fhall here confiite onrfclves to the cho\a of 'I'tuKpiin, 
where indeed are at prcfent two fupreme maaillratcs or (»- 
^'e^eigns, the one titular, the other roal ; the fornur has 
the name of bova ; but in the chova are veiled all the pow- 
ers of government. The authority of the hova principally 
ct)ii(ills in giv'mg the form of ratihcation to the decrees of 
the chova The dignity of the latter i< hereditary, and his 
ddell fon fiiccccds hnn , but the Uicocirion of bovas Ls un- 
certain . for when a bova leaves iVvcral foiis, the chova 
cliufes which of them he pleafes, and may even taife a col- bmich to the dignity. The chora kecj)s a great 
number ntf concubines, it not being cuftomary tor him to 
marry till hrs advanced age affords him but little hope of 
bis having any more children ; when he always efpoufes a 
rrincefs of the royal family, who ranks above hrs concu- 
llines, and bcnrs tlie title of mother of the kingdom. The 
concubine who Imre the King his firft fon, takes pl,ice next 
ID the queen, and is treated with diAinguUhed honour. 


Containing a ilefrriptitn if the /kualltit, ItinJ/nitt, tnunt, 
product, inhahitfinti, l^c, ofCochin-China. 

Til I S kingdom, which tndudes Chiampc, is frtuate 
between one huixlred and four aitdone hundred and 
ten degrees of call longitude, and between ten and feven- 
tccn degrees of north latitude 1 k ii bcxmded by Tonquin, 
on the north i by the Indian ocean oi> the eaft and fcruth ; 
:iiid by Laos and CamlK>dta, on the weft, being about four 
hundred miles in length, and one hundred and fifty in 
breadth. It was originaify a province of 'I'oiK|um, but 
has formed a dilUnfl kingdom for upwards of tltrce hiin- 
«lrc<l years. Ft is tributary to China, like Tonquin. 

The Kemois mountains run the whole length of it from 
north to fouth, dividing it fromCambodia ; but tow .rds the 
fca the oiantry in generally leifct The .I'irot" this coinitiy is 
not lb hot as rliat of Tonquin, thoitgli rt !'es nearer the 
equator, for which fcTCr.Tl reafoiis may be alfigrKd, as the 
•idvantagcs of the fia breezes, of whidiTonqmit has not fo 
great a Ihare: Tonquin lying 'i|i«n a bay where tlie winds 
have not fo freeacourfe, while this country Ires open to the 
ocean. It is alfo oWerved, that the countries which lie near 
the tropics, as Tonquin does, are n>uch hotter tlwn thole tlist 
lie near the equator; for the countries which lie under cither 
tropic have the fun over therr heads three months, 
wlierea; the funpalfcsfwil'llv over llie countries near the cijua- 
tor, and does not return thither again for near fix months ; 
and it may add to the heat near thetropics, tiiat the days are 
an hour and half Iriiger w the tropic than tlicy are at the 
equinoftial, and the raims and cloudy <veatl>er continues 
loiiger tlierc alfo than it does at the tropic. 

This kingdom is divided into five or fix provinces, nnd 
h well-peopled. 'J'hc King refides at the capital of Kc- 
hue. Along the coaft ate feveral iflands fubjeft to this 

kingdom, which produce mariy \ifeful fruit tiee«. Thil 
couAtry prod\K:ei great pl«nty of rice Mid fugar ; and ih<-)r 
have gold ajid fdtfer mines. i'.agle-worHl, oiUnibac, .111 
ordinary fort of tea, And fever il kind* of drugn ^row lieic. 

An inundation hapneni regularly every year in Cochin- 
Cliina, about the middle of kutumn, leiving l)chind it a 
kind ofHime, which fertilbci the land. In thii wet fca- 
Ion, the people tail about the country in htrkt: and, in 
order to be Ircure in their limtfes, ire obliged toe:eft thcin 
on piles, that the water niav How beneath tliein. '1 hey 
iHiild their houfei chteffy with tlu: hainlHio eahe, one llory 
high i the window frames ire doled up with |i|>aii |>a|K'r. 
or ihelU ground tianlparent : tltc paititi uis of thcii clum- 
bers are lormed of fcreens, and their Itoors covered with 
matts, which ferve them fhr Icati nnd beds ; but the room'; 
of the rich arc more elei;antly furnilhed. They have nj 
kitchens in their houfcs, for fear of accidents by file, but 
drefs their provifions by the river fide ; they are obliged to 
exting'iifh tluir fires on heiiring the of a drum, when- 
ever the vvilul blows from the lea. 

They arc a temperate people, and live chiefly on liceani 
filh, wliich they have in great plenty. Thoui'h they aie 
but I'inperfcftiv civili/ed, yet they poflcfs that lelirity which 
might excite the envy of more polillKd t()ci(;tie> : they have 
neither thieves nor beggars -, and are remarkable for their 
hofpitahty. Though they do not encourage piide and 
luxury, yet the wealthier lort entertain friends in a fump- 
tuons manner. 

At public fellivals, the common people meet in flie ftreets, 
where in a circle they eat tlicir provifion on iii.itts, while 
tumblers uiul morry-andiews divert them with tlicii antic- 
trick's. The monaichs of Cochin-China are dcfp^itic, anj 
very difficult of .accefs. We gives audience at his palace, 
gate in a fort of llate-litter, fupcrbly gilt, and rcfeiiibling a 
ca!»e. No perfon mult ;ipproiich nearer to liini than at the 
dii\aiicc of cijihtv paces. He keeps his fera.'lio at his palace 
where it is i;uarJed by eunuchs. He rides fide-ways on 
anelcphanr, when he goes ahro^iil, and is accompanied by 
guards ; he wean a turban of the fineft callieo on his head, 
pendants of the richelt brilliants in bis cars, and brafelci* 
on his arms ; but his body is alinort b.ue, having (jiily ■» 
covering round his middle, and in his left hand he hold-. 
a fpcar, or rather a long javelin. 

All the provinces in the kingdom, and crnirts of jiiftic?, 
are governed by mandarins, who, if convicleil of malad- 
ininiflration, are lure to be puililhed with death. 'J'hc 
King has tl\e intrre difpofal of all the olficcrs of Hare, and 
even the lives and fortunes of the peojilc. Treai'oii aiKf 
rebellion are not only punilhed with the moll drcndful 
tortures, but very fcvere penalties arc likewile inlii^tcd oir 
all the kindred of the traitor*. Otlier heinous offences are< 
inmiihed with death, o» the lofs of a limb : rhout'.li it mull 
be acknowledged, that the almoft irrefiflibic inlluvnce of 
money too otten fereen the guilty from pivnifhnionr. 

Notwithllanding the Cochin-Chincfe are inrirely igno- 
rant of the fcicnces, they are very (kilful meiliaiiiis ; aiut 
far furpafs the Tonquinefe in tlie manufafluie of filk- 
They make fugapt-mills anrfwafer-engrnes, b*it can m.ikc 
iTo fort of fire-amis. Their foreign trade is nor v.t\ eon- 
fiderable ; the chief articles they export, ;ire, filk. cotton, 
betel, aloes, wax, japan-wood, caflia and fugar ; the thief 
pan of whiclr arc purchafcd by the Chirteic, who have in- 
groffed almoft the whole of this rr.Tdc to thcml'clves. 

The only money cuncnt in Cochin-China conlifV; of 
pieces of copper ftnick by the Chinefe, which refenil-.le 
thole ufcd bv the Tonquinefc. Silver is extremely fcirrt; 
with them ; for a man who is poffeffed of eighty or a hun- 
dred piaftres, is deemed wealthy. 

With refpcft to the religion, marriages, funeral v-ercmo- 
iiics mourning for tlie dead, he. of the Cochin -Cliiiicfe, 
they are the fame as in the nii^lvbouriii^ kingdom o( 


dntnhltif^ n Afciiptlin ef tht Jllunlion anif exttr.t cftl>frm- 
pile nf Sinm, tht pitmiiicei It is <HviJ:-J int:, their iHirf 
rivtrs, mnfieni, wind!, tiifn, climatt, mountains, cap tut 
city, royii! palact, and principal tctuns. 

THE Malayans call this empire Tfiam , but the r.nnit 
Sian? wa( given it by the l'ortB;U'.fc, which, in the 
Pegvan ianv^inge, lignifics frx", though fhcy have not at 
prelent much liberty ^^ boall of. Urxler Siain we may 
comprchcnil not only Proper Si?.m, but Malacca, Cam- 
bodia, ;ind Laos ; for tlicfe v.'?rc lawiy province, nnd nr? 
great pirt of tli?iu yrt lith.'XiXi to tht; kiiii^dr.iB : ;iii4 


.Vl'.J -Tutfti^V^ . 

tA $ I A.] 

6 t 

cf rhf rm- 

, tl'fir iHiff 
, cap tul 

: thr nnnit 

di. in the 

vc not at 

■i \vc miy 

|cn, C.iiti- 

.■'.nd ar? 

[''Ill : -.lui 

liigu 'li 

though th« Dutch have ^cro.ichril en tite iloniinioiu of 
thii prince, particularly in Malacca ; and otlier rctiioie 
province!, h,av« rebelled and thrown off their alleEiaiice, 
and arc now fet up fur petty foverciKnt, ihli cannot be liip- 
dofed to have extinguilhed the riEhl ot° the lawful prince. 
There ii this farther reafoii alfo lor treatinR of tlicni toge- 
ther, namely, that their relt^;ii>ii, lawi and policy, |>pr. 
I'oni, manner* and cuftums, have very little tu diftinguilh 

6iain extendi from the firft if^rte of rlortli latitude to 
the twenty-fifth, if we ri-ckon from the fouthcinmon point 
of Malacca to the northcrniiioll part ofl.aoti the lon);i- 
nide is not altogether lb ceitain. Thij city of Slam here- 
tofore being reckoned to Ik in the one hundred and foity- 
fifth dejrree of longitude, and by Lite ohfcrvationi in one 
hundred and twenty-one, and II ill Kf*'" miftakct have 
been difcovered in the lituation of China, which ii now 
found to be five hundred Icaguci nearer ui than former ac- 
counts made it. 

Siam including Mal::cci, Cambodia and Lao*, ii bound- 
ed by Tonquin and Cochin-China, towardi the cart, hy 
the gulph of Siam, and the Indian lea towards the foutli, 
by the Day of Bengal towards the wci>, and by tlu^ king- 
domi of I'e^u and Ava, towards the north and weft. 

Siam in its full extent, is laid to rcl'embic a crefccnt, of 
which Proper Siam and Laos may be rcckonecf the body, 
and Malacca and Cambodia the two horns ; but tlicn Ma- 
lacca, or the weftcrn horn, is much the longeft, extend- 
ing feveral degreei furtlicr fouthward than Cambodia, or 
the eaftern horn. 

There are alfo feven provinces in Projieror Upper Slan), 
which receive their names from their refiicftlvc cupital 
cities, viz. Profelouc, Sanguelouc, Lacontai, Canipiiif;pct, 
Coconrepina, Pechebonne and Pitchia. 

Porfeiouc includes ten little diftii^ls or counties, San- 
guelouc cifjht, r.acontai fcven, Campeiinpet ten, Cocun- 
rcpina five, I'ecli'jbonne two, and Pitchia fcvcn , and Iw;- 
fiJei thcfe, there are in the Upper or Proper Siam one and 
t^venty other diflri^s or counties, which are not fubjeft to 
the former, but arc under the jurifdi£lion of the capital 
city and province of Siam. 

There arc reckoned feven provinces in Lower Siam, viz. 
Jor, Patana, Ligor, TenclTerim, Chautcbonne, Petelong 
or Bordelonge, and Tchai. The province of jor contains 
feven counties or diftriAs, Patana eight, Ligor twenty, 
Tenederim twelve, Chautcbonne feven, Petelong eight, 
and Tchai two ; but geographeri do not take upon them 
to defcribe the boundii of the refpeftive provinces. We 
(hall proceed therefore to defcribe the lituation and extent 
of Cambodia and Laos, which, being inconlidcrahic jn 
tliemfelves, are included under the general name of Siam. 

Cambodia extends from north to fouth upwards of three 
hundred miles, and i^i about two hundred miles broad. It 
is lituated on the caft fide of the guU'of Siam, and hound- 
ed on the weft by Cochin-China ; by the Indian ocean on 
the fouth i and by Laos and the Kemois mountains, on 
the north. Its chief town is Cambodia, ritu,ite on the river 
Mecon, in about the twelfth dc^^rce of north latitude ; 
Laweck or Ravccca is fomething hichcr up the river Me- 
con. The poft towns of Terrana, Langor, and Caiol lie 
on the fouth-wcft of Cunbodia. The ifland of 'Pula- 
Condore lies off the coaft of Cambodia ; it is between four 
and five leagues long, 'i'hc natives of this iHandarc wcll- 
Ihaped, their complexion fwarthy : they have ftrait black 
hair, fmall eyes, high nofes, thin lips, and white teeth, 
and go almou naked. This idand, as well as Cambodia, 
is very fertile ; producing various kinds of grain, particu- 
larly rice and corn ; alfo feveral other rich commodities, 
and precious ftones i wil;* elephants, and boars, lions, ty- 
gers, wild cattle and buffaloes, horfcs and deer, are very 
numerous in Cainlwdia. They worlhip the fame deities 
as the Siamefe. 

Laos is likewifc a very plentiful country; lieing bound- 
ed on the eaft by Cociiin-China and Toncjuin ; on the 
weft, by Brama ; on the north, by the l.ikc Chamay ; and 
on the fouth, by Cambodia and Siam Proper j but its 
boundary towards the north, is not agreed upon. It is 
about fifty miles in breadth from eaft to weft, though it is 
reckoned to be ten dcc^ree'i in lem;th from north to fouth : 
the capital city is by lomc called Lanchang, and by others 
Lanjeng. It is a (ovcicign ftate, whole king prelervcs an 
unlimited power. lie confiders hinifclf as lupcrior to all 
other fovereigns •, and the charafteriftic, by which he dif- 
tinguilhes himfelf from other princes, is from the length of 
liis ears, which liang upon his Ihoulderi. But to return 
to Siam. 
The vallies which Ilc,at a diftaiice from the fca, are cx- 
No. 6. 

A K4. I| 

ceffivcly hot, and the mountaint Mel i but thalptit of 
the country which lies near the coaft, ia rrfrvfhed grvat part 
of the day by the fca-brecM>. The annual raini alfd 
contribute to cool the air, or tbii p<trt of the worfd wouj4 
be fcarcely habitable. 

The Mcnan and the Mecbn Irt the t*o chief riven irt 
Siani) l)ut there ii a third, called the Tenaferiit, which 
lAlli into the bay of Hengal, forintng the ifle of IVftrguv, 
which has amoft excellent h.irbour. The Mcnan rifei ill 
Tartary, and, runiiiiiu from north to fnuth, paflei by tlie 
city of Siam, falling into the bay of the fame name, hi 
thiitecn drgreei of north latitude. The Meon alfo rifet 
ill Tartarv, and running from north to fouth, through 
Laos and Camlnidii, difchargcs iifelf into th^ Indian 
ocean, in nine degrees of iioitli latitude. 

1 he pcrloilical winds, called the monfdohs, prevail 
here, as well as in the hither India) the rains, which 
accompany thefe winds, arc heavlell about inidfuin- 
mer. The falrcft feafon Is in l>ecciiib«r, when the 
fun Is at the grcateft diftaiice front them . the moft ftornif 
weather is at the Ihiftingof the monfoons, Mhich ufually 
happens about the eijuinoxcs, or witliin a month fooner or 
later, when the (hipping runii the hazard of being dalhed 
to pieces, unlefs it gets into the harbour. 

I'hc metropolis or chief city of Siam, fdmetlme^ called 
Odioa, and by the natives Sivothiya, is in fourteen de- 
grees north latitude, aiid one hundred and one degrees five 
minutes longitude. It is fituate on the river Meiun, and ia 
three leagues in circumference, fortified with a wall and 
towers, and furroundcd by feveral branches of the river 
Menan, which render it almoft an ifland, except ttiwardl 
the eaft, where there ii a caHl'ey to pafs out of the town 
by land without crofting the water : tliat which is properl/ 
the town docs not take up above a fixth part of the ground 
within the walls. On the reft of it are built between twd 
an.l tlir'.e hundred temples or pagodas, furroundcd by ai 
many corivents of t.ilapoiilt : alfo are their buryl.ig places, 
with pyramids crciiKd over them, which with their fpire* 
and the towers of the pagodas mjjte a vcrj- agreeable proP; 

The flrcets .-iro lar;;c nnd Cult, a:iJ ftut'e oftliertipRved 
with brick, at«l cailals cut tlirough them, over which aru 
feveral hiijliill built bridge- , \\ tiich has occafioncd the com- 
paring this city to Venice. Tlit' llouf.^i are moft of tlieni 
Duilt of bamboo, or over-grown cuie, and ftarid Upoil 

fiillars of the fame thirteen feet above the gioUlid, die 
ower part underneath the houfe liclng put to no manner 
of ufe : the houles arc not contiguous, nor do all the fa- 
mily, if it !k large, lodge under one roof, but every man's 
ground is paled irt with baiilbdo; and vtithin this inclo- 
lure are feveral little tencni:nts creftcd on pillars, accord- 
ing to the quality of the perl'mi and the number of his de- 
pendants and flavcs ; their lait'c alfo are kept in upper 
rooms, it is faid, to picvent ihcir l)eing carried away ill 
the time of the inuhdation : 'I'here are fomc few houles 
in tlte town built by foreigners with brick ; and the King 
has creAcd others of the fame fort for the ufe of foreign 

The royal palace at Slam is a mile and a half in circum- 
ference; it is a moft fplcndid edifice; lituate orj an emi- 
nence, and, for its extent, rcfembles a city. It ftandj on 
the north fide of the city of Siam, has feveral grand pyra- 
mids, towers, ftc. and is incompaircd by three walls, with 
laige courts or fpaccs between the feveral w.tlls. The 
Kingrcfides in the innermoft court. Which is called the 
Vang, and contains Ipacious gardens, groves, and pieces 
of water ; whoever p.iflcs in or out of the Varig fiills dowti 
on his face before the gate. The Siamefe never build 
above one ftory high ; but then as you pafs from one room 
to another in the King's palace, both the floor and roof 
of every rgom is raifcd : the iirft rftom is the loweft, from 
whence you afccnd by fevcftl fteps to the fecond, and fo on 
to the third, &c. There arc feven fuch rooms in the royal 
palace, and in the houles of pcrfons of diftinftion there 
arc three floors, in pafling to every one of which we 
afcend by ftcps. The grand room where ambafladors aro 
entertained, is open on all fides, for the benefit of the 
air, and the roof is fuppoi ted by llender pillars ; It is fur- 
rounded alfo by water and fljady groves. '1 here are feve- 
ral fuch rooms in the gardens of the palace, where the 
mandarins, or great officers attend, while they are in wait- 
ing. The hall of audience, beyond vt-hich foreigners art 
ftldom admitted, is wainfcotted, vsrnilhed, and paint- 
ed red, with panncls of looking-glals in it, and the floor 
covered with rich carpets. Thi guuds have orders to ad- 
mit no man into the palace who is armed, or has diank .iny' 
arrack or fpirits: the olfjccr therdbie fujcUs every man'i 

iPjl^-*^ ■ 



I ' 



' f i 

brtitli Iwtbie be fulTcit liitn rr> paft tiM gite. Tltc RMe* 
tor ihc Kii)|('t cli;|iliiiiit< aiul hoilc« are wiiliin ihe (irft 
cacliiluit ot the (mUcc. Ill * gallery at iIm uy ' r end of 
tlic liitit of »u<UciKe iIm Kuig tiruftlly Ihcws imiu^ "< 
the |M:n|il( . 

The apacaiii'ii'^ o( <h King anti 'i '"• in ilic 
inncrinoft cuuit of tK ii^lacc, wlir nU- 

fainc lialU. Nonchut lwlir< 'td liu^ . , incu W 

in liH b«l-<;haDilH?r, wlu> duio .<:kI uiidicfi him, 
putting eik Imi iii)(ht-cip, wliich lie does liunlclf, »« ii<> 
miUy iiiul\ touch liu i'acreJ head. His wnincii alfo dreft 
hit incit, atid waic on hiii' 'ibic : the provifioii i> carried 
ill to the euiiuclii, and i' iver it to the fenMlei i Imi 

the KiiiK liai iMvcrtlivlii tcincii i^ the wardrohc, tu 

the muftdiOiiiguilhed of mImjui tlic caieof hia MajrAy'i 
guMcii cM|i i«cuiiniiittrd. 

!luving;i(i«cii an atcount of th^ >y and palace (ifSiani, 
wc Ihallitfxt priAictd to dcl'cribr the fitu. > of tin- reft 
of the LcMindcralilr tu^vl)1 of thii kiiigiloiii , ..nd,of tlulc, 
Mciiaiiulaiii; lici the motl northerly of anytowii in Pro|>ri 
Siani, (icing fituati'd in the twenty -feconu dearee of iion'i 
btiludr, upon the livcr Mniaii. 2. Laconlai flaiidi upoiv 
the fame tiver, in about the twenly-AiA degree uf north 
taiiiudc. 3. I'rulckiuc ia Htuatcd upon the fanie river, 
latitude twenty. 4. Campengpet about the eighteenth 
degree. 5. Prauat auout the fixtcenth, and 6. 1.ouv* almut 
the Utitude of fifteen, thirteen miiiutei, wliere tlie King 
ufually rrfides in the hunting fcafun : ihcfc all, except 
Louvo, lie upon the fanic river, idjuve the city of Staui. 
7. Oaiicook, which lies about fifty miles below ,Sinin, on 
the fainu river, and may be accoiinlcd the port town to 
Siam : here ail Ihippiitg receive tluir pcrmiirioii to ttjde, 
and their difchargt's when they leave the country. 8. Nhir- 
lalan, fituated on the bay uf Bengal, in about the fixtcenth 
(Icgree of north latitude. 9. Tenefleiim, which lies 
on the fame bay, at the mouth of the river 1 ctielferiin, 
in about the btitudc of thirteen north, lo. Lifior, fituatc 
on the well fide uf the gulf of Siam, iivtiic eigliih degree 
of nnrth latitude. 11. Cantebon or I.i.un is (itiiated at 
tlic mouth of a river of the lainc n.iinc in the twelve de- 
gree of north Utitude, on the caft fide of tin; E>ilf of Siam. 
i^.TaLntie, whi(hlicsontli< caftfidv of tUi pcnmfiilaof Ma- 
l.tcva, in fix degrees thirty minutes north latitude. I3.(jiu.'da, 
tics upon the wellcrn tide of Malacca, in about tlic feventh 
dcgrr': ul° uoith latitude. 14. I'hc town of Malacca, 
whicn gives nuiue to the |Kiunfula, lies in the latitude of 
t%/o degree], thirty minutes north. It was talten from tlie 
I'ortugucfe by the Dutch, Oflober, 1640. VVlicn it was 
in the poflclTiun of the crowi> of Portugal it was a place of 
rreat trade, and fre(|ucntcd more than any other town in 
India, except Goa, here being the rendezvous of theic 
fhipping from Clikia, Japan, the Spice iHands, ^c. Thev 
built the caille, and fortihed tlie town with a wall, and it 
had live parochial churches, a college of Jefuits, and was 
a bilhop's fee, but tlie Dutdi have let all tbeclniTchei rim 
to ruin, except one 1 and tlu: traJe is removed to B-itavia: 
it is now only inhabited by two or three hundred families 
of Dutch, Moors, Portuguefc, »s ' Chincfe, with Come 
Malays, who live in tltc luburbs, «i\d h.n a garrifon of 
t%vo or three hundred foldicrs. This place is naturally 
Very ilroiig, and by its fituation, commands tlic {Ircit^hti of 
Mabcca : the Dutch, who arc maflers of it, over -awe 
all the little princes on thofe coalls, and compel thciu to 
(leal with tlicni on their own terms ; they look upon thcm- 
fclves to be lords of tliatpart of the world, and alinoft ex- 
clude nil other Europeans from any Ihare of the trade, as 
will be obferved in treating of the trade of this country. 
1 ;. Sincapora i;> fituatc in tlu: firft decree of north latitude, 
at the moft foutherly cape of tl* cf:)*.ine;-t of Alia, and 
gives its name to the eaftern part of 'Ivj . '(;hts of Ma- 
bcca. 16. Johr, which lies to the estlv.?(v f Sincapora 
in about one degree, thirty minutes. Thii ■ ^u the 
province it gives name to, have thrcwn fCh,^ ■ .^.laiKc 
Ut the King of Siam j but tlu: Uutc'i h -c p< v>> 'o «i- ■ 
laws to tlicni when they pkale. Cambnri *'»<} . ..fOiM.* 
Uc lu tiie uurtii uf Siaiu. 


Containing a gtiural accsuni 1/ tht King efSiam, hit ^leen, 
gnardi, annual prscijfuni, army, navy, mtnuti, mliliiy, 
ijiars ofjlati, andamba£adiri. 

HE King, when he goes abroad, either rides upon 
M u rirlily r.itwit iiinu .1. (.I' is Carried in 


^giniJ chu.ii'. ?L- iiaiTcs through the ^ity once a year, 


with anumeroiM train of eUphairts, and bands of innfir'. 
Th« people fall prollrate at ((r ii|iit of Ini Maj-ny, during 
tht proCelTlon, and rife to gate at hiRii, iftcr lie lui palled. 
He alfo once a year flicws hini<rlf on the livci in a giami 
b^lmn or bargt corerril with a liih canopy. 

' ' '2)"'"* ■• attcndeil with gtea* poiup wherever Ilia 
goev -'ul I1.11 hct etrplainli and batons, nlio i« alwavi lit 
• chair uidofrd with curtains, and niver fccii by any body 
exirpt Iter leiikik- allrtidai\tt aiid euniithi. 

Daughter* never inherit th« throne ; nor does tho eldeft 
fnn of the Uueeii always \'^' eecd to the eiuwiii but gene- 
rally tlie cl4eft Ion of Vkt K..igby the tirft concubine tliat 
bi'iiw* hiiik a child. 

Tlie Kiiig is attendeil by two bodies •( hnrfeguardf, 
» li ire intivei of Laos and Mcen , and a tliiid, conipoUj 
iNutly '>f the nativi • of C'hinele 'I'.iitaiy and Indollan. 
riiefe tiorfc-gunrds Iwayt accuinpajiy his Majclly wheu 
lie goes abroad 

I'.verjr pcilon in Siam i« iiirolled, lliat notie may cfcanr 
the pcrloiial (crvice he owei bis prince lix months in t'la 
year: they iwe divided tirll into tight and left, and thefe 
Ixidies arc agaiitfiiUlivided into bauds or companies, which 
Ili c rach tl^ir nai or governor. Every conimandci of a 
bui[;'' liu aH'u a certain number of rowers or pa^aycuit 
uiuKt liiin,wlioarc marked with a hot iron on their wrilli: 
tlicfe their nai or comtnander dilinifTci, if he thinks tit, 
lix months at a time in every year, or by tingle months. 

I'lie Siamefe armies coiiiift chietiy in elephants, anJ a 
n.iked half-arinrd infantry. When they go to war, tlieii 
order of battle ami uianner of (i^hiiiig is as follows 
TlKy diaw up in three lines, each tine ronnniiig of ihicu 
li|uarc battalions ; and tlie gener»l i>o(l;> hi infilf in the 
centre of the micklle battalion, which is com puled uf their 
bell troops : tlie red of the coimiiaiiiling olfiLers place 
theinl'elves in the centre of their refpcAive Uidics ; and 
where thcfo nine battaliona are thouglit too large, tacll 
batt.ilion is again fubdividcd into lelFer bodies : each bat- 
talion has lixteen nulo elephants in the rear, and two Ilic 
elephants to attend every one of theui, without which it 
would be dilficult to govern tlicio. 'J heir aitUlery is car- 
ried in waggons drawn bv oxen or buffaloes, having no 
carriages for it 1 with tlicic the liglit begins and ulually 
cndti if not, they draw foinethiiig itrarer and nuke ufe of 
their finall tbot in tiK .naniier already obferved, buthuidly 
ever come to a clofr In'' i; and if there is a nccellity of 
making a Oaixd, tb" aie forced to place ofhi irs behiiii^ 
their nKii, Mid to thrcMcu tltem with uuincdiate death it 
tliey turn their ' .icki. 

The Siamefe do ikm, like fome other Indians, take 
opium to ii>fpire them with courage i they will run nn 
fuch hazards, death they think >> equally to be dreaded 
whether drunk or folier ; and he Uiat drinks to raifu liii 
courage, or rather to commit a raih extravagant aflion, in 
accelTary to his own death. When their body is broke 
they Hy into tltc woods, wliither the other tide is feldom 
fo hardy as to follow then>i and as the arniie.; arc very nu- 
murou.s, and coidi'quently tind it ditiicult tu fubfilt, the 
conqueror is foon forced to retreat, and then the vamiuKhcd 
rally again, and perhaps return his viiit. The elephants 
are their grcatetl llrength ; but then ao they cannot be 
nuin.igcd with bit and bridle as a horfc is, when " ' an: 
wounded they will olren tnrii back upoi. tlieii . 1 -• 
and put tbc whole a: . into confulion , and it w '<L .''<lt 
inipoinblc to nuke tlicm proof agaliill wild fir . .nn,.! 
they tire Ihort guns upon their backs, about 'bicc t l^ 
long, which carrv a ball uf a iiouud weight. 

The armies 0^ Siam, and indeed all the iKighbouriiif; 
coutitrics who hold the nirleiupfyeholis, arc cliietly dc- 
firoiii of making Haves ; and their ulual iii:tliod of mak- 
ing war, is, to invade each others dominions in different 
parts at the fame time, and to oury c/F v.liolc villages 
into captivity. They are wholly incapable of carrying 
on fiegcs , but they will foinelimes flarve a phicc, or iur- 
prile It when tlicy have a curicfpondeiice » icii llie trcachci- 
ous u:ba' '.tants. 

As \',- >i uligion infpircs them with a horror of bloo<!, 
they IK .or llioot dircflly iit each oilier ; but higher, ami 
never kill tlicit enemy, but when forced to it by necjility, 
or in their own defence, in order to rcpull'e them; and 
thofc who arc- (laii\, they djccm guilty of their own death, 
by ajiproaching too ni ?j-. 

The navy of the King of Siam confifls of but about 
hrdf a dozen large lliips, the crews of which are foieiru- 
crs i however, cxcliifivc of theli:, he lu'i iibout (ixty fiu.ill 
aimed i;:il!Ies, with only one man to an oar, which beiiit; 
very llioit, he is oblited to low Itaiuiiiij!, to hiaka it 
touch lli>: wat<;i:. Ik Ltu »1):ul one liuudtcd and tlt<y 



J« of IUHflC. 

jcfly, ilutiii* 
cf in * ctanti 

wherever Iht 

r i« alurayi lit 
I by »iiy IwJy 

lor> clio cMcft 
Hi Ijulgtiie- 
aticubiuc UiAt 

lintft gaxrJiv 
iiil, coiu|K>rcd 
uii \iiaol\ikU. 

Majerty wl»e'» 

nc iiuy cfcapc 

lell, mkd llicfe 
iipaiiiuii, whicU 
iiiiiiiandci ut • 
rs or p*n»yeut» 
on tlicirwrilli: 
■ he tlunkt tit, 
iglc moutli». 
epliants, and a 
) to war, tlitii 

ii M followu 
>rining<>f thiet 

hinifilt iiv tlic 
iiniiulcil ol their 
»g olfitcrJ place 
ve liodiet ; and 

too \itf,e, taclv 
(lies ; each bat- 
ir, »nJ two iha 
ritiinut which it 
,r ait lilt ry is cajr- 
ilocs. having no 
^ina anJ ulually 
r iiiJ inaWc iil'c of 
crvcJ, buthaiJly 

i] a ncctffitv of 
: <)fii< r* belling 

iixcaiatc dculi it 

sr Indian!, take 
icy will lun no 
[ly to be dreaded 
ink* to raifo lii* 
Inagant aftion, U 
Lir body is broke 
let lidc IS feldom 
mic; arc very nu- 
ll to lubfilt, the 
.11 the vanijuifhed 
The elephantu 
ihcv cannot be 
is, wlicn til :' an: 
... thcii iV'i'rr ■ 
and it in *L ■•■i* 
Llld fir ''.'^Mi,' 
Inbout : ' • 

Ithc iKigbbouriiig 
L are chiefly de- 
rm. riioJ ot' mak- 
Lions in diff>:rcnt 
[ir v.luile villa^;cl 
Ipatilc of carrying 
I- a (ilacc, or lur- 
fwithlhc trcaclici- 

1 horror of blooil, 
but higher, and 
I to it liy iictLlIity, 
ipult'c them , and 
tlicir own death. 

fids of hut about 
Ll.ich are forcii n- 
l. about fixty fni.iU 
[cii, which lieini;; 

jlni;. to iiiaka it 
liuii'dtcd and ht'y 

(A S I A.j 

i t 



royal halniM, or pleafure -hiiUM. which wt v«fy (niffniO- 
cent. In hit naval eifcdiliont, the Kin^ onlv mikci re • 

rrilili on fuch of hit neiglibourt u injure itim in hi* 

I he King'e trraftiry it immenfely rich. Hii revenuet, 
irllc from cultivated Undi, rxpurti and Impoitii valleii, 
gardcni, fruits, tineii confifcaiioiia, tic. 

In Slim, nuhiliiy it cnniliiuted by the prlncei favour, 
or by opulence, and tiei by birih. People of the meinell 
ealraAionareloinelinici ennobled by the King, if ilieyhii|i- 
I'm to have iny particuUr Irrvicel to reconimond iIkki 
I la give* to Ihefe ■ gold or lilvcr boufcltc, to bold ihc.i 
l>ciil. It a mark of diftlnftion. 

The nobility cnnfilt of five degree* | namely, t. The 
Oyaf, who pollel'i the highell pUcei, and whofe golden 
b'xiireite or boa ii much better wroiiahl than thofe of the 
Inlcrioiclallei. a. The Okpra*. which are confiderably 
more niimeront than the Oyai. The King's imbtlTidoii 
«xtraoidiiiary are cliolen from the Ukprai. 3. The Uk- 
louaiii, which have only filvcr hnufTelie, chafed with fcftonm 
and branchei. 't'he '<Jkk' >vi,i nd Okinunctare Ihettiutth 
■nd nith orders: lb' Uakniiilte 11 quite unernimcntcdi out 
v( iIkI'' the y n tin' :| "r, judgoi, governori, (tc. 

The Kin^oi KM t1 I ly lords, who are peculiarly 
■itKhed i'il^v!<>ni it.'i always Uv« withiti (lie palace. 
Othe <■<.. itpln««ii withocr to |ovcin affairs, and pre- 
fervegocl d,' ' '.ng the people. 

. here ar<. eig, ,reat officers of (lata in Siaill, vit. the 
It .;, I Ommarat, who it the neii to the King in autho- 
i . fits in his prefencat the Cliakri, who regulates 
I ■ altaiit of war andjuftKe i Ih* Aahoon, who is ^eiicra- 
litfimo both I7 ' 'id and Tea 1 the Okya-Vang. who fu- 
perintcndt the affairs of the palace; the Okya Prackliiid, 
who has the care of forci|;n affairs and the royal niagi- 
tineti the Okya Pollaiep, who has the charge of the 
King's revenues; the Ukya lombaral, who is head judge 
of all ciiminal matlert 1 and the Okya Pakdi, grand tiea- 
ftirer. 1'hefe prime officers, with the King's appiohatiun, 
(tifpofe of all other polls of the realm, and ans tcfponlible 
for all errors that may be committed in them. All ofhceii 
of government, redding in the capital, mud daily attend 
in lome part of the palace, exceut they have leave of ab- 
ieiice, on pain of being whippea with fplit rattans, which 
make deep incifiont in the body. 

It is aneftabiilhed rule in this kingdom, that no officer 
prefumeto come into his Mljefly's prefence without leavci 
nay, the great officers are not allowed to vifil one another 
but at weddings and funerals ; and then they are obliged to 
f|)eak aloud, and in the prefence of a third perl'on, to pre- 
vent all cunfultatlons againft the (late; and every one is 
obli(^ed to turn informer upon pain of death, if he heart 
any thing that may endanger the goveuirilent : numliers of 
f^ies alio there are, to Inform the prince of what it fpoken 
in all companies. On the other hand it is dangerous, be- 
ing the bringer of ill news, or to let his Mijclly know the 
Wcaknefs of his government t nor dare any officer tell him, 
it is iinponible to execute what he commands, but they do 
what they can, and endeavour to exculi- the mit'carriaget 
afterwards : and when there is a nccell v of acquainting 
the King with ill newt, they do it graidually, and in as 
foft terms as poffible •, for he feldom fails to punilh who- 
ever ollcndi li'ti' with the cxtrenKfl ni^ouri and wheie 
I >fs are doubtful, will fometimes otdcr both the in- 

1 , .i«r and the par^ acculed, to be thrown tothetygcrs in 
his prefenCe, and infult over their dead carcallct. 

At Siam, an ambalFador is regarded no otherwife than as 
a royal mefTcnger ; the letter lie carries has much greater 
honour paid it, than his perroi : the French ambafTa- 
dors obl'ervcd, that while their King's letter and prefents 
\sciecarried in the body barge, with feverat others of the 
fameclal's to attend it, they thomlclves were carried up the 
ilverof Siam inordinary vclUls. T'he Sismcte never lend 
ambalTiidots to rcfide at any courr, but only to dil'patch 
fome particular buflnefs, whirl iiually relates (o trade ; 
and upon thcfc occifioni, they three, though (he iirfl 
has the dire^ion of the affair, and on his death is luc- 
cicded by the I'ccond, and the fccond by the third. 

On the arrival of a loicigu aiubaflador at Siam, he muft 
nut let forwards towards the court, till the King is appri.jd 
of his coming -, and if he is accompanied with Siameic 
ainbafljdors, as the French were, the Siamefc ainbal- 
fadori go up to court firft, and acquaint hit Majefty with 
their arrival: the foreign ambaUadors arc lodged and 
maintained at the King's charge, and arc allowed to trade 
duking their 0»v, but they arc not fuffered to enter the 
city, cr ira!i'4ii <iiiy auaiisiiiilhey h:ive had their public 
•udieiKf, or to continue thcic after their audience of leave; 

tnil IhenfW* the evening before, ih* iCiiu demandi If 
ihey have any thmg fatllier to prnpufe : and at the aUdU 
cnoB of laave, If ihey art fatiafied. All public audience* 
trc in lb* iiMtreikilit, when the court appMti in all Irs 
Ipl'iidor I thofe audiences which are |ivcii at the Louvo 
' ><< oihtr places, ar« accounted piivat* audiences, whera 
uic^u'idsdui attendant* are not numerous. Thofaam^ 
balUdoit "lio roine from the iieigbbourlng foverel|ni, 
'•>t aradepana..!! >m, 01 coiincAcdwilh the P.mtieror of 
II sreobligtdtupi .(^fr themrelves befuie htm, Ind 
4dv*iKe totvardt hint crrrt)iii;i upon llicli hai.dt aMj kr1e<s. 
But (he I'.uii., ' anibafladors irectteinpred lioin many of 
';<: ccremoniati ^^huli the others ai* obliged ro obfcrve : 
ilicy niuft, however, not attf"i)>t to open their lips till 
the Kiiii>' tor list flrftfpokent arid, -x ft tbey do 'peaki 
are letjmici' 'u be exceeding laconic, a lon^ 'i'' liigue being 
deemed an .gregious infitlt. Ambafladors liom inJi'i'T' 
dent Aflatic monarch's art alfotieated with Tome degree of 

5 t C T. V. 

TrMlttf t^gnMHi »ifd diAtJiiioH,Jlulitr4, («mfii»itii,jkfUf 
and drtfi •/ tki Siamijii alj't 0/ iMr etrtrntiiittt vijhtt 
tHlnltiHHumitfui, iivtrjitm, vr, 

THE people of Siam have a ready and clenr concep,^ 
tion, and their repartees in coiiveilation are quick 
and fmart : it it faid, ihev can imitate any thing at light, 
and in one day become tolerable woilkinen. They ar>. iia> 
totally kind and complaiUnt, but arc apt '" he haughty 
when too much fubmilfion it fhesMi ihcin. I'hry irbhur 
druiikeiineft and adultery ; and a llnceic air'^flion ruMiftt 
between men and their wivet, who bring ii|>ii . olfiprinj) 
to be niodell, temperate, obliging, and aiTrillii iie. 'Fhc^ 
aic, however, timeiuiii, and iiulolcnl; audi t« m aver* 
fioii to Ihedding Mood, very feldom come to hi >wt, molt 
ol their quarreli ending in ill>g>i<i;e. 

W hen they profeft the fincerell I'l iciulfhip, thr do it by 
di inking of the fame cup. It is obkivcd of ll. 'n, that 
their mindt are at calm at their heaven, which cli.i i;cs but 
twice a year 1 and that they have the good fotiHiv to 14 
born philolephcrt, having naturally the command n' theif 

The Siamefc areof fmall flsture, but well properi med, 
which it imputed to their not iKing fwaddled and bound 
up in their infjncylike our children ; and no other iiv '^ii- 
vcnlency attciidt the woinen't eolng without (lay^ but 
their breads hanaing down to their giidles at the wo ' 11 
of Siam do. 'llieir complexion are fwaithv enough, id 
(he facet both of men and women are of the broii..'ll« 
with high check- bonet, and their foreheads fii<!.!rnly cr'u-' 
tra'^t and terminate in a point as well at their chins: tl. « 
li.ive dark linall eyes, not very brilk, their jaws holloa, 
large mouths and thick pale lips, and their teeth dy< f 
black ; their nofes are (hort and round at the end, an t 
their cars large, which they account a beauty ; luiig nai!.: 
growing an inch or two beyond their fingerl ends l> lookcit 
U|>on aflo at an ornament. They have thick lank haii 
which both men and tvomen cut fo Ihort that it reaches no 
lower than their ears, and the women make it (land up on 
their foreheads : the men fliavc their beards, and do not 
leave fo much ts whiflcers. They bathe themfelvei two ot 
three times a day, or oftciier, and never make a vifit be- 
fore they have bathed ; fometimes they go into the water 
It we do, but at others they have water pouted on theif 
heads, which they will continue rn horn together; they 
afterwards perfume their bodies, ar.d ufc a fwect pomatuig, 
which makes their lipi look paler than they naturally are. 

A petfon of condition wears a piece of callico or filk 
about two ells and a half long, which reaches to lii^ knees 1 
this is called the pagne. He has alio a madin fhirt with- 
out acollar, with a wide fleevc and no wiill-bandi, and 
the befuiii open. In winter th.y wear a breadth of (luff 
or paintci. Imen over (heir Ihouldcrt like a mantle, and 
wind it about their aims. Tbt King of wears a vcft 
of brocaded lattin with tlrait llccves, which reach down to 
the Willi, under fuch a Ihiitas it dcfciibed aliove, and it 
It not lawful fur any fubjcA to wear this veil, unleft th«i 
King prcfcntt him with it. Slippert are worn with pic- 
oiled toes turned up; but floclcingt they are Hrangers toi 
To the gciieralt the King fometiincs prefents a military 
vcd, which it buttoned before and teaches to the knees, 
the 111 eves whereof are wide and conic no lower than thtf 
elbows : and either in •.•••!" ar liuiiiini; iiic prince and all 
his retinue are clothed in ted. 'I'he King wears a cap in 
ihelorm of a fuj(ar-luaf, ending in a pointy with aciicta 

4-4 ik'SL^ii-iS^i {i..^Ji i^kr iiaii. 

■J n- 




m- coroliet of precious ftonet about hi *ni tboft •( hit 
officer* luve eirclei of gold, (Tlver or vrrmilion gilt, to 
diftinguilh their qivility, which are fitftened 4rith a (lay 
under the chin. Thefe caps are only worn in tlie King's 
piefence, or when they prefideincenrtsof juftice, and on 
other extraordinary occalions ; bat their flippers are al- 
Mray- !:ft off when they ente* * perfon's hoale for whom 
they have any rcrpeft. Tfaey have hats aHb for travelling ; 
but very few people wHJ beatthe tremble of covering their 
heads though the fun fliines with that fcorching heat. The 
women alfo wrapa elothorpagnr about their middles, which 
hangs down to the calf of their legs; the men bring up 
the end of this cloth (trait between their legs and track it 
into their girdles, which makes it fomeihing refemble a pair 
of breeches. 

The inferior people cover no more of thetr bodies than 
luodefty^ requires, and have neither (hoes nor flippers on 
their feet. 

The Siamefe ladies bathe in the rivers, and fwim as 
the men do, but never without their pagne about them, 
and are much commended for their modefty, as a greater 
affront cannot be offered them, than the introducing in 
their hearing lewd fongs or obfcene converfation. Their 
l^agnesare of fine linen, and make a great > (hew : thofe 
made of embroidered fitk are only worn by fuch perfon^ as 
the prince prefents them to. The women, wear as many 
rings on the three laft (ingcs of each hand as they can 
keep on, and bracelets or rings of gold, let. upon their 
wrifts and ancles, with pendants in their ears falhioned 
like a pear. 

Thefe people areextreracly ceremonious, likcthcChinefc. 
The way of falutation here, as in moft Indian nations in 
the Salam, that is, the liftii^ up one or both hands to 
their head^, and bowing their bodies. If any one ad- 
drelTcs another, who is much bis fuperior, he falls down 
upon his face before him. To (land upright when we at- 
tend a greit man, is the higlieft piece of infolence : the 
ul'ual pofture is, fitting on their heels, with their heads a 
little reclined. They have an uncommon refpeft for their 
headsand ever for their caps, when they have been autho- 
rized by their Sovereign to wear them. The cap is a badge 
of authority, and feldom worn but on public oecafions, or 
when a magiftrate fin ma court of jtmice; and as it is 
efteemcd the rudeft thing in the world to touch or (Iroke a 
man's head, fo his cap is treated with uncommon refpeA. 
The fervant carries it above his head, artd puts it on a cane 
■nade for that purpofe. 

The principal food of the Siamefe is rice, and R(h : 
tlie fca affords them good fmall oyfters, turtles or tortoife, 
and lobfiers, and feverat other excellent kinds of (Hh, un- 
known in Europe : tl>ey have alfo great plenty of river 
fifli, efpecially eels, but they make no great account of 
them. Balachaun, which is made of fmail fUh, corrupted 
and reduced to a ma(h, has been already defcribed in Ton- 
quln, and is in much edeem amongft them. They choofe 
to eat dried falt-fifh, though it iiinks, rather than frelh ; 
nor will they retufe rats, mice, locufts, iizirds, or almoft 
any infefts, any more than theChinefe. A pound of rice 
will fcrvc a Siamefe a whole day, which may be bought 
tor a farthing, and with as much falt-lifh as he can purchafe 
tor a farthing more he is very well fatisficd, and a pint of 
arrack or fpirits is not worth abovs two-pence; (o that 
the meaner (brt of people having but little care to fake for 
a fubfiHence, nothing but (inging is heard in their lioufes 
of an evening. Their fauces are made only of water, 
with a little fpice, garlic and fweet '-erbs, or capi made of 
decayed Ihell-fifh, the fame with i;,e nukemum of Ton- 
411111. Their liquor is river-water, rain-water, and tea. 

Mock-fights of elephants is one of the divcrfions of the 
Siamefe. They were formerly very forrd of cock-figlifing, 
till their prie(h procured an order againft that cruel fport, 
eilceming the killing tliofe animals almofi as wicked as the 
killing a man. Comedies are another part of {heir dlverfions, 
and a kind of martial dances, in which they aft a battle, 
being armed and niafked, and in their fongs repeat part of 
the hiftory of their country. Tlicir grand annual feflival 
is when the w ..ters retiie ; then they fail down the river fe- 
vcial evenings fucceffively, their barges being illuminated 
with painted paper-lanterns. They have another feftival 
or thanlgiving for the fruits of the earth after harveft, when 
their (irects as well as tlicir boats are illuminated, and a 
grand fire-work is played off on the occafion. Ilere are 
races alio, not of horfcs but oxen : and they row races 
alfo upon their rivers, and arc lb bewitched hv the games 
of chance, that they will not only play away their wives 
and children, but fct their own perfons and liberties on 
Uie cafi of a dic) and bc«oo)e (laves, if they lofe. The 

new and full moon we fo far froth being feftivalt, that thtf 
keep aftrift faft, and will admit n» manner of diver(ions 
on thefedayt •, « thin time it is they make their otfennga 
to the prielts in their convents, and give alms to the poor. 
The oflerings arc prefented by the prieft to the idol, and 
(einetime after the priefts apply them to theii own ufc. ^ 

SECT. VI. . V, 

Ccntmning an otccant ef the trade, manufaliuret and mt» 
thanic am, wtlghtt, uint, (^c, tf the Siumefe. 

NO man learns any particular trade m this country ; 
but every perfon acquires fomc knowledge of all, 
and they Work half a year by turns for the King j when, 
if any of them (hould be found perfeAly ignorant of the 
bufinefs he is let about, he would undergo the baftinado : 
nor does any man endeavour to excel, left the King 
(tkould keep him in bis fervice as long as he lives. 7'hc 
tyrannical government they live under, is another great 
difcouragemcnt to induftry, for the King feizcs oa any 
man's money and e(Fe£ts whenever he pleafes. 

Their carpenters work is faftened together with wooden 
pins infte'ad of iMiils : they know how to cafi metals, and 
cover thebilti of fwords, and ether things with gold, (li- 
ver, or copper : they have not the art of tanning leather, 
or of making art^ ftuffs of filk or wool, and weave only 
cotton cloth. 1 heirpaint!.-!g i» rather worlie than that of 
China, they being very indifTcrcut workmen ; which 
obliges them to give great wages to the European artilh y 
for as the Siamefe do not affcA finery in their drefs, and! 
defpife fuperSuous ornaments, they therefore ncglefl a great 
many mechanic arts, which the Europeans are emploved ' 
in. They appear to be the bonellcft and fairefl dealers' in ' 
the world : their weights and meafures may be depended 
OB : thev are the very revcrfe of the Chinefe. 

The King is the chief merchant in this country ; no 
man may traffic with a foreigner, till the King's faAora 
have had the refufal of all the goods \ and theic faflors de- 
fcend fo low as to fell them by retail again. I'he fubjcAa 
are obliged to buy all their clu.ithing of them, which is 
chiefly cotton cloth. He obliges his fuhjefts to fell hin» 
all their ivory and arrack at a certain price, which he felU 
again to foreigners. In hi* magazines are falt-petre, lead, 
fapan-wood, gunpowder, fulphar, and arms, which hi*. 
Majefty monopolizes, not fuffering his fubjefis to deal ia 
thefe articles. The Kine alfo purchafes (kins and furs of 
the people at his own price, and difpofes of them to fo- 
reigners ; but by thefe prailices he has ruined the trade 
of the country, which was formerly very great. 

Their meafurc fbr grain aod liquors is titecocoa-nut (Itell 
whish are very unequal ; nor are their weiglits more cer- 
tain than their meafures. They have but one fort of filvei- 
coin, called a tycally, which is worth three (hillings and 
three half pence; they are all of the fame f (bion, aiid have 
tlie fame flanrps, butfome are le('> than otlicrs; they have 
the form of a cylinder, or roll bent both ends together, 
and have a (lamp on each (idr, with odd chataficrs upon 
it. They have no gold or copper- money : gold is reckon- 
ed among their mcicl»mable commodities, and is twelve 
times the value of filver. 

I'hblhelU called cori4 ferve fo buy little matters; they 
are foond chiefly at the Maldive ilhnds, to the louili of In- 
dia, and are current in all the countries thereabouts; thev. 
differ in their price as they are plentiful or fcircej but the 
valutoftbcinat Siam is generally eight hundred for apciinv. 
The principal trade of the Englilh in this country is at 
the port of Malacca, in the polllflion of tin- Dutch : hither 
tlieEiiglifh fend leveral country (hips yeaily Iroiu Iliccoafi 
of Coromandel and hav of lioiigal, with cjIIicocs, tli^ht 
(ilks, opium, &c. and make prolitalilc ictiirns in canes, 
rattans, benjamin, long pepper, lugar, (ugar-caiKly, Ihpaii 
wood, and lbmctiines(;oKI may be had at a rcalonaliie rate; 
but this is a trade prohiliiud by the Dutch, aiulcinirj on. 
by tlie coiiniv.iiia;of the governor, council, aiiil ti.i.aj. 


Of the foil, hufvandry, frardeiiin^, ptarts, oKienali, minera/sy 
and manmr of travillit^ in Siuni. 

HP (oilnf.Siini I;.. K;;n Krsda.-,l!y .^r,~,c,l by iii» 

X clay and other earth wliicli ilie floods walli down 

frnin tlic mniinlains ; they have vciv liitli- floiifv groiiiiH, 

and there is hardly a flint to be tcind ia the cuuiUiy,. it 


ftivali, that they 
er of divetflons 
e their otferinga 
lins to the poor . 
o the idol, and 
leii own ufe. 


faHurti «hJ Mm3 
he Siamtft. 

1 thii country ; 
nowiedge of all, 
e King I when, 
ignorant of the 
> the baftinado : 
, left the King 
I he lives. Th* 
is another greal 
g leizcs oil any 

ler with wooden 
cafi metals, and 
;> with gold, fil- 
tanning leather, 
ind weave only 
irlie than that olr 
tkraen ) whicit 
uropean artilb ; 
their drefs, and 
re ncglefl a great 
ns are employed 
aireil dealers in 
iiy be depended 

is cou4ttry ; no 

King's faAors 

ihcfc ta£iors de- 

I'he fubjefls 

llteru, which is 

•.iU to full hin> 

which he (elh 

fall-petre, lead, 

rms, which hi» 

t)je£is to deal ia 

lis and furs of 

hem tu fo- 

ncd the trade 


cocoa-nut fliell 
gilts more cer- 
ne fort of (ilver 
(hillings and 
lion, and have 
they have 
ends together, 
iara£icrs upoi\ 
:uld is rcckon- 
and is twelve 

matters i they 

helouili oflii- 

sabwitsj they. 

:arce; but the 

cd for aiwniiy. 

country is at 

Dutch : hither 

[oiu ihccoall 

Ihcues, llight 

iriis ill ciiies, 

-c.iii.iy, lapaa 

:a!onalile latej 

iiul cjrtirj oil. 

and ti^cal. 

all, minirols-^ 

ii'iCii i)y iti« 

jiifv ptoiiiul, 
CUUlUlV.. U 


[A S 1 A.] 




is the mud which the river Jcaves bcliind whicli makes (ht 
fertile earth, as far as it extends : alt the higher grounds 
are dried and burnt up by the fun, foon after the rains ate 
over ( and though their lands, fame of them, are naturally 
fruitful, yet they are fo fubjefl to droughts, infeAs, and 
other inconvenicncies, that they are fonietimes deprived of 
their harveft foveral years together, and fuch years are ge- 
nerally fucceeded with peftilential diftempers. 

Upon the land which the inundation does not reach, 
they fometimcs fow wheat, and water it like a garden, by 
little chaneli cut through the fields : they have two crops 
yearly, but not on the' fame ground. 

They ufe oxen nnd buffaloes in plowing, and guide 
them with a rope run through their nofe. Their plough 
is plain, and without wheels ; they have a (hare and a ftaff 
to hold it by, and it is not much unlike our foot-plouglis 
in other refpe£ls, ohiy inftead of nails, the pieces are faften- 
cd together with thongs and pins. 

Tht chief. grain ufed here is rice, which they begin to 
fow ill the flat country, when the .lood has moiftcncd the 
earth, and as the water increafcs the rice grows, and keeps 
its head above water till the dry fcafon approaches, and 
the fun has exhaled all the water, and thei- is the time of 
their harveft. Sometimes it is ripe before the wateis re- 
tiie, and then they go in boats to reap it. 

Their kitchen-gardens afford them herbs for fallads, 
pulfe and roots, and the cucumbers and melons, which 
the poor people eat in the dry feafon, are eileemed very 
innocent food. 

The only European fruits almoft they have, are limes, 
oranges, and lemons, but they abound in plantains, ba- 
nanas, mangoes, guavas, jaques, durion, tamarinds, ana- 
nas, cocoa nuts, and fugar canes. 

Here are fome European flowers, ai the tuberofe, gilli- 
flower, and Ibme few rofes, jeflamine, and amaranihus, 
and oilier natives r^f the country valuable for their colours 
and fcent : but it is obferved, that in the heat of the day, 
they do not fmell near fo flrong, as they do in the morn- 
ing and evening; and the Euiopean flowers tranfplantcd 
thither do not afford near fo I'wcet a frneli there, as they 
do here. 

There is plenty of good timber on the hills, of which 
the bamboo is of great ufe in building; it is a hollow 
knotted cane, of an enormous fize, very flrong and hard 
to cut. The cocoa nut, which grows on the low lands by 
the ((ra-fide, affords them meat, drink and oil ; the body 
of the tree is ufeful in building boats and other vefTcls, 
and of the fibres of the baik and nut they make cordage ; 
the leaves ferve to write on, and the branches for covering 
for their houfes. The cotton tree is very common here ; 
it bears a fiuit of the bignefs of a walnut, which opens 
when it is ripe ; with it they find the cotton ; from other 
trees they diaw lacque and other gums : they have alfo 
the fapan, and othvr woods, proper for dying, and fome 
lignum aloes or 

In this country .ire tygcrs, elephants, horfes, oxen, buf- 
faloes, flicep, and goats; Ibme hares, no rabbits, but great 
plenty of deer. Here are to be found, in great abundance 
andvaiicly, peacocks, doves, pigeons, partridges, fnipes, 
parrots, Ipariows, and varioii'-. other birds ; aniongft which 
the noktho is a very irniarkable one : it is larger tiian an 
oftrich, and halh a bll n<;ar three feet in length. They 
have great quantities of infcfts and reptiles, fuch as lizards, 
(hakes, fcorpions, millepedes, f<c. and their white ants 
and gnats are extremely troublelbme. 

This country was antienily rich in mines ; and the great 
number of idols and other caft-works that are found 
amongft them, as well as the old pits that are daily difco- 
vered hctc, fliew that there have lx:cn more wrought than 
there ate at prclent. The gicat quantity of gold with 
which their images, and the walls and roofs of their tem- 
]>lcs arc adorned, make it cvidtnt atl'u that a great quantity 
of ili.1t metal has formerly been cxtrnfted out of their 
iriiiies. A l".uro|)C.iii |li)( dilcoveied to them a mine 
of very good Hn-I, alio a niiiv ( f cryftal, one of antimony, 
and another of emery, with a quarry of white niatble. 
Tlicy have alio tin ami lijil mines ; and near Louvo there 
is a iiiouiitain ol Oonc, and another in the illand of 
IdiiLilain on the MaUixi coal! j but the lattc foon lofes 
lis virtue. Ill ihiir nioi:i\taiiH are alio (iiuiHl fome fap- 
I'hiies, diamonds, aiulavitc; but the jicople have no en- 
coura;',cnicnt to liauh for thele, as things of this nature are 
always feizcd by tlif olliccrs for the King's ufe. 

Ktlidci the ilijilisiit, they have the ox and bufl^alo to 
ride on ; but llicy ulc neither horlcs, all<;s or mules : the 
A'.onr> have Ionic camels whicli arc i>iou};hi from other 
couiiiiics; tiny u!c the Icinilc elephants chiclly for car- 

-\o. 7- 

riage { the mtdei are trained ta the war : ivery ohe is it 
liberty to hunt elephants, and take ib;m to ufe, but not 
to kilt them. 

"The chain which the Siamefe travel in, are placed otl 
a kind of bter, and carried by f jur or aight men on th«it 
fhoulders, one or two to each pole, and others run by to 
be ready to relieve them : thofe chairs have fonietimei > 
back and arms like ourdrefliqg chairs, and fonietimes ar« 
only encompafTed with a rail or ballifter about half a foot 
high ; they are generally open at top, and the Siamefe fir 
crofs-lcgged in them. It is only Ibnit few of the great 
men whom the King fuffers to ride in chairs ; and tb< 
Europeans are permitted the ufe ofpilanquins, or couches, . 
carried on men's fhoulders, with a canopy over them. 

SECT. viir. 

Of tht IttHguagt, tiarnlng, cbaraHert, hi/ltiy, and (hrinehg^ 
tf tht Sitme/t. i 

THE Siamefe have two languages, namely, the Baly 
and the Siamefe. In the Baly they have thirty- 
thtee letters, and in the Siamcfo thirty-fcven, all coiifo-i 
nants ; and there are a great number of vowels in both tan« 
guages, for wliich they have particular charaacrs, fome of 
Which are placed before the confonant, and fome after, and 
others are placed above or underneath. Their pronunci* 
ation depends much on the accent, and, hke the Chinefr, ■ 
they feem to fing when they arc (peaking. 

Arithmetic is their favourite itudy, in whidi they ufe 
ten charaffers, like the Europeans, and they are pretty. ' 
ready at accounts. 

They have no orators among them ; and are ignorant 
of printing, their books being engraved with an iron pcncih 
They uiiJeidand nothing of phllofophy ; nor do they ftudy 
the laws of their country, till they are preferred to fome 
port, when they have a copy of infiiufl-ons to be obferved 
in that oflice put into their hands. Their afironomy i«. 
very i nperfcd ; nor do they underfland any thing of thd 
true fyftem of the world ; they believe, with the Chiuefe, : 
that the eclipfes are caufed by fome dragon, who lUndt 
ready to devour the fun and moon ; and nuke a great noifd 
with pans and kettles to drive him away from thofe planets^ 
But as to aftrology, no concern of confequencc is everen-" 
ttred upon till fome fecond-(ighted aiVologer k confultedt ■ 
They are very ignorant of phyfic or anatomy : their phy« 
ficiaiis feldom let blood or prcfciibe emetics, but have a 
great opinion of fudorilics, and fometimcs purge their pa- 
tients : but their heft recipe fccms to be conge, or water- 
gruel made with rice, to which diet they ulually confins 
the patient till he recovers. If a medicine fails of produ- 
cing the expe£led fucccfs, the phvfician imputes ii to thtf.- 
magic of fome evil fpirit, and are very dextrous in deceiv- 
ing their patients. 

They have as little (kill in mulic a; in any other fciencei 
for they neither play or fing by notes ; and moft of their 
inflruments are very harlh and ungrateful to the ear : they 
beat upon little ill-lbunding drums, and have a trumpat 
ftill worfe : they have fome (lirill hautboys, and a little ugly 
violin with three ftrings. They have alfo brafs bafons to 
beat upon. When the King goes out, or upon other fo- 
lemn occafions, all thefe found together, and no doubt 
tnake very delightful harmony. 

We cinnot depend on any hiftory of Siam before the 
year i joo. It is only fuppol'ed to be the golden Cherfo* 
iiefc of the antients : and this there feems to be but littld 
foundation far, becaufe gold is not the produce of this* 
country. It is faid alfo, this and the neighbouring coun^' 
tries of the farther India were formerly tributary to China: 
and this is pure conjeflurc ; for the Siamefe have no fucli 
tradition, much lefs hiftory. They have had the ufe of 
letters fome time, but they do not lb much as pretend to 
have any ancient records. WIrm the Portugucfe took ilio 
city of Malacca in the year ijii, Mahomet an Arabian 
was (bvereign of that citv, and the territory about it, inde- 
pendent of the Kiiij; of iSiani. For the Arabians, and F> 
gvptians had certainly driven the original inhabitants, the 
Malays, from this coal^, as they had the natives of Suma- 
tra, Java, Borneo, MacjfTar, the Moluccas, llanda, &c. 
from the coatl of the Indian illands, and ponbllod ihem- 
fclves of the rich produce of tholi; countries, vir,. of th« 
cloves of the Moluccas, the nutmft^s and mace of BaiiJa,' 
the camphire of Borneo, the i;old «! I.cuconia and tiuma-* 
tra, and the gums, perfumes and ivveet ly.j.jjj •!--; -^^^rf. j^. 
l)c found in luoli of thefe cnuiiiric; ; and il.e citvof.Ma-. 
Iaci:a was the [;rcat unit, wli;:c this nicichai'.di/.c was to .. 
S be •' 

tij&lE:!* ^ifrsf-Ji_- 





lif s 



he met with, when the Portoguere made themrdves mafters 
of it. Wc cannot doubt of the Egyptims and Arabians 
being poflelTed of this trade, till the Portugucr: found the 
way to India by the Cape of Good Hdpe ; for we find the 
Grand Signor, who was then fovereign of E«ypt, the 
coaft of Arabia, and the Red fea, fitting out fleets, and 
engaging the Portuguefe in feveral battles in the Indian 
li:as, to prevent ilviir fettling themfclves in India, which, 
lie was fentible, would deprive his fubjefls of tlic rich 
trade they had enjoyed for man^ hundred years : and very 
probably, the Arabians traded in thefe foiccs, before the 
Ifraelites went down into Egypt ; inafniuch as we find them 
carried tbrougb Arabia into Egypt, when Joliiph was fold 
to the Iflimaelite meichants, who were trading thither 
with their camels in a caravan : and though the people of 
Siam and the adjacent countries, have no hiftories nor 
records, that give an account of this anticnt traffic ; yet it 
is flrange that the Phoenicians and Arabians have no hif- 
toiies relating to their Indian expeditions ; or, if fach hif- 
tories have been dcftroycd, that tliere are no copies or cx- 
trafts from' them, except what wc meet with in the fcrip- 

^Vith refpeft to their modern hiftory, we are toJd, that 
the kingdom of Siam and that of Pegu have frequently 
been engaged in wars ; that fometimes, Siam has been 
tributary to Pegu, and at others Pegu has been con- 
quered by Siam ; but at prefent they are independent of 
each other. Tlie Portugncfe were in a manner fovereigns 
of Malacca ai>d the coalls of Siam both north and foath, 
from the year 15 ii to the year 1640, when tlie Dutch took 
that city, and now remain fovereigns of it and of the fea- 
cpaft, and particularly of the freights of Malacca ; and by 
their men of war ftationed here and at Batavia, can pre- 
vent all other nations trading to China, through the 
Areights of Malacca and Sunda. After the above-men- 
tioned period, namely, in 1688, the general of the Sianiefe 
troops beii>g popular among the foldiers, and having the 
army at his devotion, quarrelled with his fovereign in or- 
der to dethrone him. This he effe£ied, and deprived his 
inaftcr of life, as a royal criminal, by pounding him to 
death in a large iron mortar with a wooden peftle. The 
fecretary of ftate was kept confined three years with the 
Siamcfe pillory about his neck, andwasnever, during that 
time, permitted to quit his dungeo.i, except when he was 
taken out to be fcvcrely laflied, in order to make him accufe 
fomeof the principle people of having accumalated riches 
by clandeftine means, that the Ufurper might have fome 
pretext to plunder them. This Ufurper, however, en- 
joyed but little facisfa£lion from reigning, being continually 
tortured with the ftings of a guilty confcience, and fup- 
uofing his fecurity depended on the blood of thofe he fuf- 
pefled would prove his enemies, he daily multiplied his 
crimes ; and became at length a terror to himfclf and all 
thofe who were fubjeft to his tyranny. This revolution 
occiifioncd the ruin of the fa£lory which the French had 
ere£ted at Bancock. We (hall only add in this placo, that 
in 1 7 1 7 the King of Siam invaded Cambodia by land with 
fifty thoufand men, and by fea with twenty thoufand, but 
was unfuccefsful in his attempt to fubdue it. 


Laws of thi Siamefe, ami the puni/hmtnis infiiiltd ky thin 
fir crimes. 

BY the laws of Siam, an unlimited obedience to pa- 
rents and governprs is as ftriftly required as by thole 
of China, and the aged k.e much reverenced here. Lying 
is puiiifhe^, and deemed as great a crime in Siam, as per- 
jury is in this pait of tlic world ; and theft is fo much de- 
iclled, that one who is guilty of it, is at once alundoncd 
by all his friends, none will intercede for him, or give him 
any afliftaiKC ; and an unjuft poltflbr of lands is puniihcd 
as a robber. 

They do not permit any man to profecute another, ei- 
ther in a civil or criminal ciul'c, without giving fecurity 
to make the charge good ; every man is allowed to plead 
his own caufc, or any of his relations may fpcak for hiip ; 
but the law is not a profcllion of a particular fct of men. 

Where the truth o( the charge 'is doubtful, the juftirc of 
the profecution is tried various ways. But the proll-iutor 
and the defendant are fometimes commanded to walk over 
burning coals, and he that efcapes by dextrous inanngc- 
incnr, is held to have the right on his fide. Another me- 
thod is by diving into deep water ; the man t' at continues 
longed under water is adjudged innocent. 

Emetics is a third method of ti:ial. The pricft gives 

e»ch of th« parties u pill, and the teftimony of the jierfort 
who keeps the pill in his ilomach without vomiting, is 
believed. They throw both the plainiifF and defendant 
fometlmci to a tvger, and he that comes oS unhurt is held 
to be in the right ; and they will frequently offer thcm- 
felves to undergo this laft trial, though they appear to be 
extremely timorous when they are to engage an enemy. 
Thefe trials are in the prefunce of the iCiiigand magiftiates. , 

For trcafon and murder criminals are thrown to an ele- 
phant and trampled to death ; and punifhments are ufually 
adapted to tlie nature of the crime. A pcrfon conviAed 
of robbing the public hat incltetl metals poured down his 
throat ; they few up the liar's mouth, and for little crimes 
tbey fallen a fquare pillory board about the offender's 
neck ; ionie arc fet in the ground up to the fhoolders, arid 
every one authorifed to buffet him, which is the greatclV 
indignity a Siamefe can fuffer, efpecially to have his head 
buileted by women. Pcrfons guilty of rebellion are ripped 
up alive. 

They_ allow appeals from inferior courts to the faperior; 
the Prefijcnt of tlic tribunal at Siam can revcrfe a judg- 
ment given in anv other province ; and there is an appeal 
from h'm to the King; fo that where the parti:s ate rich 
and able to bear the charge, there is no end of the fuit ; 
but the pi or are condemned with as little formality ,13 they 
are in Europe ; and where tlley meet with a potent adver- 
fary, innocence is but a very flight proteftion ; judgment 
of death is never executed in any of the provinces, but by 
the King's fpecial conimiflion ; but the balliindo and other 
punifhments, on which death frequently enfues, arc in- 
lliAed by every governor : but one thing feetns peci/liar 
to the Siamefe, that he who unjuftly polIelTrs himfelf of 
another's lands, is deemed no lels guilty of robbery than 
he who robs on the high-way ; and the pctfon lavvfully 
conviAed, does not only reftore the lands byt (brfeit tfce 
value of them, one half to the party difpoflilTci.*, and the 
otlier to the judge, as all other pains and forfeitures are 
divided ; bpt thcii the King has half the governor'a 
moiety, and where tliere is not an hereditary governor, 
the King has one entire half, and tlie party grieved tlie 
other. There is an officer of the crown in every province, 
who fhould be fome check upon the governor, and report 
to the King what pafles in the province, and particularly 
in the courts of juftice ; but it fctms there is fuch a gene- 
ral connivance among the pfficers at each others extortions, 
that the people receive very little benefit from his inttitu- 
tion : every officer fqueeres what he can out of his infe- 
riors, and the nai, or commander of a band, compels 
thofe under him to do double duty who have nothing to 
bribe him with ; while others who prefent him handfomcly, 
are entirely excufed. 

Though tlieir greateft men are fometimes pnniflied in a 
very fecure manner, yet as this is laid to be done only for 
their reformation, they arc afterwards reftoitd to their pofts, 
and none are permitted to upbraid tlie delinquent with his 
oiTeiKe, after he has fuffered the law. 

Officers are frequently punifhed for the faults of thofe 
who aft under their authority ; and parents and mafters of 
families for the ofTcnccs of their dependents and children. 


Of thi marri'a^ts, funtrah, and rilighn of the S'tamffe. 

THIS people, like their neighbours, difpofe of their 
daughters in marriage, when very young. A gieat 
many preliminaries muA be adjuftcd in Siam, before' a 
contrail of marriage is made : an aftrologer is to be coit- 
fulted, and the nativities of the young coujtlc aie to be cal- 
culated. From this cunning man alio, they are to learn, 
whether it is likely to prove a happy match, and whether 
the family they are about to marry into be rich ; it not be- 
ing eafy for any man, who is not a conjuror, to know 
this ; all people that have w ealth endeavouring to cdnccal it, 
left the poveriiincnt Ihould borrow it. VVIieii the patile* 
have [gained the bcft information they can in tliele partieii- 
lars, and are fatisficd with lh«iii,tlic lover is perniitted tn 
vifit his niiftrefs three times, and the relations b<ing pre- 
fent at the third, the portion is ptiid.nnd then the inarri:i|'e 
is eflcrmcd compleit, wiiUovit any religious ceremony pir- 
formed, and it is loon after coiiluiuinatcd. The taiapoiit 
is prqhihitecl to be prefent on thofe occaiions ; however, he 
vifits the married couple, in a few d>ys, fprinklcs them wiili 
water, and repeats a pnycr for their prolpcrity. The 
.Siamefe are allowed luon u ives than one, but feldom mnku 
ul'e of this privilege, except thtir great men, who laku 
tlicl'e llbeities in moil countiics wlidlxr ihtir Klij.';uii or 
laws prohibit it 01 not 


[ASIA.] Si 

They liave but one wife in reality, who is fo by con- 
tract I the reft are concubines purchaled with their money, 
and may be fold again ; nor can their children inherit. 'I'he 
fidelity of the Siamefe wives ii much applauded, they fc!- 
dom give their hulband's occafion to be jealous, and are 
exceeding diligent. They work and maintain the family, 
when the hulband is in the King's lervice, as he is obliged 
to be one half of the year. Divorces are allowed, but thofe 
happen very feldom, and when they do, the man returns 
the wife's fortune, and the children arc divided between 

them. , , . ^ 

As the women carry on all the trade, there is a necfiTity 
of allowing them greater liberties than they do in other hot 
countries, and they are fo far from abufmg their liberty, 
that they avoid every thing that may give any occafion for 
fcandal. There have been inftances of tranfgreflions, 
however, among the Royal roncubincs : oneof thefc offen- 
ders, the King ordered to oc covered by a horfe, and then 
put to death. And Loubiere relates, that anotlier offender 
being thrown to the tygers, which tefufcd to fcizc her, the 
King offered her a pardon, but Ihe would not accept it, 
chuling rather to be torn in pieces, than return to the 
drudgeries of the palace, the King being prefent at this ter- 
rible execution. 

When a Siamefe dies, the corpfe is immediately put into 
acofiiii lacquered and gilded ; and to prevent any llcnch, 
it is faid, they endeavour to conl'umc the bowels of the dc- 
ccafed with mercury, and have fometime* leaden coffins : 
they place the coffin upon a bcdllead or table, and it re- 
mains in the houfe till the preparations are made for the 
funeral, and the head of the family ran attend the folem- 
nity ; in the mean time they burn perfumes before the 
corps, and fet up lighted tapers. The talapoins alfo range 
themfelves round the fides of the room every night, and 
entertain the family with hymns and difcourCes fuitable to 
the occafion ! for which they are rewarded with money as 
well as good provifion. In the mean time a fquare fpot of 
ground is cncloled with a bamboo pale near fonie temple; 
round which arc hung the painted and gilded papers which 
the family make, repre(i;nting houres, goods, animals, Hz. 
In the middle of the fquare ftands the funeral pile, wliich, 
befides other wood, has yellow fanders, lignum aloes, and 
other fwect woods in it, according to the ability of the fa- 
mily i and the pile is built of earth as well as wood to a 
great height. The corpfe is always carried to the pile in 
the morning, with the found of feveral kinds of inftru- 
ments, attended by the family of the deceafed, both men 
and women clethed in white, and with white vails, be- 
wailing themfelves all the way, according to cuftom ; after 
them follow the reft of his friends and relations, and they 
choofe to CO in their barges by water towards the burying- 
place, as Ur as they can. 

When the company arrive at the place, they take the 
body out of the coffin, and lay it on the pile ; the lalapoins 
of the convent fing doleful hymns a quarter of an hour, 
and then retire ; after which, a fire-wotk is played ff. 
There are always Ihows and plays exhibited on this f - 
fion, attended with a kind offcftival, at which the ptivi^s 
are forbidden to \k prcfent. The talapoin's lifrvant fcts 
fire to the pile alwut noon ; which having burnt about two 
hours, the corpfe is rather fcorchcd than confuincd ; though 
it is ufually reported to be burnt to alhes \ this being thought 
to derive fome honour on the deceafed. The poorer fort 
do not burn the bodies of their deceafed relations ; but cither 
expcic thtm on a fcalFold in the open field, where they are 
devoured by birds of prey, or elfe inter them privately. 

With refpcft to ihc religion of the Siainefe, they do not 
believe the (bul to he a pure fpirit, but that itconfifts of 
matter fo fublil as to be free from touch, and that after 
death it retains the human figure, and the fame folid and 
li<)uid fubllances our bodies aie compofcd of; and that if a 
jierfon die by a wound given him it may be fcen in thele 
aerial bodies, with the blood flowing froiir it, agreeable to 
the notions of the anticiit ( i recks and Romans; but though 
the foul be material in their opinion, they will not admit 
that it is perifhable, hut that it animates Ibme other crea- 
ture, and knows p.iiti or picalurc according to its demerits, 
till it enter a human body again ; whofc circunilUiices they 
hold will be fuilabic to the behaviour of the foul in its feve- 
ral tranfniigrations. They hold alfo, that departed fouls 
do not only animate plants and animals, See. fucctffively ; 
but that there aie alio certain fpaces beyond the vifihie 
world, where they fhall be rewarded or punilhed ; that the 
happy afccnd far above the ftars, while the mifcrabic are 
doomed as far beneath ; and they ufually affign nine dif- 
ferent rcKions both of hnpninefs and mifcry. evrry one dif- 
fering in degree, th« highvil and lowed being mod cxijuilite 



in their kind. And as they io not iihaginc tliat fouH p»fs 
immediately from one ftatc to another, but are new-borit 
info whatever place they hnjipcn to go; fo they believd 
they ftand in need of the fame things they did in tliis 
life ; and for that reafon, .iS the Pagans did of old, ill 
fome places they burn their moft valuable moveables, 
and even animals and Oaves with them; their wives alfd 
in the hither India ufcd to olftr themfelves to be burnt 
with their hufbands, iii hopes to enjoy them in the other 
world; and it is lliid, tlicy have not wanted inftances there 
of the hulband burning hiinfclf with his beloved wife. 
But Loubiere obfcrvcs, tl«tneithcr theChinefeor Siimcfe, 
or any nation beybnd the Ganges, ever permitted tlie wills 
to burn herfelf with her hufband ; and are fo wife, that 
inftcad of real furniture and trcafure, they burn there 
only gilded Or painted paper rcfcmbling thofc things ; giv- 
ing out that thcfe .ire converted into real goods, and though 
the Chinefe burn fbmc goods, yet they burn much mor« 
in paper. They alio maintain, that the foul refides in thd 
blood, and therefore deem it improper to open a vein or 
inake any inclfions in the fielh, to extraft the blood. 

They pray to their departed friends, and do them all 
the honours they can contrive at their funerals, cfpcciAlljr 
to the manes of their anccftors, a." high as their great 
grand-fathers; imagining that thofc beyond have fuffcred 
to rtjany tranfmigralions, that they can hear them no 
inore; but the esftcm nations do not addrcfs their devo- 
tions to any but thofe of their own family, profeffion, or 
neighbourhood ; nor do they, like the fuperftitious Eu- 
ropeans, hope or fear any thmg from the departtd fpiritJ 
of ftrangers. 

The true Indian paradife is thus defcribed : that if a 
foul, after fcvcral tranfmigrations, by the good works 
done in each new life, arrives at fuch a degree of merit, 
that there is not, in any of the w-orlds, any mortal con- 
dition which h worthy of it, then they fay it enjoys the 
hircupan; that is, it had difapp..'arcd, and will return nd 
more to anv world, but remain ni a Hate of eternal impal- 
iability and happiiuls. 

When a pcrlon has happily merited heaven, before he ii 
trandated thither, (for fuch a foul is liippofed to be i:Ka- 
pable of dying atiy more) they attribute to him an invin- 
cible flrength of body, a.nd a pcrfcfl fkill in all f'cience', 
and believe he becomes a moft powciful preacher of righ- 
teoulhefs to mankind : after v\liicli he difappears, or is 
taken out of their fight, like a fpark (as their expreffion is) 
which is loft in air : and to the meinory of fuch as thefe, 
they dedicate their temples. But the pcrfon they fuppofe 
has furpafled all men that ever lived in holincfs, andwhorrt 
therefore they woilhipwith the higheft devotion, is Som- 
mona Codoni . Sommona fignifics a talapoin of the woods, 
Codom was his proper nam; ; and, as has been obl'erved 
already, virtue, according to them, is only to be found in 
the order of talapoins, and chiefly in the tal.ipoins of the 

Sommona Codom's father, the tab.foin books relate, 
was King of Ceylon, that delicious iflaiid where the true 
cinnamon only grows, and is now fubjeit to the DiJtch. 
Snminona C'o.'.oin hrflowed all his eftatc in charity, pulled 
out his eyes, and killed his wife and children, and gave 
them to the talapoins to feed on. They relate alfo, that 
a!\otlier Sommona Codom will hereafter arife ; who will 
alfo kill his children for the talapoins ; by which charity 
he will arrive at the higheft pitch of virtue. 

Thev believe, that Sommona Codom, before he entered 
into this ftatc of blifs, acquired a prodigious ftrength of 
body, and had the power of working miracles ; that he 
could enlarge his body to what fizc he pleafed, and then re- 
duce it to fo finatl a point, as pcrfcftly to difappear. 

It is further to be obflrved, that they do not look upon 
their Sommona Codom as the perlbn who firft inftituted 
their religion, or gave them the above-recited precepts j 
but that he ref\orcd and re-eftaMilhed them, after ni.inkind 
had fv. .Tved from the rules originally enjoined them. 

We fhall now proceed to give loine account of the ta- 
lapoins and talapoiiielles, who as well as the doflrine 
they proteCs, the people b.-liev; to be as aiieient as thd 
world itfelf ; but tlK7 themfelves are Ignorant of the foun- 
der of their order. 

Any Icarneil pcrfoU may become a talapoin, on apply- 
ing properly for Bdmlihon. The habit conlifts of foiir 
fiieces of cloth; the one is the angf'a, a kind of Ihoulder 
)elt, five or fix inches broad ; they wear it on the left 
fhouldei, and butron it with a fingle button on the right 
hip. Over this belt they have another called the palhivon, 
reach;!'.;', t;; tlie groiiiiu br.tli lieluiid and before, and leav- 
ing th: two arms, with all the right Ihoulder free. Over 





tliis is the papat, which reaches low behind, as well as to 
the middle before, and is generally red. 'l"hey gird the 
whole witli a piece of yellow cloth called rappakod, which 
eouijilctes tl»c four pieces that compofe their habit. 

There arc two forts of talapoins ; one of the woods, 
iind th-otlicrof cities. The education of youth is com- 
mitted to them, and they arc ferv-ed by their fcliolars. 
Thcfe taliipoiiis are a fort of begging friars, who live 
upon the alms of the people, and every one eats what he 
bcgf, oris given him, by himfelf, and not in a common 
roon. They arc very hofpitable to all ftrangers, Chrif- 
tians as well as others, and haye lodgings for them on 
each fide their gate. Thefc priefts vow celibacy, and lead 
\cry auftcrc lives j the penalty of deviatii\p from their 
fules, is no Icfs than burning, which tlie Kuig takes care 
Urall he rigoroudy executed, to prevent too many of his 
fubicfts turning talojioins, fince tliey pay no duties, and 
contribute nothing to the defence or fupport of the flate. 
They preach every new and full moon, and during the 
inundation, every d.iy, from morning till evening, the 
preacher fitting crofs-ictTittd on a railed floor, and is re- 
licveil when he is weary ty one of his brethren ; the peo- 
ple exprclliiig their aflent to the reafonablcncfs ot the 
doctrine, and bringing their alms to the preacher, by 
which bounty many of f hem grow rich. The time of the 
lains is their annual fad, when tliey eat iMJtliiiig but a lit- 
tle fruit in the evening. 

The talapoins are obliged to watcli. as well as oray, 
efpecially after harveft, when they go into the liclds m 
night-ti«ie, and return into the towns in the morning ; 
and though others are apt to think themfelvcs in danger of 
wild bcaiis when they are abroad ur the night-time, the 
people arc made to believe, that a tygcr will not touch a 
talapoin, thev are lb fanftilied a generation. 

The people wafli the talapoins at every new and full 
moon ; butattlul' timcstlieliiperioralw.iyRlhaves himfelf, 
btcaufc no man is worthy to touch his head, and the elder 
always (have tlie younger ; but when he is grown too old, a 
youiiu talipoin is permitted to (have him, who alks par- 
don firft, and declares himfelf unworthy of that honour. 

They walh every iivorning, as foon as they can fee, 
and not fooiier, for fear they ihould deftroy fome infeft. 
After walliing, they perform their devotioiii in the temple, 
which thev fin;; a"; in choir;, their books cocoa nut leaves, 
on which thev write or rather epgravc ; for they have not 
yet the art ol' printing : they fmg their devotions fitting 
upon their heels, but both priefts and people, at their go- 
ing in and out of the temple, proflratc themfelvcs three 
times before their idols. 

After the morning devotion, they go into the city, and 
flanding at the doors of the houfcs, they expcft any tiling 
from, their tood is brought tlvem, but they never .ilk for 
it, though there does not feem to be much occafion for 
thcfe alms ; for they have lands and gardens appropriated to 
tlieir convent-i, and (laves to cultivate them, and they arc 
exempt from taxes. The talapoins have fervants, as well as 
Haves, who wear a white habit,and receive tlic money given 
their mailer, it being a fin for the talapoin to touch money 
himfelf: 'I'he talapoinelTes wear white, and if they are 
taken with a in;in, are delivered to their relations to cluf- 
tife ; for it is agaiiift their rules for a ulapoin. to ttrike any 

'I'liefe talapoineflcs who are nuns, live in the fame con- 
vents with the talapoins ; the coaveivts are a number of 
fingle honf:s Handing upon bamlxjo pillars at a fmall dif- 
tance from each other. Perlona who go to a convent, 
enter it intircly by their own choice, and are at liberty to 
quit it whenever I'liey picafe. 

We (hall only add here, under his head, tliatthe Indians 
not being preiudiced againft any religion, but allowing a 
univcrlid toleration, we may piefume tliat the reafoiuble- 
nels of the ChrilUan doftriiics iiviglu have induced them 
to embrace them, if the ambition, avarice, injufticc, and 
tvrannv of the l>uiopean nations, who have fettled there, 
had not contradifled the dcdrincs they taught, and railed, 
in the hidians, anabhorrence of their perfonsaiid praflices. 

SECT. xr. 

Defcribing tht ii/tgiUnit of Ava, Pegu, Arracan,Tipra, Aeham, 
and Bontan j with their imiir/aries an J extent, rivers, towns, 
hSc. alfo an account of the inhaiilaats, their genius, temper , 
diet, food, religicHy Vc. 

THF.SE countries may be comprehended under the 
name of the kingdom of Ava, for the Kings of 
Ava and Pegu is faidto have reduced all tile reft under his 
yower, * 

This kingdom or cnlpirc of Ava, including tlitf 
countries abovefaid, is bounded by Afcni or Acham 
towards tlic^jjorth, China and Siam towards the call, anS 
the countrv and bay of Rcngal towards the wed and 
fouth i and extends, acording to tlie beft maps we luve 
of thofc countries, from the latitude of fixtecn to twenty- 
fcven nortli, fo that the whole length from north to fuuth, 
inay be reckoned between fix and fcven hundred miles, 
and the breadth about half as much. 

The principal rivers in this country, are the Arracan, 
the CapoiiM.o, the Mcnam, the Ava, and that of Pegu, 
»''iich limning from nurtli to fouth almoft the whole 
length of the country, and overflowing their banks annu- 
ally, render it no lefs fruitful than Rengal and Siam, 
which lye on each fide of them j and the lake of Chamay 
is placed in our maps at the notth-caft part of this country. 

The chief towns .ue, Tipra, Ava, Arracan, Laftoia, 
Prom, Mcro, Pegu, andSiiiam; Tipra is the capital of 
the kingdom or province of the fame nunc, ;uid lies in tlie 
l.atitudeof twenty-four <lcgrccs north, or thereabout. Arra- 
can ftands near the moutli of the river of the fame name, 
which a little lower falls into the bay of Bengal, it lies i« 
twenty-one degrees of noith latitude. Ava lies to the 
eaftward of Arracan upon a riv er of the fame name, which 
a little lower falls into th: Mcnam ; and Laftora Ihuids be- 
tween Ava and Arracan upon the river Capoumo. Prom 
orPorcom, (hinds on the call fide of the river Mcnam in 
the latitude of nineteen degrees, and Mero to the fouth- 
w-rrd of it on the fiuuc river, latitude feventeen north. 
Siriam lies on the weft fide of the river Mcnam, near the 
mouth of it, almoft againft Martaban. Pegu Hands about 
eighty miles up the river of the fame name, in the latitude 
of feventeen degrees fome odd minutes, it is divided into 
the old and new city, which together make the town alinoft 
fquare ; it is defended by a wall or moat, and lias on every 
fidefivegatcsi thecimrtand peopkof condition take up that 
Iiart which is called the new city, wliich is feparatcd from 
the otlu:r by a wall and ditch, the llrcets ai-; ftrair, and wide 
enough for fifteen men to nde a bieaft ; and they have 
trees planted before their houfes for Ihaile, as in many 
other Indian towns. In the middle of the new city ftands 
the pal.icc, which is fortilied u ith walh and toWcrs like a 
caftle. TiavclUrs tell us it Is very magnificent ; Lc llhnc 
t^i.esus the following deicription of it: in one of the 
courts ftands the fi:;uic of a tall man, all of foMd gold, 
with a crown on his head, enriched with rubies of acoiifi- 
dcrable value : round this figure ftand four golden 
ftatues. In another court is repreleiitcd a giant, all of 
filvei , fitting with a crown of filver on his head, fet witU 
rich jewels ; and in otiver courts are other ticli flatties, 
formed of various kinds of metal, witli crowns on their 
heads ; adorned with rubies and fapphircs. 'i'he King of 
Av^ and Pegu has feveral neighbouring ftatcs tributary to 

P^u, which is within thr tropics, is flooded when the 
fun is vertical ; but the ilimc, left by the waters, gently 
fertilizes tire low grounds. TIk- higher land is parclied 
with intenfe heat after the rains have ceafcd ; and tlie na- 
tives are obliged to water their fields by the communica- 
tions of fmall clianels from refeivoirs or cifterns. 

The hills of Pegu are cloQthed with line wood, and tlie 
natives derive great advantage from the bamboos. Their 
fruits are oranges, lemons, citrons, figs, pomegranates, 
bananas, durians, mangoes, goyvas, cocoa-nuts, pine- 
apples, &c. 

Rice they liave in great plenty, and fome wheat ; alfi» 
garden-ftuit, which they chieriy live Ujiou. They have 
alio various kinds of pulle, good poultry, and variety of 
excellent fith. 

I'hey ploui^h with oxen and bufTaloes. Thev have few 
liorl<:s or llieep; but deer aie exceedingly numerous. 
This country alfo abounds in elephants ; and produces 
rubies, fmall diamonds, and other precious flones ; alfo 
iron, tiii, lead, fait pctie, wood-nil, oil of ciitli, i'ugars,&c. 

The nioi\foons, winds and feafon':, are the fame here 
as they a.; in Upper Siam, to which it is contiguous . 
they build their lioufes alio on ports by tlic river fides, like 
tlie Siamele. Aiul as to the genius and tcnijicr of this 

fieopic, their ct)uiagc and manner of maklni; war, ilicir 
labits, food, entertainments and ccitiiionies, their luif- 
bandry, produce of the foil, learning, religic.n, ice. from 
all that we can colled, there is not any material diii'eience 
between them and the Siamcfe. What our failors moil: 
take notice of, is the aomplailaiice of their women, wlui 
will contrail with them tor as long or as (hort a time 
as they picafe, and Iwliavc ilieinfelves in all relpeOs like 
good wives vvllilc tlitii tcroporjry hul)\u>Jj remain in the 

[A S I A.] 



fcountry: nor do tlicir friends look upon this kind of 
CoiTimeree as any difgrace, but receive them kindly 
•when they rctorn to them again. The Englilh from 
fort St. Gtorge diivc a profitable trade with Pegu 
and Arracan, from whence they import rubies, fap- 
jihircs, amcthylU, and otlii r precious ftoncs : (kins and 
furs alfo are another very coniidcrablc brancit of this 

Tiie Pecuan temples, and the idols in thcra, are fupcrb- 
ly embelhlhcd. A temple near Siriam has the name of 
kiakiack, or god of gods : in tliis edifice is a large figure 
Iving as though ii were flccjiing, and is pretended to have 
lain in this pofturc fix thoufand years. There is another 
temple near Siriam, which tlicy call Dagun ; but only 
the priefts muft enter it. 1 he priefls fay this idol re- 
fcmblcs nothing human, and refufe to defcribc the (hape 
or form of it. There is in one of their temples a Clvcr 
idol, of gigantic fize, which, as an oracle, anfwcred quef- 
tions, and prediftcd what was to happen. They have 
alfo an idol called trokugue, of the fame (lature as the 
former, though of different compofition: this idol, they 
pretend, intercedes with kiakiack for the wicked, and once 
a week they facrifice a hog, and tluee pullets to it. I'herc 
are fcvcral very Angular circamftances attending their 
facrifices. They worfliip dxmons, in order that they 
may not be afHiflcd by them. They begin their feftivals 
with dancing and mufic ; pcrfons of high rank attend 
them, cloathcd in their rlcheft apparel, and adorned witli 
jewels ; but they are often changed to doleful lamenta- 
tions, and coitcludc with plaintive drains in praifc of their 
anccfiors. After which they recruit their fplrits with 
mirth and good food and liquors. 

They ftyle the Emperor of Ava the ftvercign of the 
white elephant. He is almoft worlhipped by his people : 
he calls nimfclf the king of kings, and his fulyeas ftyle 
him a god. He is reckoned fuperior to all otlicr lovcieigns, 
as being allied to all the planets ; the fun is his brother, 
and the moon and ftars his fiflers. When an ambafllidor 
approaches this great prince, he is attended by found of 
trumpet, while heralds proclaimed aloud the honour and 
happmefs he is about to receive. The King is at this 
time attended by all his minillcrs, and two hundred 
guards, fome with daggers, and others with fleel bows 
finely polilhed. 

This monarch hold the reins of government intirely 
in his own hands, and punilhcs with great rigour fuch 
olficcrs, as arc guilty of nial-pra^iccs. When he hears 
of the commilfiuii of any enormous crime, he ifpjes his 
rbyal mandate for luch offence to be tried by judges of 
his own chufing ; and if the perfon be conviAed, he fixes 
the particular punifhmcnt to be inf1i£led, which is, the 
being trampled to death by elephants, or fomc other cruel 
mode of punilhing th» delinquent. 

A kind of aiiUocratical government prevails in every 
lownof thefe dnniinions. When a pcrlon cannot or will 
not pay the debt fur which he is committed to piifon, tiu: 
creclitors may difpofe of him for a flave. 

In cafe of war, the heralds proclaim their fovereign's 
will with fiaming torches in their hands, and the (gover- 
nors of provinces arc obliged to raifc fuch a number of 
troops as the ilate wants, in addition to the accuftomcd 
military vlUblilhnient. A troop perhaps of one tltoufand 
elephants are foon feen in full march, the King being 
featcd on his throne upon the back of one of the whitcft, 
attended by all his nobles, ai\d march to the field of war 
by the found of trumpets and other military mufic. 

The kingdom of Arracan is bounded on the caft, by 
Ava i on the weft, by the bay and country of Ikngal , and 
on the north by Tipra ; it extends about four hundred 
miles in length, and contains a great number of places, 
niany of which arc uninhabited, from the great number 
cf wild beaftsthat infeft it. 

'1 he inhabitants of this country are diftinfrulflicd by 
their broad and tiat foieheads, red nofes, and wide nof- 
ti lis : they have fmall eyes, but a very quick fight. The 
people are in general very robuft. The common people 
t>enerally wear a <lark purple habit : but thofe of diftinc 
tion wear vclhnents of white cotton, with an apron be- 
foic them, and a kind of bag behind their backs formed 
in plairs. Their hair is divided into locks, each of which 
is tied, and ornamented with knots of fine cloth. The 
women arc much fairer than the men, but proportionably 
robuft. They wear a cotton garment, whiUi ' bound 
li-veral times round the body, and reaches down to the an- 
cles, they have a kind of handkerchief made of flowered 
gauze over their necks and ihouldeis. The better fort 

No. 7. 

Ik fcarf Oil one 01 tucir arms, and decorate their 

hair With a variety bforntMoiite. They have stafs rtngy 
in their ears, which are fo large as tt hang on the Ihouldersi 
and their arras and 1^ Are ornamented with bracelets mi 
rings of fliver, copper, ivory* 8tc. 

Their houfcs are made witl) brahdhes of pilm-trecst ot 
canes placed on pillars, uid covered with leaves of thtf 
cocoa-tree, and arc exceeding fmall j but the better fort 
have more fpacious buildings. They are obliged to drtfs 
their vifluals without doors ill eartheil uots, as thev havd , 
no chimnics, or any convenience for firing in their hotileii 
They arc exceeding temperate in their diet, though 
they have great plenty of provilions. Their comtnoi; 
drink is made from the leaves of a tree refembliiig thd 
pijhn-iree, which if drahk new, is verjr fweet, but in t 
few days will turi< four. They ufe rice inftead of bread. 

The country produces all kinds of fruits with various 
forts of grain. The climate is very healthful and pleafant 
in fummer, but much otherwife in winter, for the inha* 
bitants arc fubje£t to agues, from tlie prodigious quantity 
of rain that falls during that feafou. Here are great num-* 
bcrs of buffaloes and elephants. 

The King of Arracan generally refides at the capital; 
he is as powerful as any of his neighbours, and has twelve 
princes under him, whofe refldences are in the chief cities 
of the kingdom) and they are permitted to affumc the 
title of kings. The King hirofelf is flyled, " Enipcior 
of Arracan, pofleflbr of tire white elephant, witli the two • 
caniques, rightful heir of Pascr and Bromi, and lord of the 
twelve kings, who lay the hair of their heads under thi 
foles of his feet," &;c. He is feen by his fubjcfts but 
once in five years, at which time tlie palace is furrounded 
with buildings and feaffolds creiled on the occafioni The 
King comes Tiom the palace dreffed in the moft fumptu> 
ous manner, fcated in an elegant tent placed on the back 
of an elephant richly capari(ohed. He is followed by his 
courtiers riding on elephants, whofe harnefs and trappings 
are richly adorned witli diamonds and other precious 
jewels. Then tiie King, witli his attendants, rides 
through the principal ftrccts of the city ; after which, he 
returns to the great fquare before his palace, where his 
fubjedts renew their oath of allegiance to him, and ths 
evening is conduded with the greateft feftivity by all ranks 
of people. 

This country abounds with tetuples and other (acted 
places, which are built like ftecples, and contain many 
idols worfliipped by them. They hold an annual feaft ia 
commemoration of tlie dead, of which time tliey carry one 
of their idols in proceffion, attended by a number of 
pricds dreflcd in uniforip, confifling of a long garment 
made of yellow fattin. The idol is placed in a large heavy 
chariot, and fuch are the fupcrftitious notions of the vul' 
gar, that many will throw themfelves under the wheels* 
and others will tear their flefli with iron hooks faftened to 
tlic carriage for tliat purpofe : they take great pains to co- 
lour thefc hooks with their blood ; and they arc afterwards 
preferved and hung up as facrcd relics in theirtemples. 

There arc three orders of priefts among them, the 
higheft of which is diftinguilhed by wearing a yellow 
mitrc ; but ilie other two always go bareheaded : dicy are 
all prohibited marrying, on pain of degradation. Wbeii 
any pcrfons are ill, they fend for the priefts, who pray 
with them, in return for which the patient offers facrifices 
of fowl, &c. according to their ability. If the patient re- 
covers, the cure is attributed to the prayers ufcd by the 
prieft, but if he dies, the pricft tells the relations that 
tlieir facrifices arc accepted, but God dsfigns the deceafed 
a greater favour in the other world. The pricft thinks it 
charity to drown the patient if he appears incurable. 

On the death of a perfon of diftui£tion, the body is 
burned, but the poorer fort are thrown into tlic river. 
They believe in tianfniigration, and therefore ornament 
their coffins witli tlie figures of fuch animals as they think 
the moft noble. 

Every family has fome peculiar animal, by which they 
fwcar, and whofc figr'e tiiey mark with a hot iron on dif- 
ferent parts of their b«Jy. Their nuptial ceremonies are 
performed in the prefence of this animal, and, before they 
eat, they always offer hiin part of their provifions. 

The principal people that trade with the inhabitants of 
this kingdom arc the Moors, and the commodities tlicy 
purchafe confift of elephants teeth, tin, lead, and timber 
for building. The ordinary money is (hells, or fmall 
pebbles, eighty of which aro-valued at nine-pence, but tliey 
have afilvcr coin cftimated at two iliillings. 

BTlie capital of tliis kingdom, called alfo Arracan, is 
larpe and well fortified : it is fiiuaied in a valley, and is 
8 fifteen miles in circumference. It is incloled by very hkh 
T ft7ne 



none walls, and furroundcd by a ridge of Aecp, craggy 
mounrainii, fo artificially fortned ai to be alinoft impretf- 
tiabie i befides which, there ii a caftle within, flronjtly 
fortified. The city is well wafercd by a fine river that [anti 
through it in different ftrranis, and at length forms into 
two chanels, which empty theinlelves into the bay of 

It is eftitnated, that the number of inhabitants in thU 
tity amount to one hundred and fixty thoufand, exclufive 
of foreigners. The honfes in general are fmail, and built 
of bamSooi ; but thofc of the richer fort arc fpacious and 
handfome : there are upwards of fix hundred idol temples 
in it, moft of which are fp-icious buildings, elegantly or- 
namented. The palace is exceedingly magnificent, lieing 
decouted with ther mod coflly embcllilhments. The 
apartments are lined with various kinds of wood that yield 
the moll .igreeable fragrance; and the roofs of thofc belong- 
ing to the King are covered with plates of gold. In the 
Centre of the paluce is the grand hall, which contains a ca- 
nopy ornamented with wedges of folid gold, refemhiing 
fugar-loaves. Here are lilcewife feveral idols of the fame 
metal, as large as life, and adorned with diamonds and 
other coflly jewels. In the centre of the hall is a cabinet 
of gold, fopported by a large ftool of the fame metal, and 
overlaid with diamonds ana other precious (tones. This 
cabinet contains the two caniques, or famous pendants of 
rubies, by which the King prcfcrves a fupcrior authority 
over his vaflal princes, and wliich he alio wears at bis cort)- 

There are fpacious (tables adjoining to the palace, fortlie 
King's elephants, ty^ers, horlcs, &c. and there is a con- 
fiderable lake with fmall iflands near it, inhabited chiefly 
by prieih. This lake is fo fituatcd, as to be a fecurity to 
the inhabitants of ihe city, (hould they be reduced to the 
neceflity of flying from the attack of an enemy; for, by 
cutting a bank which furrounds it, they might overflow 
tlte citv, and retire to the illaiids adjacent. 

This city has very extcnlivu I'uburbs adjoining to it, and 
the furrounding countries are dciiRhtfuUy plealant. The 
vi';h^t5, mountains, &c. are beautifully diverfified with 
field'! of dilTi;r-.nt kinds of grain, intermixed with pieces 
of water. Tlu'ir flocks of cattle are very numerous. 

In the n':ighljou;hood is a faftory belonging to the 
Dutch ; iind loine of the richeft commodities in Afia are 
to bo pwrchafed of many of the (hops in the city. The 
Moors often obtain coiiliderable poflellions by purchafing 
diamonds, rubies, and other cottly jewels ; ana indeed they 
are the principal people that trade here. 

There are many other cities of conliderable note in dif- 
ferent parts of this kingdom ; as alfo many capiul towns 
remarkable for traffic ; tlie moft material of which, are, 

Orietan. This is one of the twelve pipital cities, and 
is governed by a viceroy, who alTumes the title of King, 
and receives a crown from the King himfelf. It is fituatvd 
on a branch of the river, to the fouth-weft of the city of 
Arracan. In the neighbourhood of this city is a large 
mountain, on which is a fortified place for the confine- 
ment of liate prifoners, or other dillinguilhed criminals. 
There is another mountain called Pora, on the top of 
which is placed the principal idol, which is worlhipjied by 
the King himl'elf on a certain day once in the year. Be- 
tween the cities of Arracan and Orietan is a fpacious river, 
the banks of which are delightfully (haded with tall trees, 
diat form as it were an harbour ; the pleafiirc of (ailing 
under which is confiderably heightened by the multitude 
of peacocks that are continually moving from one tree to 

Another city of conftderable note is Rama ; but the pf- 
fage to it either by land or water being dangerous, it is 
little reforted to ; for the mountains are infefted with a great 
number of wild hearts, and the fudden tempeils that arife 
make the getting to it by water very perilous. 

The next we lliall take notice of, is Dubazi, which is a 
large and populous city, but chiefly remarkable for its 
commodious harbour, and a fpacious river by which great 
trade is carried on with the neighbouring places. 

Dianga is alfo a large town, fituated one hundred and 
twenty miles north of AiTacan ; the inhabitants arc chiefly 
Portuguel'e fugitives, and they have very confiderable pri- 
vileges allowed them. 

Another town of great trade is Pereom or Prom, which 
has a very convenient harbour. It is the refidencc of a 
governor, whoexercifes the ahfolute authority of an eaftern 
monarch, and keeps a grand court here. 

Tipra, or Tiiioura is a tributary kingdom, fubjeft to 
the King of Arracan. It is bounded by the empire of Ava, 
and part of Chiiu, to tltc Ibutli and call ; by Independent 

Tartary, tn the north ; by Arracan, to the fouth-weft, and 
by lndo(|lan, to the weft. It is faid to require fifteen daw 
To crofs it. Being under the tropic of Cancer, it i.s ex- 
ceedingly hot, the air is ncverthelefg falubrious and pun ; 
but the water is fu I>ad, that it occalions the tliioats of tha 
inhabitants to fwcll tu a prodigious fize. 

The (bvercign and the nobility ride vfon elcphanta, or 
are carried in palaiupiins ; but the common people, when 
they travel, niake ul°c of horfes or oxen indifcnminately. 
The accommodations for flrangers arc bad ; mid the bcki- 
viour of the natives rude and uupolilhcd. 

The fubjefls of this kingdom pavno taxes, but in lieu 
thereof labour annually once a week for the King, either 
in his mine or his filk -works, from whence alone he de- 
rives his revenues. He exports gold and filvct to China iu 
ingots, and in return receives filver, which it coined into 
fpecies of cuirency of twenty pence and twenty-twopence 
Value each : gold is coined into af{iers, which arc wortlt 
about five Ihdiings a-picce. Cieugraplters fay, that tlie 
river Cuipoumo runs from Chiamay lake througli this and 
feveral other kingdoms, till it di(<:mbogu«s itfelf into Ben- 
gal bay. 

The kingdom of Achaffl, Afem, or Aaem, is bounded 
by China, m the eaft ; Indoftan on the wtft ; I'iflra on 
the luuth ; and Boutan, with part of Independent '1 artary, 
on the north. 

This country, in the reign of Aureng-zebe, was eon* 
quered by the Moj^uls, who difcovcrcd it by navinatin ; thtf 
river Lacquia, which lias its fource in the lake Chiamay, 
and difcharges itfelf into the Ganges. The above-men- 
tioned Celebrated lake lies in twenty-fix degrees north lati- 
tude, and is one hundred and eighteen leagues in circum- 

Befides being one of the moft fertile in the univcrfe, thi» 
country is alfo rich in mines, which produce tlie nobleft 
and moft ufeful metals, fuch as gold, filver, ftcel, iron, 
lead, &c. Here is plenty of the moft delicious animal food, 
but dog's flelh is deemed the gie.itcft dainty. '1 hey maku 
no wine, though they have excellent grapes, which, when 
dried, are ufed in making brandy. '1 he lakes of this 
country are of a lidinc quality, and they convt't into liilt 
the (cum which riles to their fnrface. Another kind of 
fait is extrafted from the leaves of what they call Adam's 
fig-tree ; and a ley is made, which renders their filks ad- 
mirably white. 

The King exempts his fubjefls from all kinds of taxes 
to governnnent, as he contents himfelf with the Ible pro- 
perty of the valuable mines contained in his country ; nor 
are thole inines worked by the natives, but by flaves which 
he purchafcs in the neighbouring countries. 

In this country, every fubjcd lyith a houfe allotted hini, 
with a lai^e piece of groSnil contigiious thereto, and a i 
elephant to carry his wives, of whom he is permitted tD 
have four. Previous to marriage, the Alchaniians iiifrirui 
the women minutely of what they expeft them to do. 
The females being thus prcvioully inftru£ted in their duty, 
feldom dilbblige their hulbands. 

The inhabitants towards the north have good complex- 
ions, but thole who dwell foutherlv are rather fwarthy. All 
have very large holes bored in their cars, from whence de- 
fcend heavy pendants of gold and filver. They wear tlieir 
hair long, have a cap upon their heads, and go naked ex- 
cept about their middles. They adorn their arms with 
bracelets, which are buried with them when they die. 
Their gold is current in ingots, but they have pieces of 
filver coin of two (hillings each in value. They havejneat 

Slenty of gum lacque, which they export to'China and 
apan, to varnilh cabinets, cliefts, and other pieces of fur- 

KemmeroufF, or Guergon, is the metropolis of thiii 
kingdom, and the refidencc of the King ; it lies in twentv- 
five degrees thiitv-thrcc minutes north latitude, and tfie 
city of A/.ov is tlie royal burial-place. When any King 
is buried in the grand temple, his (avourite idol is buried 
alio ; this always being of gold or filver, the vaults are 
filled with immcnfe trealure. 

The j)eople imagine, that tlie righteous have, in the other 
world, plenty of what they defire ; but that the wicked (uf- 
fer all the miferies of hunger and thirft. Full of this notion, 
and not entertaining any very high idea of the morality or 
pietv of their monarchs, they bury with them all kinds of 
eatables, great riches, feveral of their wives, officers, c!e> 
phants, (laves, *cc. left they fhould fare worle in the other 
world than they did in this. 

The Chincfe arc fuppol'ed to have received the invention 
of Euiijiowder fnmi the people of Afem, though they have 
nut U'cn ingenuous enough to acknowledge it. 

3 The 


fouth-wcft, unA 
uire fiftfcntia)* 
aiiccr, it ix rk- 
)rious <tnd ()ui< ; 
iic tliioats of tlia 

on clephaiitii, or 
III peoule, whdi 

I ; auU the bclui- 

ixes, bat in lieu 
:he King, citlicr 
ice alone he ilc- 
itvcr to China iu 
:h it coined into 
¥enty-two pence 
uliich an: wortli 
:rs fay, that tlie 
throuel) this and 
s iticl? into Bcn- 

ECtn, is bounded 
weft; I'ipra on 
pendent '1 artary, 

-7.ebe, was con* 

ay navigatin ^ th« 
c lake Chiainay, 
rhe above-men- 
;grecs north lati- 
agucs in circum- 

the univerfe, thi* 
ducc tlie nobleft 
Iver, flcel, iron, 
ious animal food, 
ty. 'Ihey makf 
es, which, when 
he lakes of this 
convt't into fait 
Another kind of 
:hcy call Adam's 
IS their tllks ad- 

ill kinds of taxes 
itii the i'ole pro- 
lis country ; nor 
: by llaves which 

ufe allotted him, 
thcieto, and at 
e is permitted t» 
hamians inlnriit 
tft them to do. 
ed in their duty, 

e gt)od complex - 
her fwarthy. All 
tinm whviiccde- 
They wear tlieir 
nd go naked ex- 
their arms with 
when they die. 
y have pieces of 
Tbey havejacat 
rt to'China and 
icr pieces of fur- 

trop«Iis of this 
it lies ill twentv- 
atitudc, and tfie 
Vhen any King 
te idol is buried 
the vaults are 

lave, in the other 
t the wicked fuf- 
lU of this notion, 
f the morality or 
hrm ail kinds of 
cs, officers, cle- 
'orle in the other 

ed the invention 
hough they have 
ge it. 
■^ The 

tA S I A.] 




ThefoltmvliTi places nnr the coaft 6{ Avi are Teckon>' 
ed in the Pegu dominion.:, i . The ifland of Dola, which 
has a good hailiour, and where twenty houfes ire appro- 
oriatedto the purpofe oi'uminb elephants for the ufe of the 
King of Pegu. a. Cofmin is a iVrtilc illaiid i the houfes 
of the natives are built on traroes of wood, and afcended 
to by ladders, on accouittof the furious tygers with which 
the country abounds. The inhabitants go from hence to 
Pegu in boats, in which whole families relide all the year. 
This country produces <igs, oranges, cocoa-nuts, wild 
boars, parrots, alfes, and other animals. 3. Meden, a 
tolerable town, where a'Biarket is kept on the water in 
boats, the commodities being Ihaded from the Icorching 
heat of t'le fun by umbrellas. 4. Negrais, a town and 
cape on the coaft due wellward from Pegu, from whence it 
tenuircs about ten days to fail. The harbour is good, but 
a Uielving bar renders its entrance difagreeable and danger- 
ous, j. Diamond ifland, near cape begrais, is celebrated 
for two Pagan temples : the one called the temple of the 
" god of the affli£led ;" and the other the temple of the 
<• god of the atoms of the fun." I'his ifland is low, 
ren, and rocky ; but tlic chief ecclcfiaftic of the kingdom 
telides here. He is greatly venerated by the people, and 
takes the right hand of the King ; who, on his deniife, is 
obliged to attend his funeral with his whole couit, and de- 
fray all cxpcnces incurred thereby. 

Martabaii, or Martavan, is a province in the kingdom of 
Pegu, eight miles fouth of it, and lying in tlie gulf of 
Uengal. It is lituatc in ninety-feven degrees fifty minutes 
call longitude, and tiftccn degrees thirty-five north latitude. 
It is three hundred miles long, and one hundred and fifteen 
broad. The capital town is of the fame name, and was a 
a rich trading before they funk Ihips at the entrance 
of tlie harbour, to choak it up, which it lias elfeAually 
done. It produces corn, oranges, lemons, figs, pears, 
chefnuts, medicinal plants, oil of jeflamy, gold, lilver, fleel, 
iron, IcaJ. copper, rubies, lacquc, benzoin, &c. It was 
formerly lb fertile, as to have annually three harvefts, and 
is bleiied with a pure and wholclbme air ; but the whole 
country lias been ruined by the terrible wars between the 
kings of Pegu and Siam i the former having been taken 
and killed by a people called Barmais, who conquered the 
whole kingdom .-uul brought it into fubjeAion. 


TrtatS i/tfii ptninfula »f Malacta, thi kingdams tfCambtdia 
and Laos, J'htr, Tiitt, iSt. 

MALACCA is a large peninfula beyond the Ganges. 
It is fituatc between the fecond and eleventh degree 
of nortli latitude ; and is bounded by Siam, on the north ; 
by the ocean, on the eaft ; and by the ftreights of Malacca, 
which feparates it from Sumatra, on the fouth-weft, being 
about fix hundred miles long, and two hundred broad. It 
is feparated into ftveral fmall kingdoms ; namely Malacca, 
from which it derives its name, Johor, Patana, Sincapour, 
J'aliaii, Trangano, Pcra, Queda, and Ligor. Some of 
thefe are independent t\ates ; but the King of Siam has 
nude the others tributary to him. I'his country is faid 
to have been the Aurea Chcrfonefus of Ptolemy. 

The coaftt of the kingdom are flat, marlhy, and un- 
healthful ; and the inland parts of the country confift of 
icarce any thing but barren hills and dreary deferts ; fo tliat 
it produces few commodities for trade, except tin and ele- 
pluiits teetli. The common neceflaries ot life are pro- 
duced in gardens ; and fmall quantities of peafe and rice 
are raifed in fuch parts of the mountains as appear to have 
any tolerable foil. The natives have a fupply of provi- 
fions from Sumatra; Bengal, Java, Siam, and Cambodia. 
Here is, however, a variety of fruit, particularly the nian- 
joftain, which is a delicious fruit, in the fliape of an apple, 
with a thick and red Ikin. Here are cocoas in abundance, 
and a great plenty of aloes ; and as to pine-apples, thofe 
produced here arc the l)cft in the world. The ramboftan 
is of the fizc of a walnut, with a very agreeable pulp ; and 
the durian have a very agreeable taftc,' thuugli it is not nlea- 
iant to the fmell. 'I'hcre is but little corn, and tbeep 
and bullocks are Icarrc , but jiork, poultry, and filh, are 
pretty plentifil. 'I lure arc many tygers, wolves, and 
other wild animals in this country. 

The inland inh.ibitaiits arc a lavage, barbarous people, 
who take great delii;ht in <loini; mlfchicf to their neigli- 
i)niir5_ The !i3tivcs wlio arc cilled ^.lajavs arcwf Mtawnv 
complexion. Tlie inc<i go nikcj, except luving a piece 

of cloth round their waiA. The woirieit', #ho have their 
hair very long, and are extremely proudt wear a loofe filken 
^mciit embroidered witli filver or^old. Both fcxes have 
jewels in their cars. NotwitlilHinding the natural ferocity 
of the greater part of tlicle people, we muft in juflice ac-^ 
knowledge, that fome of them are polifhedv well-bred, and 
humane, who diftinguilh tliemfelves by their talents, and 
particularly in tlie ufe of t language, efteemcd tlic molt 
pure, nervous, harmonious, and copious of <>ny fpoken 
in the Eaft Indies ; they l\udy it witli great tare ; and many 
of them by their elegant poetic compofitions, do honour 
to its natural graces. 'I'he religion of the natives is a mix- 
ture of Maliomctanifm and Paganifm, and titty are greatly 
addicted to juggling, which fome miflake for conjuration. 

We Ihall now proceed to cive a del'cription of the city 
Or towh of Malacca, which is liiid to have been founded 
upwards of tw6 hundred years before tlic arrival of the I'oi- 
tugucfc in 1 509. In the year 151 1, Alphonfo Albuquerque 
fuhdued the city, after it had made atnoft vigorous defence : 
he plundered it of iinmenfe trcafures, vaft magazines, and 
whatever could contribute to the elesancies and conveni- 
encics of life, and then put the pnncc to death. The 
King of Siam, however, enraged at this cruelty, being af- 
fifted by other princes equally incenfed againft the murderer, 
afterwards took the city by ilorm, and built churches, rao- ; 
naftcries, acaftle, and a college for the Jefuits. In ito6 
the Dutch, in conjunAion wiUi the King of Johor, iKgaii 
to be very troublefome to tlie Poituguefe, and, after a 
feries of hoflilitiet for the fpace of thirtv-five years, in 
1641 intirely wreftcd it out of their hands; which tliey 
cfTeAed in the following manner : finding that confiderable 
difputes had fubfifted between the King of Johor :md the 
Portuguele inhabitants, die Dutch formed a delign of at- 
tacking and reducing tlie place. Accordingly they fitted out 
a formidable fquadron of Ihips at Batavia, and entered into 
an alliance with the King ot Jolior, who attacked the city 
by land, while the Dutch invelled it by fca ; but the invaders 
finding there was no poflibility of j-cducing it, the Dutch 
at lengtli by means of a confiderable bribe, prevailed nn the 
fordid governor, to furrendcr tlie fort to them. lUit the 
bafe and faithleis bribers, having entered the place, mur- 
dered the governor, to fave the payment of the premium. 
This city is built on a low level ground clofe to the fe.i-fide, 
on the eaft fide of the city there is a river, which at a fpring 
tide will admit of fmall veflcls ; and on the eaft fide of this 
river tlands a ftrong fort, between which and the town, 
there is a communication by a draw-bridge : this fort is 
built at the foot of a little fteep hill, and is of a femi-circu- 
lar form, like tile adjacent hill : the walls are founded on 
a rock, very thick, and are carried up to a confiderable 
height ; aitd thekt/rer part of them is waflicd by the fea 
at every tide : jffthe otlier fide of the hill, tlicre is a large 
moat cut from^e fea to tiie abovcfaid river, v.'hich makes 
it an ifland ; and thart part next tlie land is flocked witli 
great trees : on tlie hill ftands one little church which 
ferves tlie Dutch inhabitants ; and it is to be prefuined, 
the Portuguefe, who are pretty numerous, may liave a 
cliapel in the town ; but travellers do not mention any 
temple for the reft of the inlubitants. 

1 here arc between two and three hundred families of 
Dutch, Portuguefe, Chinefe and Moors, and two or tlircc 
great Armenian merchants in it. The Chinefe have the 
beft (hops, which are filled with the manufaflurcs and pro- 
duce of their country, and fuch other goods as there is any 
demand for tliere : the houfes in the town arc generally 
built with flone, and the ftreets are wide and flrait, but 
not paved : the native Malays, who inhabit the fiiburbs, 
live in poor mean cottages, and are kept in great fubjec- 
tioii by tlieir liaughty Dutch matters ; Out it is obferved, 
they ftill retain a deiperate fullennefs in their looks ; and 
the Malays of the neighbouring provinces liave frequently 
revenged inemfelves op the Dutch, for the tyranny and 
oppreflion exercifed on them, and tliat reftraint the Hol- 
landers put upon their trade ail along the Malayan co.ift 
bv the guard-lhips, infomuch that it is very difficult for 
tliis people to trade with any but the Dutch. 

The city of Malacca is healthful, confideringthe climate, 
and is neither fubjeft to the hot winds of the cnaft of 
Coromandel, or thofe chilling ones in Sumatra. It is not 
a place of any great trade at this day ; but as the Dutch are 
inafters of the ftreights of Sundy to the foutli of Sumatra, 
and this town gives tlicni tlie command of tlie ftreights, 
which bear the name of M.-dacca, to the north, while 
they are in pofleirion of tliis place, they h.ive in a maimer 
engroired to themfelves tlic whole trade of China and 

riicre are many fpacious and Itandfome fticcts in this 




tity, which are fhsitW with tiecs on holh (iJen i the houfo 
ft»nd pretty dole to each other, khI are built chieriy of 
bamboos, though fome of them vtt of ftone. 'V\\e gover- 
nor'« hoife is Urge and commodious, anrf is (itunttd in th« 
fort, garril'oned by two hundred Kumpeani. The harbour 
is one of the lieil and ftifrft in that i>ort of the globe, and 
receives veflels from moft parts of the Indies. When 
uolfcifed by the Portugiiefc, the city was tcmarlubly opu- 
lent, being a grand mart for precioiii ftoiies and j<old j 
•nd before tlie Dutch made BaWvia the chief olace ot their 
rcfidencc, it had all the rich commodities of Pegu, Coro- 
niandel, Siam, Bands, and other countries. 

The kingdom of L.ioj is > lich, plentiful country, but 
little vifited by F.uropeans. It is bounded on the north by 
China ; on tlie eaft, by Tonijuin and Cochin-China ( on 
the foutli, by tlic kingdom of Cambodia ; and on the weft 
by the kingdom of It is fuppolird to extend from 
the fifteenth to the twenty- fifth degrre of north latitude. 

The produce of this country is iKiijamin ; that which 
grows here is cfteemcd the Ixft in the Indies, and brings 
a confidcrabic revenue to the King, who has prohibited the 
exportation of it. The garden alfo produces a great va- 
riety of fruit, and they have excellent rice in abundance; 
«lfo great plenty of wax, honey, cotton, amber, and muflc. 
They have a great number of elephants among tliem, which 
makes ivory lb little valued, that their teeth are uled for 
making fences to their fields and gardens : beeves and buf- 
feloes are alfo very numerous here; and the rivers abound 
witlj all kinds of fill), fome of which arc very large. Gold 
•nd filver duft is found in the rivers ; and mines of iron, 
tin, and lead, in fcvcral parts of the country ; great quan- 
tities of fait are alfo produced here, n.irt of which theyex- 
.port to foreign parts : this is formed by a white froth left 
on the rice-fields after harvclt, which the heat of the fun 

The inhabitants of Laos, wh':> are called Langinns, are 
afliible, ftriftly honcft, and ftraiipcrs to avarice. 'I'hcy 
are well-lhapcd in general, and, though of an olive com- 
plexion, yet are much fairer than their iieighliours ; the 
Women are very niodefl in their carriage. Their food 
principally condils of rice, the tlelh of the buffalo, and 
leveral kinds of pulf;. They fometimes eat fowls, which 
they drefs with the featliers on i they kill them by ftriking 
them on the head with a ftick ; the Ihcdding of blood be- 
ing confidercd as one of the grcatcft crimes. Their em- 
ployment confifts principally in hufbandry and filhing ; 
but they are naturally of an indolent difpofition. 

As the religion, marriage-ceremonies, feftivals, funerals, 
cuftoms, laws, punilhments, ftc. of tliis people, l>ear a 
near refcmblance to thofe of the Siamefe ; we ihall there- 
fore, for a fuller dcfcription of them, refer the reader to 
our account of Siam ; and only add here, tliat the power 
of the fovereign is unlimited, and he is in a manner adored 
by his fubjefts. His principal officers are feven viceroys, 
who are governors of the feven provinces into which the 
kingdom is divided : he has a militia of horfc and foot, 
who are maintained at the cxpence of that province to 
which they belong. The palace is the moft diflinguiihed 
edifice in the city, extending, with the offices and other 
buildings, above two miles in circumference. The archi- 
teAure is exceeding grand, and the apartments within are 
furnilhed in the moll fumptuous manner: the banb-re- 
lievo's are very richly gilt. The houfes of the richer fort 
are built of wood, and arc lofty and haiidfome ; but thofe 

of tlie comnlon people arc very low and mean, and chiefly 
made of dirt aiu clay. Noperfons, e>:ccpt the telapoins, 
have liberty to build their houfes of brick or Hone. The 
houfes of the quality are very elegantly furnilhed : they 
line the walls with m.itts beautifully wrought, inftead of 
tapeftry, and ornament them with a great variety of very 
curious foliage and figures. 

The kingdom of Cambodia, or Camboya, is fituatcd 
on the caft fide of the gulf of Siam, being bounded, on the 
weft, by Cochin-China ; by the Indian ocean on the fouth j 
and by the kingdom of Laos and the Kcmois mountains, 
on the north. It extend:; from north to fouth upwards of 
three hundred miles, and is about two hundred and ten 
miles in breadth. The fpacious river Mcco.i runs through 
it, and falls by tWo chancis into the fca. Where it firll 
rifes, it is called Longmn ; after which, it takes the name 
of Mccon ; and, continuing that name for a confidcrable 
fpace, at length changes it to Ocbequanc. This river 
has an annual fwell, which begins in tlie month of June, 
and continues till Au^uft, when it generally rifes lb high, 
as to overflow the neij^hbouiing countries. It runs the 
fame way for fix months together, owing to the fouthcrly 
winds, which drive the lands in fuch (bosh, tliat the bsr 

ii entirely fto^ed up, and the current is by that mtMi 
driven back, till the wind liiiftt aixl rciuovei the liuidt, 
when tlie current is reftortd. 

This country produces various kiiidi of gr.iin, parti- 
cularly rice and corn. Here ,ire alfo great variety of fruit- 
treei) as ncangrs, citrons, mangors, cocoas, £cc. alto fc- 
veral kinds of woo<l, as the landal, aquila, and iapaiiv 
ilick-Uck and luck for japanning. Rice it exceedingly 
plentiful and cheap, as arc tlelh and filh ; tliefe latt are the 
only articles allowed to \ye purchal'ed without a permit 
from the King. A fine bullock is frequently purcluilcd 
for a dollar ; and the common value of rice is one Ihilling 
and fix-pence for one hundred and forty pounds weight. 
Poultry is very fcarce ; bccaufe the few that are bred, retire, 
when young, to the woods, where they (hift for them- 
felvcs, and the people take no pains to bring them back. 
Several rich commodities are alio produced here, particu- 
larly gold, cambogia of a gold colour or deep yellow, in 
rolls, raw filk, and elephants teeth ; likewile fcvcral forts 
of valuable drugs ; alio amcthyfts, garnets, fapplurcs, cor- 
nelians, chryiblites, sukI blood- ft ones. Wild elephants and 
boars are exceedingly numerous here, particularly in the 
woods ) alfo tygers and lions, wild cittlc and buffaloes, 
many horfes, and a prodigious number of deer ; ail of 
which every perfon has free liberty to kill forthsmfelvcs. 

The Cambodians are in getieral well ftiapcd, and the 
women very handfonv.. The men wear a long veft, which 
re.ichcs from the Ihoulders to the ancles, but their Iwad and 
feet arc bare. The women wear a thin garmint, which 
fits quite clofe to the body and arms ; ana have a kind of 
petticoat that reaches frn'tn the waift to the ancles. BotU 
fexes have long hair, which they difplav to tlie grcatcft ad- 
vantage. Their heads have not any covering ; but their 
hair is drefled, and curioufly decorated. Their religion is 
the fame as that of the Siamefe, and they worftiip the fam* 
deities. They believe that all animals,' as well as liumaii 
beings, will Iw hereafter rewarded or punilhed. Their 
prielU aic chofcn from among the laity, and are linl« re- 
Ipcded by the people in general ; (heir maintenance and 
fupport depends intnely on the benc\'olencc of the public. 

In different parts of the country, they have manufaflc* 
tics for making callicoes, muflins, dimities, and other cu- 
rious pieces, wnich are fuperior in quality to thofe made in 
Holland and elfewhere. The poorer fort of people are 
employed in m.iking beads, fmall idols, bracelets, neck- 
laces, ike. 'I'hey alio weave filk, and work curious tapef- 
try, with which the chairs and palanquins of tlie quality 
are lined. 

CanilK>dia is the chief city in this kingdom, worth no- 
tice; it is fituated on the river Mecon, and built on » 
rifiiig ground, in order to avoid the annual overflowings of 
the river : it principally confifts of one large ftrect. The 
palace for tlie refideiKc of the Ibvereign is lituate about tlw 
centre of it. It is furrounded by a kind of wall, with ram- 
parts, on which are feveral pieces of artillery ; but it is 4 
very infignihcant edifice. The power of tfiis prince is del- 
potic, like that of the other eafteni monarch*. 

Johor is aliout one hundred leagues long, and eighty 
broad. It is the next country to the north of Malacca, and 
is walhed eaft and weft by the ocean : it lies in one degree 
north latitude. The country, which is woody, abounds 
with tin, pepper, elephants teeth, gold, aquila-svood, canes, 
citrons, and lemons ; deer, cows, wild boars, and buffaloes 
are rmong >hc quadru{)cds. 

The inhabitants of this country arc reported to be cruel, 
treacherous, lazy, and lalcivious. The common people 
wear only a piece of fluff round their waift ; the females iii 
a fuperior degree of life wear callico garments faftened wilit 
a filken girdle : they paint their nails yellow, and the longec 
they are, the more genteel. The iflanders hve principally 
upon fago, fruits, roots, and poultry, but thofe who re- 
fide on the coa'l fubfift for the moft part upon firti and rice 
brought from Cambodia, Siam, and Java. The natives, 
who are a mixture of Mahometans and I'agatis, h;ivc prictU 
lent to them from Surat. 

Among ihefe [xrople there are about one thoufand four 
hundred Chiiiolc families, who carry on a confiderablc 
traffic, and are dillinguilhed for their induftry. 

Parana is about lixty miles long, and lief on theeaftertt 
coaft of the gulf of Siam : its port had once a confiderable 
traffic with Coromandel, Malabar, (ioa, China, Tonquin, 
and Canibndiii : but tlie traders unhappily finding nore- 
ftriftion put upon the commiflion of piracies and murders, 
were under a neceffity of withdrawing their commerce, and 
turning it into another courfe, highly beneficial to Siam, 
M.tlacca, and Katavia. 
Tiiii couiiiry abounds with grain and fruits : heie are 


T^]^ i-.-v-. mf-ii^^ ' 



■ W-'-'. 


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t N D O S T A i^. 

tUO buflhloti, fiiwN, trul fume vny hciDtifut dovct , ly- 
grri, nti)iiklci, rlrplunu, &«:. ai« loiii >i iIm wiM aiiiiiuh 
III il. 

'I'h* KitiK liti inoie Vffli-U ilun »ny { the other iicigh* 
IwariiiK liivctrigiii. iiuicin biiiiK«t||lu«n thoiilauil trimpt 
into the liclij. 1 lie Chiixl'' \»^\\f^ hitlicr it vj|n<iy oi'ir- 
ticK's III trade, iiul take lontuki iMa rcluriii tor llieiit. 

Tlir native* aie iciiiiiikiililr ' ir tlicir fobricly, anti, 
lliuii|ili |)touJ, arc iieverthclcfs Wind and ohtigiiig 

To tlic luiilh i>t PaUiu li(« Nhiii, on a riv«r of the 
fiiiiu' iiaiiip, III which there ii iiiuih K'^ld dull found. 
People of fortune refidc iii the capital of Fuhaii, fituatcd 
uboiit one hundred and lil'ty milci north -cal\ of Malacca : 
in llic Oit'cti of the city, which i> but liiull, llicic ii a 
orcat number of cocoa and odnri trtci pUiiud, which givca 
It the appearance of a Kanln^ 

The palace of tin: Kiii); I'dhan is a wooden ftruAurc, 
and the other buildiiiK* ui i^viuul aic cuinpolcd of llraw 
iin<l iccdi. 

The foot of Malacca hill ii wadicd by the livrr here, 
afld pepper it planted along id fidei. The adjacent country 
i.i low, \Miody, and wcll-llorcd with game ; ai]ujla and 
calumba wood, coa...: gold, cainphiro, nulineg>, &c. are 
alfo produced licrc. ii faid to be well (icoplcd, and carrici on a con- 
rideriiblc traffic : but the iiativcH are rc|Hirttd to bt the inoft 
amnt chcati in the woild: they cunlilt of Pagans and 

Next to Pahan is fituatcd Trangano. This i> a fine 
healthy country : iti hillt produce a greater variety of rich 
fruits, fucli as oranges, Icinoii'i, liinei, darians, inangof- 
tans, mangoes, iVc. and tlie vallics teem with lugar-canet 
and com : gold and paper arc likcwilc ptuduceU here ) but 

ihe Cliinrfe, who itM* In tfti* coiintrv, pmUoce the prki* 
ti|ial part of the two laft mtntinncd niticln. 

The iialace where ihe <))vcreigii ot ilin country chiefly 
tcllde*, Hand* on the liaiiks df a fine iivcr near the ocean. 

Peri II a inouiil.iiiiout, wnotiv country, fiimnus for the 
■iiiaiility of till it pioduces, thetc Iwii,- more found Iwre, 
tlian in any purl of Inilta, 'I'ht capital city, which liears 
the lanic name, liei at the bottom of a bay almut cue hiili- 
dnd and fifty miles iiorth-wetk of Malacc.i. 1 here are 
lomu hideous delcrti in this country, abounding with «le< 
phants, tyaers, and other wild animals. 

The natives of this country are mere barbarians, and 
very tieacherous and deceitful. 

( jtirda it three hund|ftl mili* north of Malacca, near tht 
(lri'ight,andone InindM and forty miles from Patn4 : it lief 
ill liiiicty-ninc degri.ei fifteen niiiiutes catl longitude, and f'lK 
dcgreei twenty five ininutri north latitud.'. f lir principal 
town, wlilch is III ihe fame iiamc,C(mtainj about eight thou- 
l.ind inli,ibi(;iiifi, and lu« a i;>iiid hailHitir, W hen .1 foreign 
mcicliani Loiiirs here, tlir King ;>ays him a Vifit ill per" 
Ion, not to ciiinpliioent him 011 Im :iiii\.il, but to receive 
piilenli from him : the pielenK, luiwivri, are not made, 
till the villi is repaid; and then the King honouis tlio 
merchant with a feat mar lii-i royal perfon : his Majefly at 
the fame time chews lielel, and, putting it out of hit mouth 
on a hiull eolden plate, the incrchant t.ikea it with great 
rcfiicA, ami puts it into his own iiinuth : this is aneliab- 
lilhi'd cullein, and mull always lie lUi^ly complied with. 

Some of the natives of this place arc Mahometans, and 
others I'agAns i they are in general very trcactwi'otia and 
cruel ill tlieir dilpolilions. 

This country produces tin, pepper, elephants teeth, 
canes and daniar : Ihcy n; Ve pitch and tar of the latlcri 
which is of excellent ufc fui that purpofe. 











Of iht nami, filuatimyitltni and htiinJiiriti, tr'iHcipal 
taint f fiai and rivtn cf Indtjhn, ir iht Mtgul emfi 

THIS country alone was kn»\srn by the name of India 
to the antients, and is bv the i.ativcs called Mogul- 
ftain, or the empire of the Circat Mogul ; though the 
moderns have given the name of India to all thole coun- 
tries which lie betwerii this .ind China ; and Columbus 
gave the name of India to y\inerica, imagining that the 
country which lay weft of the Atlantic ocean, extruded as 
far as India, or rather was a )iart of it 1 but when this was 
found to be a iiiil\ake, the name of Kaft India was given to 
this country, and of Weil India to the other. 

India Proper, or liuMlan, received its name from the 
river Indus, or from the Hindowns, the mod antirnt in- 
Iwibitanfs of the country, and is fituatc between fixty-fix 
and ninety-two degrees of caft longitude, and between 
fevcn and forty degrees of north latitude, being bounded by 
Ullieck and TliiU'thian Tartary in the north; by Acham, 
Ava, and the hay of Keng»l on the call ; by the Indiar, lea 
on the foulh ; and by the fame fea and Perlia on the well, 
being two thoufand miles long and one thoufand five hun- 
dred broiul in the broadell place. 

The chief mountains arc ihofc of Caucafus, which di- 
vide India from Ulbcck Tartary on the north ; thole of 
Naugracut, which divide India from Tartarian I'hiliet, 
and the mountains of Gate or Baligate, being a long chain 
of mountains which run through the middle of India from 
nonh to fouth, fo high that they Hop the periodical wind 
called the wcUerii monlbon, and the rains it brings with 
it for a month and more, the fair I'eafnn continuing a 
month longer on the coail of Coroniandel, or the cuflern 
coalf, than it does on the Malaliar or wellcrn coal). 

'Ihe chief bays in the Indian leas arc the bay of Bengal 
and that of Cambava or (tuzurat. The princi|ial cape is 
that of Comorin, the moil louthcrn piomontorv of India; 

and the mod remarkable ftrait is that between the fouth of 
India and the ifland of Ceylon, called Ramaiiakoiel. 

The chief rivers of Indollan are, 1. the (janges, which 
linng in mount Caucalus .runs fouth-eall, and dividing 
into feveral branches foils into the bay of Hcngal, the molt 
eallcrly bninch dividing this country from the faithcr In- 
dia. T hi< river is in liich cflecm among the India.iS, that 
it is worthipprd as a (jod, and happy is the man that can 
procure any of its water to drink Wore he dies : the com- 
mon p.iflagc up tliis river is by the weftcrn, or Hucglcy 
bfanch. This river runs a courfc of about ihrec rhoufand 
miles. 2. The Indus, a river .is large as the Ganges, and 
deep enou!;h for (hips to ride in, did not the bar at ihc 
mouth prevent their entrance ; it riles in the mountains of 
Caucalus, and runs to the fouth-uell, and lulls into tho 
Indian occin by three chanels. 3. ThcAttock (tlieHy- 
dal'ncs of the antients) which rifes in the lame mountain! 
witli the Indus, and running fouthwaid, almofl p.irallel 
to it» unites its water with the Indus, towards the mouth, 
the united {Iream falling into the Indian fen, in the pro- 
vince of Tata. 4. The Jemmiina, which rifing in the 
north, runs to the fouthward, by the roval cities of Deity 
and Agra ; and then, turning callward, falls into the 
Ganges at HalilCTs. 5. The Gucnga, which rifing in tlie 
Ualigatc mountains, runs callward, difchareing itielf into 
the bay of Bengal, or rather into the weftcrn branch of 
the Ganges, tiear its mouth. 6. The Gu'.nga, which ri- 
fing in the H.-Uigate mountaiivs, runs caftward, difcharging 
into the bay of Bengal, or rather into thr weftcrn branch of 
the Ganges, near its mouth. 7. Chriftina, which riling 
in the Baligate mountains, runs tirft to the fouthward, and 
then turning about to the eaft, falls into the bay of Bengal. 
8. The river Taptc, which rifing in the Baligate moun- 
tain,?, runs weft, and falls into the bay of Cainbaya at Su- 
ral. There arc many other fmall rivers, and innumerable 
torrents in the time of the rains, which fall from the Ha- 
ligatc mountains into the feas, on the caft and weft of tlic 
pci-.iiiiViM, but in the fair Icalon moil of tlwm are dried up. 
U In 


ii^^- jCA'r:;--. . 


In the north-«8{l diviHon of India is contained tlie pro- 
vince of Bengal, as well as Jefuat, Naugracuc, Patna, 
Necbol, Gor, and Rotas. The north'Wcft divilioii extends 
to the frontiers of Pcriia, and contains the provinces of 
Soret, Jeflt-lmere, Sinda, 'I'atna, fiuknor, Mattan, Her- 
can, and Cnbiil. 'I'hefc are all lituated on tlie river Indus. 
The fouth-can conft, or coaft of Coromandel, contains 
Orixa, Golconda, tlic caft fide of Bifnagar. or the Car- 
natic, Madura and Tanjore, Afme, Jengaponr, Caffimere, 
Hendowns, Lahor, Agra, Dehli Oualler, Narvar, Catipor, 
Chitor, Bcrar, and Landiih, are fituatcd in the center di- 
vifion. The fouth-weft coaft contains Bifnagar or the 
Carnatic, Guzarat, and Decan. 

The winds are pel iodical, and i||um to certain points 
•t fiated times, as in moft countrieslntliin the tropics. 1 he 
monfoons, out at fea, blow fix months one way and fix 
months another: namely, from April to Odobcr, or there- 
abouts, tliey blow from the fouth-weft, and from Oftobcr 
to April from thenorth-eaft, not exactly from tliofc points, 
but varying fometimcs a pointer two on either fide. At 
the breaking up of either of thefe monfoons (a little be- 
fore they fhift) tliere arc ufually prodigious dorms of 
wind, fuch as we do not experience in this part of the 
world once in a great many years. The (hitting of the 
monfoons, and confequently this flormy weather, does 
not come exactly at the fame time every year but fometimes 
a fortnight or three weeks fooner, and at others a fortnight 
or three weeks later tlian the ufual time, which frequently 
occafions tlic lofs of Ihipping ; for the merchants, for tlie 
fake of a trifling gain, will remain upon the coafts in hopes 
that the llornis will keep off a little longer, till the wind 
crows too ftrong for them, and they find it impoflible to 
bear up againtl it. 

Befides the monfoons, there are two otlier different 
winds i I. The general trade wind. 2. The fea and land- 
breezes. The general trade winds, which prevail between 
the latitudes of thirty degrees north, and thirty degrees 
fouth, always blow from the eaftward to the weftward over 
tlie whole face of the globe ; only on ihe north of the equa- 
tor they blow, from the north of the call, and fouth of the 
r]uator ; and foutli of the etiuator, from the fouth of the 
eaft, except witliin two or three degrees of tlie equator, 
and here the winds are variable, and fometimes we meet 
with calms near the equator ; but we muft except the 
winds upon fcveral coaus, as upon the coaft of Guiney, 
where the wind fets generally from weft to eaft ; and upon 
the coaft of Peru, where it fets from the fouth-weft to the 
north-caft; but the conftant trade wind from eaft foweft 
prevails five hundred miles from land. 

The fea and land-breezes arc alfo periodical, changing 
every twelve hours. The winds blow from the land in tlie 
pciiinfulaof tlie India Proper from about midnight to 
noon next day, when that wind dies away, and a refrefhing 
breeze blows from the fea till late in the evening : It is 
not more tlian two months in each year generally that the 
hot winds are very troublefome, namely, in April and 
May, and they do not begin to be very hot till eight or 
nine in the morning i for tlie fun riling between tlie tro- 
pics ufually about fix, the fands are not much heated by it 
till two or three hours after it is up, and it is the refleQion 
of the heat from the parched country that is the principal 
occafion of the hot winds ; and there are feveral ways of 
moderating tbcfe, as by hanging up wet cloaths againft tlie 
wind, and throwing water upon the floon ; the people 
alfo draw water out of their wells, vhich feems colder 
than well water here. This their flaves pour upon their 
heads to cool them : but the rainy feafon no fooner returns 
in June, than the air grows cool, the clouds intercept the 
fun, and the country is everdowed. The rainy feafon 
ufually lafts on the coaft of Coromandel, being tlie eaftern 
fide oflndia, foui months, namely, from June to the lat- 
ter end of Oflober. They do not always begin and end 
txaftly at the fame time, but fcldom diflfer a month. The 
rains are not very violent at firft, and there are frequent 
intervals of fair weather V they decrcafe again by degrees. 
The heavicft rains in India are in Auguft and September, 
then it rains ahnoft perpetually, infomuch that aU the flat 
country is overflowed, and tjiey have terrible tliunder 
every evening. In the fair feafon tliey have lightning fre- 
quently, witliout thunder, but this does no hurt. Alter 
the rainy feafon they have a bright, fercne heaven for four 
orfive months, when the ftars fhine with fuch a luftre, 
tliat people cafiiy fee to travel by their light. It is a rule 
here, and in all the countries between the tropics, tliat tliey 
have the faireft -veather when the fun is at the grcatcft dif- 
tance fiom them, and tlic woxft weather when the fun it 

This part of the country is geileivlly healthful, and the 
natives live to as great an age as tliey do in an^ part of the 
world, which may be in partafcribed to the air, but more 
to the innocent food and liquors the Indians eat and drink '. 
foiei^era, it mull be admitted, do not find it fo healthfn!« 
efpccially, at their firft arrival there ; and in fome parts 
of^ the country, where our fiidories happen to lie -, parti, 
cularly at Bombay and Bengal. As to Bombay, it wai 
fituatcd on a moraft, and near the fea, where noifbm va- 
pours, afcendingfrom the fait ouze and mud, almoft poi> 
foned the people that were obliged to refide there : and 
this was the cafe at Huepley, on the river Ganges ; and 
fuch fituations arc unhealthful every where. But Bombay 
has been drained, and much improved, and is not that 
unhealthful fituation it was formerly ; and the Englifh 
faftory is now removed from Hucgley to Fort William in 
Bengal; where, 1 am infortned, the air agrees much bet' 
ter with our people. But it muft be acknowledged, how- 
ever, that few foreigners arrive in India, but have a fea- 
foning the year ; thole that cannot afford good liquors, 
often fall fick of the bloody flux ; and gentlemen that 
drink hard, are fubjeA to fevers. We certainly lofe fome 
men the firft year; but afterwards there are as few com* 

f)laints heard of, in regard to health, as there are in Eng- 
and. It muft be owned, however, that, let people be 
ever fo regular and abftemious, neither tlie water or tlie 
air do agrej with them at their firft coming on fhore -, 
fome therefore never drink water, till it has been firft boiled 
and fettled. ; . . .- ^ 


Dtfcribing the fituation of tht fevtral prnimctt and ch'iif 
tvwnt rf Indtjlan, and alfo tht fittUminti ttlonging to tut 
Englijb, French^ Dants, iic. 

HAVING before given a concife account of "iC fe- 
veral provinces of Indoftan, by diltinguilhi .ig them 
into the norUi-eaft, north-weft, foutli-call, and fouth-weft 
divifions, we fliall under tliis head, in order to enable our 
readers to form a more clear and diftin£l conception of 
tliem, and alfo of their capital cities, and the feveral 
towns belonging to them, throw this extenfive empire into 
three grand divifions, viz. i. Thofe provinces which lie 
north of the tropic of Cancer, a. Thofe that lie under 
the tropic i or partly north, and partly fouth of it. And, 
3. Thofe that lie altogether fouth of tlic tropic, in the 
hither pcninfula. Wc Ihall begin with thofe tliat lie north 
of the tropic, of which, 

1. Cabul, Caffimere, and Gor, or Gourite, are the 
moft nortlierly, and their capitals of the fame name : 
fouth af thefe lie Haican, Attock, Pencab, Bankilli, and 
Naugracut. The chief town of Haican is of the fame 
name. The chief town of Attock, alfo is of the 
fame name. I'lie chief town of Pencab, is Teinara. 
The chief town of Bankilh, is Beifar; and the chief 
town of Naugracut, is of the fame name. The pro- 
vinces, fouth of thofe laft enumerated, arcMultan, Lahor, 
Jangapour, and Jamba ; the capitals whereof are of the 
fame name. The provinces further fouth are, Buckor, 
the Hindowns country, Delly, Sambal, Mevat, and Pa- 
tan. I'he provinces fouth of the laft, arc, Tata, or binda, 

iefTelmere, Afiner, or Bando, Agra, <iual;ior, Halabas, 
atna, Jefuat, and Rajapour ; the capitals whereof bear 
the fame name as the refpedive provinces do. The^ro- 
vinces foutli of the former, are Soret, Narvar, and Rotas. 
The capital of Soret, isjaganat; of Narvar, is Narvar; 
and the capital of Rotas is Rotas. 

2. The provinces which lie under and about the tropic, 
are, Guzurat, or Cambaya, Chitor, Malva, and Bengal. 
The chief towns of Cambaya, are, Aniadabad, Daman, 
Surat, Swalley, Barock, and Diu. The capital of Chitor 
is Chitor. And the chief towns in Bengal are Chatigan, 
Fort William, Calicuta, Huegley, Uaca, and Mala.i, Ri- 
gamahal and Caflambazar. 

3. The provinces which lie fouth of the tropic are, 
Candich,, and Orixa. The chief town of Can- 
dich is Medapour. The chief town of Bezar is Bram- 
pour. The chief towns of Orixa are, Uiixa, Halilbre, 
and Piplcy. The provinces fouth of the former are, i . De- 
can and Vifiapour (in which I include Balagate and Ba- 
lana). 2. Golconda. The chief towns in Decan are, 
Carwar. Goa, Rajapour, Dabal, Dundee, Shoule, Bom- 
bay, Saifette, and Baffaim. 1 he ciiicf tuwnu cf Hsjagate, 
are Doltabad and Auranggabad. The chief towns of 
Golconda, witliin land, are, Golconda, Bagnagar, Ciain, 
or Conlar, Raaiconda. llie port towns of Uolcondik 


an I 



{A S I A.J 

1 t^ b 8 t A M. 


will be enumerated in treating of tlie coaft of Coroiriandel, 
The provinces which lie fouth of Decan and Golconda, 
arc liitiugar, 'I anjOur, and Madura: the chief towns 
whicligive name to the three provinces, and lie within 
lund. The ports are Tranquebar, Negapatam, Cultiinere, 
and Tutawiin, on th •- calkrn coaft, and Tegapatan, An- 
jengo, Cochin, Calicut, Tellicherrv, Cananor, Mangu> 
clorc, and Balfilolc, on the welt or Malabar coaft. 

In our dcl'cription of the orincipal cities and towns, we 
fliall bf gin witli Dchli, or Delly, which is cfteemed the 
nKtropolis ot'tlie empire, and is iituate in the heart of it, 
in lev cnty-i'ight degrees caft longitude from London, and 
in twenty-fix degrees north latitude. It ftands in the 
fonnof acrefcent, on the river Jerama, which divides it, 
l)eing about ten miles in circumference. There are two 
long fpacious ftreets which crofs each other, and centre in 
a grand fquare in the middle of the town, on one fide 
whereof Itands the palace, foiciiied like a caftle, beforo 
which, and in the iirft court of the palace, the guards are 
drawn up and relieved, as is mentioned in treating of the 
palace of Agra : to the durbar, or court before the royal 
apartment, the people come at the time the Mogul gives 
audience to his fubjefls. In this court are three divinons, 
the outcrmoft being afligned to the inferior people, who 
rcfort hither with their petitions tothefovereign. The next 
divifion has a raifed floor, where people of better quality 
wait, and upon a floor railed fomething higher, the omrahs, 
and thofc of the firft quality are ftationed ; when the mu- 
lic plays, the Emperor approaches, and places himfclf on a 
magniticent throne, covtred altnoft with diamonds, which 
is fet in a gallery fomething higher than the ftage on which 
the omrahs are placed. Flere the Mogul receives peti- 
tions from all his fubjefls, and hears caufes feveral hours 
every day, atleaftfome princes have done this : but there 
have been indolent princes alfu too much addiflrd to plea- 
fure to trouble themfelves about redrefling their fub.cfts 
grievances : in this city, Kouli Kan kept the Mogul and 
his nobility prifoners, till he had extorted from them all 
the wealth they had, or could procure, amafiing together 
the greateft treafure, efpecially in diamonds, that ever any 
conqueror made himfelfmafter of; which we have taken 
{articular notice of, in our account of Perfia. 

The moft diftingniflicd public buildings, bcfides the 
palace, are a grand mofquc or Mahometan temple, covered 
with feveral extenfive marble domes, and a caravanfera 
built by a Mogul princefs tor ilie entertainment of tra- 
vellers } the tomb of Amayum the great Mogul, near 
which is a ftonc py/amid, faid to be ereAed by Alexander, 
on the viflory he obtained over Porus, the raoft formida- 
ble of all the Indian princes he fubdued. 

Their faras, orcarav.inl'era8, which ferve them inftcad of 
inns tor the entertainment of travellers upon the road, are 
built much in the fame manner their (heds are before thtir 
houfes, being open on one fide, and no doors to fccute 
them from wild beads or robbers; near thcfe places is 
ufually a tanque, or large relirv;itorv of water, and feveral 
ofthcle refervatories of water th' v liavein every great town, 
which are filled in the rainy fcalon, and ferve tlie inliabi- 
tants for feven or eight months, till the rains return again. 
They have alio very large walls enclofed with brick, they 
are at a prodigious cxptnce in their wells and refervatories, 
though they are at fo little in their houfes. Some of their 
tanques arc above a mile in circumference, and lined with 
fquare free-ftone, withfteps down to tlie bottom, on every 
fide : in the middle often a fummer-houfe of ftonc, 
furrounded with galleries, from whence you may defcend 
by ftonc fteps into the water, nnd they are fo contrived 
that feveral perfons may bathe themfelves at one time, with 
the greateft privacy ; and there are few people of quality 
but have th.-ir private baths in their gardens. The wives 
and daughters of inferior people, who have not batlis, pour 
water upon their heads two or three times a day, for half 
an hour together, and it is one great part of their bufinefs 
to fi:tch Wiiter morning and evening from the coinmvn 
wells, upon their heads, in great round earthern pots. 

The [worcr fort of people have houfes built with clay, 
and thatched, but they have convenient courts and gardens. 
There are, bcfides thefe, a great number of fmall cottages 
built of clay and ftraw, which are chiefly occupied by thofc 
who deal in provifions. They are fo numerous and clofe 
together, that fires often break out, and deftroy much pro- 
perty and manv lives. 

'I'heir temples, or pagodas, are many of them very 
mp-^nificcnt ftrafturcr,, built of ftone, with lofty fpiics, 
and a variety of figures carved on the out-fide as well as 
within; but the infide is very difmal, only one long dark 
reom without windows, extremely hot of itfeif ; but is 

there are a multitude of lamps always burning iiefore their 
images, the place is fo fuflbcating that a man is glad to re- 
tire, let his curiofity be never fo great : but there are a great 
many other little pagodu in the country, open tjefote. 
which are but juft big eitoogh W liold the iitiage ; and 
here the people generally facrifice, and perform meir de- 
votions. The figures, both in one ahd the othetj ue 
very fliocking and monftrous, which have oafafioAed <M<r 
M^ple in general to denominate them devila i we fee per- 
haps the head of a hog, the body of a niait, nnd the 
tower part of a lion, in one figure ; in anotlwr • man With 
fourteen or fifteen heads, and twice the number of arms, 
and thefe tliey believe reprefent a nee of people who lived 
foimerly on the earth, and are now a kind of^ inferior dei- 
ties or mediators for them In heaven, which is very far 
from the notion we entertain of devils : but we Ihall en- 
larp upon this fubjeft, when we come to treat of then- re- 

The only places worth mentioning are tlic cities of DehU 
and Agra, which arc fituated in the inland provinces of 
Indoftan, that bear the fame name. 

Dehli, or Delly, is capital of the province, and in the 
heart of the empire : it is in fevcnty-eight degrees caft 
longitude from London, and in twenty-fix degrees north 
latitude. It ftands in the form of a crefcent, on the rivet 
' iomma, which divides it; and is diftinguifhed into three 
towns, lying within .ibont one hundred and twenty miles 
north of Legra, in a fine plentiful country, when the air 
is more cool and falubrious than at Agra. Thefirft town 
that was built is faid to have had nine caftles and fifty-two 
gates. At fome diftance is a ftone bridge, and a delight- 
ful plantation of trees, leading to the fecond town, which 
was taken from the Indians by the firft Mogul coiiqueron 
riiis was adorned and enriched by feveral magnificent fe* 
pulclires as well as other ftately monuments, of the Pattn 
princes, which were all dcmolillied by Shah Jchan, father 
of Aurenj^zebe; but the latter rebuilt the town, and called 
it Johanor thecity of King Jchan, Abad, transferring the 
feat of the empire hither from Agra, where the heat in 
the fuinmer was too violent. 'J'he third town, which 
was erected clofe to the fecond, and formed out of its rdins, 
was called Dehli by the Indians, inftead of Jchan Abad, 
the foundation of which was faid to have beeh laid in 
blood, as the throats of male&ftors were cuti by Jchan'* 
order, " the l)etter (he faid) to cement the ftonts :" he 
("pared no expence whatever to beautify and adorn the gar- 
dens, beloiigm^to the royal palaces, which was formed 
after an Italian model, by an ingenious Venetian. 

Delili is entered by a long ftreet, with arches ort each 
fide of it, undeV which are the fhops of the tradefmen. 
This ftrcct leads direftly to the palace, at the entrance of 
which are two figures of elephants, on whofe backs ride 
two famous rajahs, that reprefent two brothers who loft 
tlieir lives iii bravely defending certain toWns laid fiege to 
bv Eckbar. I he palace wall, which is of hewn flones 
with battlements, every tcntli of whi^li has a tower, is not 
much lefs than two miles in circumference. The ditches 
encompafling the wall are likewife faced With hewn ftone^ 
and are full of water. 

The great lords and otlicr grandees enter lnt(> the firft 
court of the palace mounted on elephants, richly caparifon- 
ed. This court has an avenue to a paflage adorned with bril- 
liant porticoes, undemeatli which are fmall apartments for 
the accommodation of the guanjs. On each fide of the 
pafliige are apartments for ladies, and the halls of joftice. 
There is in the centre a fine coral, formed elegantly, at pro- 
per diftanccs, into lefTer bafons. This grand pafuige leads 
to a fecond court, where the omrahs are feen ffiounting 
guard in perfon. On entering a tliird court, the dlran is 
feen in full view ; and here the Em]ieror gives au- 
dience. I'his ftrufture which is open on all fides, and 
arched at top, is fupported by about thirty marble pillars, 
moft beautifully painted with flowers. It has a grand hall, 
afcendcd to by a flight of marble fteps ; and in the centre 
of this hall is a fort of alcove, richly ornamented, in 
which the Emperor is featcd on a fplendid throne which 
glitten with diamonds and coftly jewels. 

The city of Dehli lias very few mechanics in it, which 
is not owing to the want of /kill in the people, but from the 
ill treatment of the omrahs, who, if they can m«t with 
them, oblige them to work, for which they reward thoift 
according to their own difcrction. The rajahs, and many 
others of the principal inhabinmts, are exceeding weslthy : 
their moit eftimable polleffions are jewels, which they take 
particular care fhall M fiiithfully tranfmiited to their hein. 
Timur, after many revolutions that had happened at 
Dehli, was placed on the imperial throne ia the year i7S7- 







The new and UNIVERSAL 8\STEM of G E O G R A I> H V. 



I ■ 



■ilit Agra, the capitnl of the province of tliat nnme, is 
utuatc ill twenty-fiven degrees oJJ minutes of iiorthi-in 
latitude, and is about le\ en liiiudred miles north-call ot 
Surat, which journey the ciiiavans uhially iiciform in 
tliirty-five days 1 this was but an inconfidcrabk- place, rill 
about one hundred and fifty years ago, when the Mogul 
Ecbarnew built it, and called ic after his own n;\me, Kc- 
barabad. Itlies upon the liver Jcinma, in the miUlt of u 
barren fartdy plain, which adds cnnllJerably to the heat of 
the chmate: the town itfelf is fcvtn or eight miles in 
lengtli, but not near fo much in breadth, it is not fortified 
(except the palace) but there always lies a great army in 
theplace, efpecially if the Mogul be there. 
. Thebuililings of theomrahs and great men are of flone, 
and very magnificent, they (land upon the banks of the 
river Jemma, and have large gardens adjoining to them ; 
the reil of the houfis are but mean, however, the great 
number of Mahometan mofqucs,caravanferas, large fijuares, 
baths and refervatories of water, intermixed with trees and 
gardens, and the river Jemma runiiiiiB, the whole lengtli 
of it, renders the profpeft of the town very agreeable ; 
and the Mogul's palace is looked upon to be one of the 
fined pieces of architeflure in the eaft. 

There is a large plain between the town and palace; 
here the raja's draw up their ralhlxiots when they mount 
tlie Mogul's guard, as they do in their turns every week, 
witli fiftecii or twenty thoufand men ; tlie palace or mahal, 
as it is called in the language of the country, lies in the 
form of a crefcent upon the river Jemma, but from the 
town, appears to be of a round figure, it is three or four 
miles in circumference, and fortified with a high flonc 
wall, mounted with artillery ; the mahal may be feen at a 
great diftance, and as the Aones it is built with are red, 
and have a luftre like polilhed marble, nothing can look 
more brilliant than it does when the fun Ihincs ; it Is fur- 
rounded with a deep broad moat, over which are draw- 
bridges, and ffitf'terrallcs of the gardens fcrve for a rampart. 

Tliere is a fine broad f\onc walk, with canals running 
on tlic fide of it, witliin the flrft gate of the palace, beyond 
which is a large fquare, where the Mahometan guards 
draw up; here the omrahs their generals pitch tlieir tents, 
fo tHat one ymtt'cs through two armies, one on the out-fide, 
and the other witliin the palace, before we come to the 
royal apartments ; iKvond this fquare is another court, 
wnere the Mogul's inufic, as it is called, founds every 
jnoniing, noon anu night, and whenever he goes abroad : 
tliis is a compliment inferior governors and magiftrates 
have paid them in all the towns in India, though' I'urely 
nothing can be more harih or difagrccahle, than fucli a 
numbei of large bra/.cn trumpets, and ill founding drums, 
to thofe who have eVer heard other mufic. Our Eu- 
ropean governors, therefore, though they will not difpenlc 
with this piece of llate, vet generally order them to he 
placed at a convenient diftance. From this court where 
the mufic Hands, we come to the durbar, which is ano- 
ther large court, whither all people relort at the time of au- 
dience : this is divided by rails or haluflradcs, into three 
parts, at tlie outward rail ftaiid the common people ; with- 
out the next, which is raifed on a platform foiucthing 
higher, thofe of better quality; and within the third, upon 
a platform or ftage dill more elevated, (land the omrahs 
and great lords of the court : in this manner, all attend the 
approach of the Mogul at the time of audience, who, upon 
th: playing of the mufic, appears in a kind of g;dlery, 
above the place where the omrahs are, and feats himfelf 
upon a glorious throne, covered with precious ftones of 
an ineftimable value. Here the Emperor receives petitions 
fi jm all his fubjedls, and fpcnds Icvtral hours every day 
in hearing caufes. 

In 1638, there were feventy mofqucs in this city ; and 
pilgrimages arc at this time made to a famous molijuc in 
which there is a lepulchrc of a faint, thirty feet long, and 
nearfixteen broad. It alfo contains eight hundred purify- 
ing bath-, and near it llands thai grand piece of architec- 
ture the mauloleuni, in building which, twenty thoufand 
men were employed twenty-two years. 

When a man is purfued, in order to be punilhed for 
any particular crime he has committed, he flies direifly to 
a mofque, and there finds a certain fhclter ; nor can ihc 
Emperor himfelf hurt him, after hehas taken refuge within 
its facred walls ; for the' attempt to punilh, in this cafe, 
wouKI be .idircft violation of tliat profound refpeft and 
reverence due to fuch as have the title of faints. 

Mod of the inhabitants of Agra are Maliomctin-i sn<l 
Pagans. The citv in general has but little to boall of with 
regard to commerce ; but flourilhcs when honoured with 
a vifit from the great Mogul. 

ThcriTs a very formidable nation railed the Sclieikj, oil 
the north of IndolUn, who can brin", livtv thoufanr'. ci- 
V airy into the field. 'I'hcy poliifs the '.vliole pioviiu _• of 
Hunjal, the gieatdl part of the Moulta.'i, and tiie Situi', 
together with all the country towards Delili, ftiini I,?- 
hor to Serheiul. Thcle people have found means ii> 
trretheliilelves from the clnins of deli)oti!m, tliov.jh ..■n- 
colnpa(?cd by r.ations of flaves. Durinj; I lie calami if tf 
the Mogul empire, their numljcr ciicrealed aoulid'.ml'W 
by refugees from different nations. .*^iu;li is tlicir love of 
freedom, that nothingmore is reiuiiied, in orj-r ro be n:- 
niitred among them, than to fwcai ,nii utter alihoireiioj nf 
monarchy. It is affirmed they have a tejiiple with iui altar, 
on which flaads tlieir code of laws, and next to it a Iccptie 
and a dagger. 

CaHimcre, or Cafhimire, capital of the pmvinic of 
thit name, is lituate in fcventy-fivc degitts of eair rn 
longitude, and thirty-five degrees of north latitude, on a 
lake four hundred miles north-well of Dthli. The air 
being more temperate here tlian in anv province of India, 
the country abounds in corn and fruits, and affords tlic 
inoft delightful profpefts imaginable, from whence it is 
called the paradifi; ot India; hither fcveral of the Moguls 
have retired with tlieir courts iji the hot leafon. It is 
well defended againft the incurlions of an enemy by llic 
mountains which furromul it, from whence dcfceml 3 
multitude of Imall rivulets into a fruitful plain, in whidi 
moft of the towns of this province are fituats. 

The natives, who arc Mahometans, arc induftrious, 
lively, fcniible, and ingenious; they arc of European com- 
plexion; and the women, who are dilUnguilhed for their 
perlbnal accomplilhmcnts, arc purclmiiid b^ the omraltt 
on that account. 

Labor ftands about three hundred miles north-weft of 
Dehli, and eight hundred miles north of Sural, in 
thirty-two degrees north latitude ; and here ends that 
grand avenue or walk of tras, upwards of five hundied 
miles in length, extending from Agra to this city : l.ahor 
was built by Amayuni, who made it thecapital of his em- 
pire : it is flill a large qitv, though the court be removed to 
Uehli; and here are ftill to be feen the ruins of levcral 
palaces, mofques, and refervoirs, which dilcover the mag- 
nificence of the Mogul princer who' relided here. We 
Ihall now attend to the chief places on the well of India. 

The province of iiiiulv, fituate in the river Kind, is a 
very fruitful country. Here is a great plenty of cattle ot 
all lorts, and numbers of tame and wild fowl. 'Ihe pro- 
vince abounds in wheat, rice, and pulfe, nor have they 
ever a dearth, the Indus nveillowing all tlic low ground* 
ill April, May, and June, and leaving a tiit flime that en • 
riches the earth, 'i'his country produces lalt-petre, f;J- 
ammoniac, Imrix, lapis-la/.uh, lapis- tuti*, allii-fa'tida, 
lignum-dulce, bc/,oar, opopoiiax, and raw lilk. 1 he na- 
tives manufacture both filk and cotton, as well as cliiiit/., 
and very handfome a)untirpane-. They in.ike alio line 
cabinets Ucipiered, and inlaid with ivorv. They export 
a great deal of butter, which is put in dup|>as or jars, con- 
taining from five to two hundred pounds weight. 

The quota of forces furnilhed from liencctothc Mogul, 
is, tour thoufand horfe, and eight thoufand foot. '1 he 
ellablillied religion of the people is Mahometifm ; but 
the gentoos aa- ten to one itiuic nuiiierous than tlie Ma- 

There is a particular kind of fcllival celebrated here, 
called the fcall of Wooly, when both fexes meet, and 
dance to the found of pipes, drums, and cyml»als. The 
men lijuiit oil at each other, and the women dilhibulc 

'I'he capital city of this province is Tatta, (ituated in a 
large plain ; it is about three miles in length, and almiii 
one and a half in bre:klth. ilere i^^ a citadel, and alio a 
pal.acc for. the nabol). The citizens are celobrateil for mak- 
ing very handfome palanquins. At a tiiiall dillance from 
the city are leveral very lai^e and magnificent tombs, 
which contain the remains of lomeof the anlientnion;irch» 
of Sindy. The largell, which is in the form of a cupola, 
is about thirty feet in height, and twenty-one diametir. 
It conlitls of the moll lu-antitul variegated porjihyrv, po- 
lilhed in the moll exquilite manner. The citadel, which 
llanJi al the well end of the town, has barracks and Ha- 
bit s, capable of accommodating bctweeti twenty and 
tliiitv llioiifaiul nun and hoile. 

'I'he pro. lace of Ciu'/.arat, orCambaya lies to the fnutli 
of Sindy : it i> rendered a peninlul.i bv the b.iy of C'am- 
baya, on tlie foiitl;-eall, and .Sindv has on the iniitii-r.e!l. 
It extends about thiee hundred miles from iiortli to luutli, 
and .iUjjt I'jui liuiiv'u^d liuU-i tiuin call to Mill. 

i\ni;idal .id 


K.'iWs, oil 
dill'.', ci- 
vin€ .■ ol 
,c Sinci's 
rum i.7- 

(Ulill L-ii- 

mi'. iff. ot' 
r love of 
ro lis .id- 
ireiii-v ot 
I an uki\T, 
: a Iceptro 

winie »)f 
)t' fali^TH 
dc, oil 3 

'I'lic air 
of India, 
Tords tlic 
;nce it is 
ic Moguls 
m. It is 
iiy Iiy •'* 
dcfceml a 

in which 

pean coin- 
d for thuir 
ic omraJw 

> ' 

th-wcft of 
Sunt, in 

ends thrt ' 
ve lianilivi . 
itv : i.Rlior 
of his em- 
reuicved to 

of levcral 
cr the iiiag- 
lerc. VVc 
; of India. 

Sind, is a 
of cattle ot 
The pro* 
r have they 
ow ground* 
inc tliat en • 
t-pi-trc, fid* 

. 1 he na- 
il as chiiit/., 
ike alio (inc 
'1 hey cxyinit 
or jars, coii- 
o the Mogid, 

f(M)t. '1 he 
metifiii i hut 
hail tlie Ma- 

% 1 

ebratcd here, 
LS mcwt, aiiil 
minis. 'I'lic 
icn dillribiili; 

, (itiiatcd in a 
:h, and about 
:1, and aUo a 
ratcil for mak- 
dillance from 
ificcnt tombs, 
in of a ciipol.i, 
•one diameter, 
poqihyry, po- • 
tifadci. wliicli 
racks and tla- 
n twenty and 

licsto tlu^ rmuli 

e bay of C'am- 

• . .1 li 

IIIC IIOI iii-r,^ I*.. 

iioitli to foulli, 

Ani^d;d .id 


[A S I A.] 











Amadabad is the cUief city of the province of Cairt- 
baya ; it is iituate al)out one nandred and forty miiet to 
the nortliward of Surat, in twenty-three degrees north 
latitude, and fevcnty-two call longitude from London : it 
is tlie moft noted inland town of the Moeul empire. It 
flands in a moft delightful plain, watered by a little river 
called Sebrcinetty. Ft is furrounded by a wail of brick 
and (lone, ilanlced with round towers, forty feet high, and 
has twelve gates. The town, including its fuburbs, is 
about four mi.'cs in length; the (Ireeti are generally wide, 
but the principal ilrcct is not more tluui thirty paces ovr. 
Tlie meidan-hah, or king's fquare, is feven hundred paces 
long, and four hundred broad ; and has trees planted on 
every fide. On the weftfide of this fquare is the caftle, 
and the great caravanfera for lodging ftrangers flands on 
the foudit and tlie.e are feveral other building] in it, 
where the catoual adminifters juflice. Near the meidan 
alio (lands one of the Mogul's palaces ; over the gate is a 
large balcony, where the country muHc and trumpets 
iland and play morning, noon, and in the evening : the 
Englilh faaory is in Uie middle of the town, and the 
Uutch have another in the preat flreet, aud their ware- 
houles are ufually filled witli rich Indian goods. 

In this city, there are a great maAy mofqucs, or Mnho- 
metan temples, but tliat called juma mefgid, or the Kriday's 
mofipie, whither n!oft people refort on that day, is the no- 
bleft : it is afcend'd by feveral large fleps, and before ic lus 
a iiiuare doifter, of one hundred and forty paces in length, 
and one hundred and twenty in brcadtli, adorned with 
twelve domes, and an open paved fquare in the middle of 
it. In the firont of the temple arc three large arches, and 
wi the (ides two great doors which open into it, over which 
are very high ileeplcs, from whence they call the people 
to tlieir devotions. The chief dome is furrounded with 
(cveral other fmall ones, and two minorcti or foires. The 
whole pile is fiipported by forty-four pillars, uaading in 
two rows, and the pavement is of marble. There are 
abundance of pagodas, or idol temples alfo in Amadabad, 
but the fineft of thum Auiengzebe converted into a niof<|ue, 
at which ceremony he ordered a cow to be killed in the 
leinjlc, h;ini;a(rjrcd that the gentiles would never enter 
It ap(iin alter it was fo polluted; and he ordered all the fi- 
gures of men andbc.ifts to be defaced, fo that it has loft 
much of its origiiul lx;auty. 

The city is fo intermixed with groves and gardens, that 
at a diftancc it looks like a forell. The King's garden, 
which lies without the walls by the river fide, is filled with 
all the fruits of India. It confills indeed of feveral gar- 
dens tiirown into the form of in amphitheatre, riling gra- 
dually one above another ; and on tlie highefl is a tei rafs, 
fcom whence there is a profpcft of the country villages 
for feveral miles : four or five mites from Amadabad is die 
village uf .Serquech, where are the tombs of the former 
Kings of Ciuzarat ; they are large fquare buildings with 
Iliree great arches in each front, and over them a great 
many letter. I'here is a magnificent dome in tlie middle, 
and Several little ones on the fides of it; and the tomb is 
alwavK dire£lly under the largcft dome. 

Sickand lame bcatis wid birds had formerly hofpitah 
provided for them in this city, by the companionate Iii- 
diaiis ; who imagining tlie fouls of their relations or an- 
ccilon; might be removed into tiicfe animals, thought it 
the greatelT aft of charity to admin iUcr to their necelfities: 
ihcy purchafed infum wounded animals frequently of,tlie 
Chriflians and Moo: s, to deliver them from the crue^ of 
the infidels, as tli'-y termed them : and thefe creatures re- 
mained in the holpiial till tliey died, if they could not be 
cured ; hut if they recovered, they were fold to fomc of 
tlieir own perfuafioii, that tiuy might not be ahufcd again. 
The city of Cimibaya is about two leagues in circum- 
foence, and has very cxtenfive fuburbs exclufive of fine 
gardens ; tlie Urccts :\rc fpaciou:*, and the houfes well built 
«ith brick It is litunted in twenty-three degrees north 
ktitudc, at the bottiin of a gulf ef the fame name. The 
Englilh and Dutch havefaftorics here, though great part of 
tli: tr.idc is removed to Sural ; on which account tlie city ii 
but thinly inhabited, It is liirrounded by a brick wall aiul 
has feveral fepulchies, btfides a flat'jly caftle for the nabob. 
There are great numlwrs of monkics here, which arc 
vrrv mifchievous. but the tinnian iiilLibitants fhcw a par- 
ticular indulgence to them. Pc;icotks are alfo vrry nu- 
merous, which the natives ratch after the bird has retired 
to reft : the ileib of the young ones is white, and in taftc 
rcliinbles that ol .1 turkey. 

The tide in the bay of Cambaya runs with fuch 

smavina ranidit»', thjlt j? i!r laid tO "'.KLecd llif. p.'.CC of tl'i.: 

(wil'tcft ;uiimal. 
No. 8. 

Surat is in the latitude bf twenty-one degrees thirty 
minutei north latitude, loneitude feventy-two from 
the meridian of London. It tlandi on the river Tapte, 
atwut ten miles diDant froih the fea t ani the towit wind- 
ing with the river, it almofl in theform of a crefcent. It . 
is defended by a wall and tower*, and has a fquare caftle, 
with a tower at each angle on the fouth weft part of it, 
which commands both tlie river and the avenues to the 
town l>y land. The river runs on one fide of the caftle, 
and there is a moat on the other. The city is between 
two and three Englilh miles in circumference, and has 
fix or feven gates, at which ccntinels are placed, who t*-> 
quire a ftrift account of fuch people as pals thciip, >f dwj 
have any fufpicion of them, "{'he ftreets flf^moft of 
them narrow, and the houfes generally toW and mean, the 
fides being fplintercd with fplit cane, and the roofs thatched 
with cajaii or palm leaves ; but the Europeans, and fome 
of the rich Moors Iiave more lofty houfes, built with 
brick or ftone, and covered with tiles. The floon, both 
of the upper and ground rooms, are of terras, whicli is 
looked upon to be cooler than boards ; and they have no 
glazing to their windows tliat tlie air may have a free paf- 
fage. Tlic city is very populous, being fippolid to con- 
tain about two bundled tltoufand inhabitants ; and the 
bazar or market-place thronged with Banians and other 
merchants, who ftand with their filks or ftufT: -jjjon their 
head«, or in their hands, to expofe tliem to fale. In the 
middle of the city, before the caftle, is a large open place 
called Caftle-green, from the neighbourhood or tlie caf- 
tle ; where are laid all forts of goods in tlie open air, both 
day and night, except during the monfoons ; and here the 
Kuropcans as well as natives place their bales, and prepare 
to load their Ihips. 

Uefore the EnglUh Eaft India company became poftclTed 
of Bombay, the prcfident and council managed their af- 
fairs atSuiat, where afaftory, which had been eftablilhed 
there, was ftill contrived, after the prcfidency was removed 
to Bombay. This fatlory had received many very valu- 
able immunities from the Mogul government : and Per- 
fians, Moguls, Indians, Arabs, Arminians, Jews, and Eu- 
ropeans, all icfor:ed to Surat, where money was eafily ob- 
tained and bills of exchange were to be liad for every mar- 
ket in India. Bags of money, ticketed aadftaled, would 
circulate for years, witliout liing weighed ; fuch was the 
honefty of the traders. Fortunes were proportionable to 
the eafc and readincfs with which tliey were to be acquired 
by commerce : they frequently amounted to two hundred 
thoufand pounds. Many of the Uentoo inhabitants enjoy 
places under the Moorilh government, fuch as coUeAors, 
lurvcyors of the cultoms, &c. 

In hot weather, the chief inliabitants retire into the 
country; and ihe Enghlh Eaft India cnrapauy have a very 
pleafant garden, kept in the moft regular order. 

At this phicc there is great plenty of provilions of all 
kinds : the foil of the country is extremely fertile, and 
produces the lineft wheat in India. Here is alfo abundance 
of wild fowl, great numbers of antelopes and feme deer. 
All religions arc tolerated here by the Moors, who have 
the government intircly in their hands. When they take 
an European into their fervice, they never attempt to make 
him a profcl)le, uur do tlicy make the Icaft enquiry about 
his reti|;;ion. 

In 1 064 Surat was plundered by Rajah Scvagi, who 
took from tlicnce one million two hundred thoufand 
pounds. The pillage would have been much more confi- 
dcrable, had not the Englilh and Dutch avoided the depre- 
dation, by placing their richcft commodities in the caftle, 
which was out of the rajali's reach ; they had, befides, 
\Vell fortified their faftoricsi fb that the invader thought 
proper to retire, witliout attempting to attack the place. 
After the above great lofs, the inhabitants, for their better 
fccurity built walls round the city of Surat, which is at 
this time in a flourilhing condition. 

A confiderable part of the produce of the manufiflure^ 
of (juzarat, which are depofitcd in warehoules, is carried 
into the inland countries, and the refl to all parts of the 
globe. Thole moft commonly known are, olue lineiu, 
white linens, blue and white checks, printed callicoes, 
filk and cotton ftuffs, gauzes, fliauis, and dutties Surat 
receiver., in exchange for her exports, great quantities of 
fpicc: frois the Dutch; iron, lead, cloth, cochineal, and 
hard wares from the Englilh ; lilk firom Bengal and Periii ; 
from Malabar, mafts and pepper; from Arabia, flavcs apd 
perfumes ; from China, tea<, f'.igars. camphirc, quickfiK*er, 
and toys ; and gums, dried fruits, pearlsifii copper from 

The manufaflurers here have generally their work be- 
X ' fpoko 


fpoke by the wholefale merchants and this being tlic oi\ly 
fea-port of any importance in tl»e Mogul's dominions that 
the Europeans do not poflefs, the inland trade cniploys 
great numbers of caravans for the diftribution of tlic ar- 
ticles imported; and a continual intercourfe is prcl'erved 
from hence to Bombay, both by fea and land. 

The governor of Surat, who, in the adminiflraiion of 
public jufticc, attends perionally in the durbar, prcfulcs 
with great ftate, and decides on all a£lions of a civil and 
criminal nature. 

Bifnagar, properly fo called, is the weflern fide of tlie 
kingdom of that name, and has Golconda and Vifiapour 
on the north, Coromandel on the eaft, Gin^ on the 
fouth, and the mountains of Gate, which Icparate it 
from Malabar, on the weft. The chief towns arc, i . Bif- 
nagar, or Chandegry, feated on a high hill in the latitude 
of fourteen degrees, feme odd minutes, near the river Na- 
gundi, which falls into the Chriftena. a. Narfigna, ano- 
ther confiderable town, which did alio give name to the 
kingdom formerly, lies about thirty miles farther to the 
northward, upon the fame river Nagundi. Many incredi- 
ble thinga are related by modern writers of thcfc two ci- 
ties, and particularly that Bifnagar alone is able to railc a 
hundred thoufand horfe, when there is hardly a horfc fit 
for fervice jp, the country i and the kingdom has for a coix- 
fiderable time been a province of the Mogul's empire. 
They alfo tell us it is an excellent haven for Ihins, though 
it ftands in the very heart of the country. No Europeans, 
have the privilege of eftablilhing trade in thi.s place, the 
prince only allowing tliem to be here in the capacity of 
travellers or vifitors. The prince has a very ftately pa- 

The chief articles of trade at Bifnagar arc, damalks, 
&ttins, chints, rich velvets, &c. 

.: ■ SEC T. III. • ■ 

Treali e/ tbi Etiglijb pifftffuni and feltlmtnit, and thaft of 
ttbtr Europtan natloni in the Eaji Indiis. 

BENGAL is the moft eafterly province of the Mogul's 
dominions. It is bounded by the provinces of Patna 
and Jefuat towards the north, the kingdom of Arracan 
and Afem towards tlie eaft, the bay of Bengal and the pro- 
vince of Orixa towards the fouth, and by the province of 
Malva towards the weft ; it is in length from eaft to weft 
npwards of four hundred miles, and near three hundred 
in breadth from north to foutli, and is ufually compared 
to Egypt for its fruitfulncfs, the river Ganges dividing it- 
felf mto feveral branches in this province, and annually 
overflowing it, as tlie Nile does Egypt. 

The chief towns are, t. Dacca, which lies upon one of 
die eaftern branches of the Ganges in the latitude of twenty- 
four degrees ; it is four or five miles in length, but very 
narrow, winding with the river. This may piopcrlv be 
called the capital, being the feat of the viceroy, and here 
the Englifli and otlier Knropcans have their agents to take 
care of their trade, which is very confideiahle in this pro- 
vince. 2. Ragemahal fituatcd higher up the Gangesi and 
is between two or three hundred milts from the month of 
it, in the latitude of twenty-five degrees. Below Ragema- 
hal lies the city of Caflimbuzar, in latitude twenty- four, 
where the Europeans have their fadors, the country afford- 
ing great qui.itities of filk and muflins. 3. To the (ijuth- 
wara of Callimbuisr ftands the city of Hurley, upon an 
ifland made by the Ganges, in the latitude ot twenty-three 
degrees, about a hundred miler from the mouth of the 
river : it is a large town, and bcfides Moors and other In- 
dians, has feveral thoufand Portugucfe Chriftians in it : 
moft European nations who trade to India had their fafto- 
rics here, and particularly the Engliih ; but the unhcalthi- 
nefs of the fituation induced them to remove, and the 
Englifh have fince built them a fort a little below near 
Calcutta, which they named Fort William, from tlie 
Prince of Orange who mounted the throne of F.ngland 
about that time. In 1757, the fubah of Bengal, whofe 
indignation had been iaif,d by fwuc proccduics of the 
company, inveftcd Calcutta, wliich was tlan in a defence - 
lefs ftate. The governor, alarmed at tlii: appearance of a 
very numerous army, abandoned the fort, and, with many 
of tlie principal inlialiirants, repaircil <a\ board a vcflel in 
the river. Mr. Holwcll, however, who. was fccond in 
command, alliftcd by a few intrepid officers, and a weak 
girrifon, defrnded the ii!;icc for fome time, but wa.s at 
length obliged to l'urr< i .r ; and tlie iiiliaiutants, <viih tiie 
whole ganifon, were all forced into a dunscon called the 

black-hole, fiom v.liitli only twcntv-tlirce out «f cue lion- 
diid and forty-fix cinne out alive, the reft were either fuf- 
fotattd with the extreme heat, or died raving mud with tc* 
vers or violent thiii't : there was a lady, one Mrn. Carey, 
among the number, who furvivcd the calamity. 5. J lie 
city of Chatigan lici near the nioiilli of the moft eal'tofly 
branch of the Ganges. Here the I'ortueiiele let up for a 
kind of fovereignty formerly, and alfociatiiig with |:iratci 
and banditti of all nations, owned no fubjedlion to their 
own prince or the prince of the country, but committed 
daily robberies by lea and land, and lo interrupted all com- 
merce, that the late Mogul found it necelTary to fend an 
army againft them and rxtiipate them. 6. Maldn which 
ftands a little to the ciftward of Ragrmahal, where the liu» 
roneant alfo have tlieir faAors. 

This province of Bengal it deemed the moft fertile 
country in India for a variety of articles, fuch as fiijrar, 
filk, gum-tack, falt-pctre, rice, opium, pepper, fruits, »<ic 
The greateft part of the Bengal iilk is protluced in the tci- 
ritorv of Carfimbuzar, where the filk-worms ate reared 
and fed in the fame inann;:r as in other places ; but the 
natural heat of tlie climate hatches and brings them 10 r( 1- 
feftion at all times of the year. Confiderable <)u.intiticK 
of filk and cotton ftufll arc manufaftuied here, and cii- 
ciilated through part of Afia. Bengal is alio famous for its 
line canes, and a fmall fort worked into veflcLs, which, be- 
ing glazed witliinfidc, will hold any liquid, 'i'hcre is aha 
„ an herb here, from which they make very beautiful itnfli 
t| andtapettry. 

The forces in the fervice of the Englifli compaiiv, 
which are eftablilhed at Bengal, are very confiderable. 
The power is invellcd in Europeans, though the bulk of 
the army confifts of natives : the whole is divided into 
three brigades ; each confining of one battalion of Euro- 
pean infantry, and one regiment of feapoys ; each batta- 
lion Contains ten companies, and each regiment ten batta- 
lions. Every regiment of feapoys, or black infantry, is 
commanded by a jemantadar, or native oflficer, who is 
fubordiiiatc to the Engliih ofliccrs of a much lower rank. 
The artillery forms on; regiment of four companies of 
Europeans; but die principal drudgery is done by black 
feapoys : every company of anillcry is ftrengtliencd by 
four companies of hifcars, containing fifty men in each 
company, who ferve as matrofles ; and the brig.-d.-s liavc 
a troop of black cavalry appertaining to each, who are 
commanded by Engliih officers. 

But, before we quit tlie province of Bengal, it will Iw 
proper to give a further account of the town of Calcutta, 
tituateonthe banks of the river Huglcy which is an ami 
of the Ganges. It is tolerably large, but appears vcrv 
uncouth to the eye, from the great iri^ularitv of its build- 
ings i for every pcrfon who erefls a houfc, pleafes his own 
fancy with rcfpcO to the mariner of the cdilice, \vithout 
paying any attention t.j uniformity, fize or elegance 

Bezar is the principal ftrcet in this town : h is inhabited 
by perfons who keep little (hops for the fale of various 
commodities. The F.n;;iifh fciul their fervants hither, to 
buy whatever is wanted, relying on their fidelity ; lo tlut 
tlie place is fcldomvifitcd by them. 

Near the centre of the town, on the fide of the river 
Huglcy, is the old fort, in which is tlie place before-men- 
tioned, called tlie black-hole, where the unhappy Engliih 
fuffered the moft wretched puniihment, by order of the 
nabob Serajah Dowlah. home of the apartments in 
it arc ufcd occafionally for the performance of divine fer- 

By the fide of the river, about a mile from the town, is 
the new fort, which is averyftrongandhandfome building, 
exceeding fpacious, and furroundcd with walls. It con- 
tains magazines for ftores, barracks for foldiers, 'and ele- 
gant ai>artmcnts for the feveral officers that refidc at Cal- 
cutta, who, as well a« the engineers, liave hou£:s in it for 
their accommodation. 

The Portuguefe and ArmeniaiM have one part of the 
towafet apart for their refidence where they exercife their 
own mode of worihip. There is a church belonging tO' 
each; but the former are retlrained from exhibiting their 
religious proceflions without the limits of rheir own dif- 
tridt. 1 he generality of tlicfe people perform the moll 
menial offices, being employed as fervants by the wealthier 
part of the inhabitants. The Armenian women, indeed,, 
are not employed in any kind of bufinefs ; but the men 
colleft goods in different pmts of India for the m:rchant.-!. 
Some of thcfe are permitted to trade for themfclvej, and 
obtain very confiderable polfelfions. 

The drcf; of the .*.rmt.^!an women muchrefemblcs tliat 
of tlie Mahometans, except tlie head, which i« covcrct}' 


, *.-4. 



[ASIA.] 1 N D < 

with a tiii))ai\ of ,4 pn loillioui fi/.e. They have lilnAvilc 
a firiguUr adiliiioii tu tliiir huaj-ilrefs aft'.-r luarriiBC ; it is 
called a mouth-pitcc, and tonlilb of a piecs ot ihuflin, 
which covers the ficc fiom tin; chin to the under part of 
llic noftrils, and n placed fo clofe to the face, that their 
breathing h greatly hindered hy it, 

Calcutta has many clej;aiu biiildinga about it, which ate 
the country rcfidciices of Englilh gentlemen who retire 
thither, particularly in the hot fcafon, to enjoy the bene- 
fit of the air, which is cooler and much more wholefomc 
than in the town. 'J'hc iiitcnfc heat of the climate renders 
the inhabitants fubjcft to many difeafes ; but the moft fatal 
is that called the pucker fever, which in a very (hort I'pacc 
of time Carrie* oft' the pcrfon fci/cd with it. More men 
are laid to die here in proportion than women, hecaufc 
the latter are more abftemious, and lefs addiflcd to intem- 
perance than the mcit. 

Patna is one of the Urged cities in India, and the ca- 
pital of a territory of the fame name. It is fituaied to the 
north of the kingdom of Bengal, where the Englilh have 
faflorics for falt-pctre, borax, and raw (Ilk. It alfo pro- 
duces lai^e quantities of opium. The town is large, but 
the houles are built at a diftance from each othci-. It is 
feated in a fertile^ pleafant country, four hundred mllcii 
raft of Agra, in eighty-five degrees forty minutes eaft lon- 
gitude, and twenty- three degrees twenty -five miiuitcs north 

The moft extenfive city in the kingdom ' *■ Bengal is 
Dacca, which produces thebeftand fincft enn ideries in 
gold, filver, or (ilk. The town is fituatcd in t>venty-four 
degrees north latitude ; the foil is fertile, the fituation fine, 
and tlie riclicft commodities of India and Europe arc 
brought to its market. It rrceives confiderable advantages 
from its cottons, from which areproduced flripcd and work- 
e' Tiuftins, which, for their texture, are more valuable than 
tliofe made in any other part of India, 

Madrafs, or Fort St. George,as it is generally called from 
tlie Eneliih foit there, ftands about four miles to the north- 
ward of St. Thomas, in thirteen degrees, fome odd mi- 
nutes latitude, and cii^htv degree"! of longitude ; being near 
four thoufand eight hundred miles to the eailward ot Lon- 
don, fo that the lun vifits them about fix hours before us, 
and fets in that part of the world before we fit down to 
dinner in this ) for there is fo little difference in the length 
of the days there all the year round, that wc always reckon 
it to be fix o'clock at fun-rife and fun-fet. 

The fort is a regular fquare, about a hundred yards on 
each fide, with four balHons, built with what they call iron 
iione, being of the colour of unwrought iron, and very 
rough on the outfide like honeycomb. There is no ditch 
about the fort, and the walls are arched and hollow with- 
in, fo that they are not cannon proof. It has two gates, 
one to the eaft and the other to the weft. The weftern 
gate which looks towards the land is pretty large ; and here 
the main guard is kept, tlic foldiers of the guard lying on 
the right and left of it, under the wall, which being hollow 
ferves them inftead of a guard-houfe. The eaft-gate to- 
wards the fca, is but fmall, and guarded only with a file of 
mufqucteers. In tlie middle of the fort ftands the gover- 
nor's houfe, in which alfo are apartments for the com- 
pany's fervants ; it is a handfonie, lofty, fquare ftone build- 
ing • the firft rooms are afcended by ten or twelve fteps, 
and from tlience anotlier pair of ftairs leads to the council 
chamber and the governor's lodgings. The fort ftands 
pretty near the middle of the White-town where the Eu- 
ropeans inltabit. This ir an oblong fquare about a quarter 
of^a mile in Ic'ngth, but not lialf fo much in breadth. 

To the northward of the fort are tliree ftraight handfome 
ftrcets, and as many to the fouth. The buildihga are of 
brick i ftveral of the houfcs have one floor above the 
ground floor. Their roofs arc flat, and covered with a 
plaifter made of fca-lhclls, which no rain can |ienetrate ; 
and being fecured with battlements they take the fredi air 
npon them morning and evening. 'The walls of thefc 
houfes ate veiy thick, and the rooms lofty. The governor 
and people of condition have gardens at a little diftance 
from the town. Over againft the weft gate of the fort is a 
barrack, or ratlicr one long room where all the company's 
foldiers are obliged to lodge when they are off ►''e guard ; 
and adioining to it on the north is a very commodious 
holpital, wlicre they are taken care of when tlicy are fick. 
At the other end of the foldiers b.vracks is a mint where tlie 
company coin gold and filver. 

On tlie north fide of the fort ftands the Portuguefe 
church ; and to the fouthward the F.tiglilU church, which 
is a pretty cltt!;ant buildinp. and modciately larse : it has a 
hajidiomc altar piece, a {;.iUcry of tine carved wood rcfcm- 





bllng cedar, and an oignn ; Whon the governor comti into 
chmch, the organ aiwiiys plays. The cliin<li is floored 
nith bliick and white nmble; the (i^Jts re;;u.'ai and conve- 
nient, and all togeihtt It is the moft airy lightrotu<; temple 
that is to be found anv where, for the windows .ife large 
and un^lazed to admit tiie cooling bree/cs, und if it were 
otlierwifc, the people niiift fweat ihlolimbly ut tncir devo- 
tioii.-, ; for though iu tlnir own houles they ,ire as thinly 
clothed as poffible, yet when thoy come to church it is al- 
ways ill the European drefs : but to avoid thefe ineonve',< 
jiioi\cies as much as polliblc, prayers are appointed atfeven 
in the morning, and m the evening thv^y are ufually refrelh- 
ed with a fca breeze. Here is alio a free fchool, where 
children arc educated in reading and writing ; bcfid:s which 
there is a library. Thefe are the only public buildings in 
the White-town, except the town-houle, where the mayor 
and his brethren alTemble i and a court of juftice is held 
for civil caufes, 

A river runs clofe to the buildings, on the weft part of 
the town ; but on this tide there is no wall, only one Urge 
battery of guns upon the river which commands the plain 
beyond it. On the eaft there is a (light ftone wall pretty 
high, and appears fonietliing grand to the lliipping in the , but here is very little occafion for any fortification, 
the fea coming up clofe to the town, and no large velTeU 
can ride within two miles of the place, the fea is fo very 
(hallow 1 nor is there any landing but in the country boats, 
the furfs runs fo high and breaks lb far from the (hore. The 
north and fouth ends of the town are each of them defend- 
ed by a ftone wall moderately thick ; but then, like the fort 
walls, they are hollow within, and would hardly hold out 
one day's battery. There is a little fuburb to the fouth- 
ward of the White-town, inhabited only by the bUck 
watermen and filhermen) and confilU of little, low, thatch- 
ed cottages, which hardly deferve the name of building*. 
Beyond this is anoutguard of blacks, who I'erve to give in- 
telligence to the fort ; but there is no other fortification on 
this fide. 

The Black-town adjoins to the White-town, but is much 
larger, and fituate to the northward. Here the Portuguefe, 
Indians, Armenians, and a great variety of other people 
inliabit. This ia built in the form of a fquare, and is bet- 
ter than a mile and a half in circumference ; being fur- 
rounded with a brick wall feventeen feet tliick, witli baf- 
tions at proper diftanccs, after tlie modern way of fortifi- 
cation : it has alfo a river on the weft, and the fea on the 
eaft i and to the northward a canal is cut from the river to 
the lea, which fer\'es for a moat on tliat fide ; fo that Ma- 
drafs, confidering where it ftands, might now be reckoned 
a town of ftrength if the earrifon was anfwerable to tlie 
fortifications ; but it confiits of no more tlian three com- 
panies of fourfcorc or a hundred men each, and one third 
of thefe topazes or Portuguefe Indians, The company, 
indeed, entertain two or three hundred of native blacks in 
their I'ervice, and a body of men may be formed out of the 
inhabitants, who arc very numerous ; but thefe would be 
of little fervice againft an European enemy, or even againft 
the Mogul's troops, if there was occafion for tliem beyond 
their own walls. 

The ftrceta of the BUck-town ate wide, and trees plant- 
ed in fome of them ; and having the fea on one fide and a 
river on the other, there are few towns fo pleafantly fitu- 
ated or are better fupplied ; but except fome few brick 
houfes the reft are miferable cottages, built with cUy and 
thatched, and not i'o much as a window to be feen on the 
outfide, or any furniture within, except the mats and car- 
pets they lie on. The houfes of the better fort of Indians 
arc of the fame materials, and Wit ufually in toe form, 
that is, with a little fquare in the middle, from whence 
they receive all tlieir light. A ftranger feldom comes far- 
ther than the door, before which is erefted a little fhej 
fupported by pillars, where they fit crofs-legged morning 
and evening to receive their friends or tranfaa their bufi- 
nefs. The great ftreets and tlie bazar, or market-pUce, 
are thronged with people ) for notwithftanding the houfes 
arc low and fmall, they are very well filled, fix or feven 
people deeping in one little room, without any other bed 
than a mat or cloth fpread under them ; but notwithftand- 
ing all this appearaiice of poverty abounds among them, 
the people from the highcft to the loweft arc extremely 
neat, walhing themfelvcs feveral times a day. In this blacic 
town there is an Armenian church, and I'everal little pagodas 
or Indian temples, to which belong great numbers of fe- 
male choirifters, who f|iend half the time in finging to tlie 
idols, and the reft in intriguing, or chanting in companies 
before the rreat rnrn as tlicV safs alons the ftrcets, 

I he governor of Madia* txtends his juilfdiftion all over 


f 'Sb&filt^'V -u _.a£4^ 


84 Thb new and universal SYSTEM of GEOGRAPHY. 

tlie coaft of CuronianJc'l, and the wcftcrn coaft of Suma- 
tra. He is likwvvilc t,i|)tain of the fii ft company of foldiers, 
the fccoml being conimaiulij by tho next in council, Tbc 
governor lives ii\ great ilatc, thoi^gb hi^ I'alary is but fmall; 
but ihi.i i.i pretty amply comiitnlated to him by the conll- 
dcrabla emoluments lie rcapi from the nrivilcee he has of 
tradini; on liii own bottom. His ufual guaruis three or 
four hundred black nien ; and when he goes abroad, on 
any public occ.ifioii, he is attended by trumpets, fifes, and 
drums, v.ith llit'.iiiK'r» Hying, accompanied by the council 
on horfeback, and their ladies in j)alaiu|uins. 

Sii< pcrl'nns compofc the council, viho have annual fa- 
brics, itclides whom, there arc two fenior merchants, two 
iiinior merchant;, (ive fiftors, and ten writers j alfo two 
clefgymcn, ;i judge advocate, an attorney-general, two afl.iy- 
mirars of the mint, and a furgcon ; all of whom liavc yearly 
rtiptlids, wliicli (as we obfcrved with rctpeft to the govcr- 
imr) arctritlmf, inconipaiifonof the ad\anl.iges and profits 
tliJV acquire by tradiii,'^ for thcmfclvos. 

i'hc Aimrniani and Jews have incrolTed the trade of 
thi i colon;-. 'I'lic art.cki thu Ent^lilli deal in arc diamonds, 
cliints, callicocs, .';c. 

In 174^1, this place fubmitte.I to tlic Frcncli, but was 
r.ftoicd at the peace, (iciicial I, ally attacked it again in 
17)8; lii^t the forces under the {generals Lauiencc and 
Diaper rcpiill'ed him. 

It was computed that fomc yeari ago the town-, and vil- 
lages belonging to Kort St. George coiitaiued ci^lity thou- 
fand people, of whom five tlioufaiul were European;. 

The trade carried on from this placi' extends to all ports 
eaftward of the C'.i).' of Cjood Hope , but the largcft mips 
life the Moclia, IViTii, and Surat markets; with Bengal 
anU China commodities, and touch, in their voyage, on 
the Malabar coaft for pepper, cocoa, drugs, &c. The 
European roods, which fetch the beft market price here, 
arc wines, Incr, ale, cyder, checfe, gold and filver lace, 
worded and tKioad ftockings, lead. Hint-ware, looking- 
l^uiflcS and a vaiictv of other commodities 

At a little dillance fioui M:idr;is the nabob of Arcot has 
an clff,:'.nt \ iil.i, 'upporttd b) pillni. inftead of walls ; the 
apcriurcs of colonades admit the light, in lieu of windows, 
and open porticoes Icrvc the piirpoie of doors : the ftyle of 
architefture there appears elegantly airy and open, and in 
a climate exceedingly fultry, the confequem coolncfs ren- 
ders it an agreeable- and delightful retreat. 

CJrcat and Litth Gingi or Gingcc, are encoinpaircd 
v.'ith mountain'!. They confift of two towns, both of which 
are furrounded by a wall and five lofty rocks ; and on the 
top of each lork i.; a ftrong fortrefs. Thefe towns arc fe- 
pnintcd from call to weft, by a wall fortified with cannon, 
which one of the rocks defends as a citadel. 

Another colony and fort belonging to the Englifli is 
Foit St. OaviU, Htiialcd four or five leagues to thelouth of 
Poiuliclieriy. This place was purchafed in 1 686, for the 
confidcratioii of ninety thoufand pagodas, by the governor 
of Fort St. CJcorgc, for the fiaft India company : it ir. ff- 
tccmcd a fituatinn of vci'y great confequcnce to the Englilh. 
It was taken, in i;?**, by the French forces under the 
command of general Lally, who blew up tlie fortifications; 
but the events of war proving afterwards unfavourable to 
th'i viflois, they were lorccd to give up moft of their pof- 
ftlhons to the I'.nglilli. Circat quantities of chints, calli- 
cocs, and muflins, are manufaftured here. 

Tanjorc, the capital of the kingdom of the fame name, 
lies to the fouth of Fort St. David. It is fituated in eleven 
degrees north latitude ; and the kingdom is bounded by 
the ocean, on the eaft ; by Trichinopoly, on the weft; by 
the livcrTColeroon, on the north ; .ind on the fouth by the 
tenliories of two great pcrfonagcs, ftyled poligars, or lords. 
The Englilh have a fort, with land belonging to it, near 
the mouth of thcColcroon. In 1748, Monfieur Lally al- 
tnckcd this place, but was repulfed. When that general 
made his appearance before it, he privately cicflcd battc- 
1 ics at the very time he was pretending to commence a ca- 
pitulation with the prince, and even fired upon the town ; 
when tlie inhabitants, inHamed with a juft refentment, at- 
tacked the French with fuch fpirit and vigour, as to drive 
them intircly away. The fort pofllfled by the Englilh at 
the mouth of the rlvrr Coleroon, and which is named Da- 
vcrotah, was granted to them by the King of Tanjorc. 

The town of Trichinopoly ftands in a plain that was 
once encompafted by numerous plantations of trees and 
opulent villa-, but now wears a much Icfs pleaftng afpcft. 
It if. about four miles in circumference, fortified with a 
double wall, and defended by towers ; it has a ditch, near 
tliirty fcCi. vviJ:. There i; s rock in this town about thirty 
Jiret high, on the furaiiut of which is a pajoda. Triclii- 

nopoly it the key of Tanjore and Madura, and gives tliem 
great inHurnce. It was a principal fcene of our military 
operations lall war. 

Ihc French, in 17JJ, made an attempt to take it by 
furprixe j and vainly lurmifing that firing alone would 
terrify the garrifon, turned a couple of our twelve ja«unders 
Oft the battery againll the town, having previoudy Icaled 
the outer wall. They were, however, through the e;>tr- 
tion of equal judgment and bravary, intirely repulfed, and 
upwardi of three hundred and fixty were made pril'oners. 

Madura is the capital of the province of Madura, and 
is a large fortified town. It was taken by the Englilh in 

I ellicherry lies ten miles to the fouth of Cananor ; the 
Englilh Eaft India company have a well-defended failory 
in tins town, which ftands at the back of the fort, and has 
a Hone round it. The religion of the place is that of the 
Gentoos : there are, however, fomc few black Chrillians, 
who live protcAed by the fafiory. Hereabout a tine deep 
purple opium is produced. 

'/"he Englilh company have alfo a faftory at Anjongo, 
which is farther to the fouth, with a fovt and garrikm. It 
is fituated on a li'iidy point of land at the mouth of a fmall 
river, which is tht<;e fourths of the year choaked up with 
fand, and not a drop of water fit to ue drank can be had 
'within Icfs than three miles of the fa£tory. This fcttlc- 
mciii 's in general more advantageous to the agents of tbe 
company, who purchafe cinnamon, pepper, and chian on 
their account, than to the company tlienifelvcs, 'who cn!y 
trade for linens of no great worth, and about fifty tliou- 
fand pounds weight of pepper. 

Tlie harbour of Carwan is fituated about thirty -fix or 
thirty-eight miles to the fouth of Goa. Here is an Eng- 
lilh faflory, which ftands on a very commodious bay, fa-, 
cing an illc that produces every I'liccies of game. The 
town is furrounded by fertile vallies, and yield great plenty 
of corn and pepper. In the woods on the mountains aro 
deer, elks, wolves, tygers, monkies, with wild peacocks 
and otlu-r birds : they have alio particularly large bets 

We Ihall next give fomc account of the French poflcnions 
in India. 

The capital of the French fettlcmcnts in India, is Pon- 
dicherry, on the Coromandel coaft. It is a large hand- 
fome town, fituated in eighty degrees thirty minutes e;itt 
longitude from London, imd twelve degrees twenty mi- 
nutes north latitude. The ftreets aro .all very regular, and 
the principal one not lels than half a league long. The 
town is fuiroundcd by a wall, and has fix ga'.er, ten or 
eleven baftions, and upwards of four huudrcd cannon 
mounted, exclufive of mortar*, bombs, ^c. It ftandit 
upon a low ground, and vcflels cannot anchor nearer than 
within about half a league ; even the canoes cime up to it 
by a great fpacc ; fo that the blacks convey pcrfons and 
mercantile ai tides to the fleet in Hat-bottomed boats. 

The principal buildings aie, the houf'e of tlie governor, 
the jefuit's lioufe, and an elegant ftniftuic in the com- 
pany's gardens. The houfes in common confift of one 
ilory, a§ is ufual in moft of the towns of the province. 
The Gentoos generally lleep in their courts, or on the tops 
of their houfes : thefe people toil hard in their refpeAive 
profeflions, fuch as weaving, painting, &c. for about a 
penny per day, and their ufual food is boiled rice ; for the 
country, notwithftanding its natural drinefs, produces great 
quantities of that neccliary of life, owing principally to tlua 
unwearied induflry of the Gentoos, who dig wells at pro- 
per diftances in the fields, for refrelhing the ground. The 
Mahometans, on the other hand, are as indolent and floth- 
ful as the others are afliduous and careful ; nor does the 
laudable fpirit of induftry in the Gentoos eflfeft the Icaft 
change in them. 

When the governor is honoured with a vifit from any 
great perfonage, he is attended by three hundred peons or 
foot guards ; and when he goes out on any public, 
he IS carried in a palanquin, the canopy of which is cm- 
bellilhed with the moft fuperb ornaments. 

In the vear 1693, Pondichcrry was taken from the French 
by tht CJutch, and reftored at the peace of Ryfwick ; ami 
in 1751, it was taken by the Englilti, but reftored in 1 763. 
Previous, however, to the period of 1751, 
Bofcawen was fent out with a ftrong fquadron, in order to 
lay fiege to Pondicherry, and was joined in India by feve- 
ral men of war under .idniiral Griflfm. Arriving at Fort 
St. David in July 1748, on the loth of Auguft following 
the army were in full motion, and pre pa. iii.v for the fiege. 
On the nth, the French made a IIkw of about three 
hundred infantry and fome cavalrv, at i.ii inucnchnicoi 



U Pon- 
jc haiid- 
utcs catt 
nty mi- 
^il;ir, and 
ten or 
jrcr than 
up to it 
Tons and 
; com- 
of one 
the tops 
ibout a 
for the 
ices great 
lly to til* 
at pro- 

\t French 
ick ; and 

in 1763. 

n order to 
a by fcvc- 

p; at Fort 

the ficge. 
lout three 


[A S I A.] 

I N D O S T A N. 

»'.(•► V*3 



they bill ttirmvn up, but ahtndoneJ it on itie ipproach 
ol' tlie Knglilh force*. The Kii^lilh itrackcii the place 
with thrir ul'ual fpirit and mirrpidity, hut wrraconftiaineJ, 
through the violence ol' the periodical wiitdi, to rail'e the 
firge, after fuHdininga juri nf t'cven hniidied and fifty fol- 
diciJ, upward) of two hundred and lixty feamcn, and li;- 

Karical lies in ten degrees thirty-four minuter north, 
latitude about four lra|;vies fouth ot I'ramiucbar, and 
twenty-five fouth of Poridicherry. Thi» ii an ancient 
city and fettlcmcnt belonging to the French, it contaiiu 
live fpacioui p«goda<, nine lell<:r onei, four mofques, be- 
tween fix and feven hundred houl'ei, and about five or 
fix tboufand people. Tirnnmale Kayan Fatu.iin ii under 
thcjurlfdiQioit of Karicnl, and lici tu the fouth of it. It 
ia a large town, containing four large pagodas near thirtv 
lefler onci, four mof>)ucfi, and aliout five hundred black 
houfei, evclufive of twcn'y-four public inns for the ac- 
comnifKlation of Iruvellers. 

Clmnderiusore alio belong! to the French, It is fur- 
tnanded by a wall, and well forlilial , but wai reduced 
by Meflri. VVatfon and Pucnck, in coninnflion with co- 
lonel Clive. This place has the dil'iilvantaKe of being 
rather cx^iofed oi\ thcweftcrn fide ; but its liarlwiur is ex- 
cellent, and the air is as pure as it can be on the hanks of 
the Ganges, Here is a viry conliderabk' maiiufaflure of 
hatidkcrchicfs and ftrijicd nuiflins ; this, however, has not 
made ChanJernagore the rival of (.'alcutta, whole iin- 
menlc opulence enables it to engage in the mol\ extenlivc 
Mimniercial undertakings. 

The Portiiguel'e poMdlions in the Indies being now 
come under our confidcration, it h ncccflary to obferve 
thatwediall pollpone the dclciiptiou of Ooa, the prin- 
cipal of them, and Diu, or Dio, both which arc illands, 
till we give a general account of the oriental idanois. 

Meliapourwas once the mott confidcrable place on the 
Coromandcl coaft : it is .alx>ut three miles fouth of Fort 
St. Cieorgc. The Portugucfc raifed it from the verge of 
ruin, to a ftate of opulence and magnificence ; but were 
driven from thence by the Moors, when it became fabjef> 
to the King of Golconda, but was leduced by the rrencli 
in 1666 ; the Dutch, however, in conjunftion with the 
King of Cjolconda, four years after, took it from 
the French i upon, which the fortifications were intiitly 
dellroycd, and never afterwards repaired. Tlie inhabi- 
tants are Porluguefe, (Jentoos, and Moors, and others of 
different nations. The Portuguefe, after fettling in this 
place when in its declining ftate, and beginning to rebuild 
it, gave it the name of St. Thomas, from an opinion that 
the apoflle was martyred here ) and thcfe people, finding 
fome bones (which they afterwards enlhrined) concluded 
tliey were thofe of St. 1 honus,efuecially as it was pretended 
his'fepulchre was on a hill at a little dillancc from the town. 
The city of Calicut lies in eleven degrees, twenty mi- 
nutes north latitude. It was, when the Portuguefe ar- 
fived here, thegreatcll place of tr.tde in India. The Moort 
did all that was in their power to pievsnt the Portuguefe 
fettling here ; whereupon they landed a body of troopsi 
and built aftrong fort to defend their polfeflion, but were 
drivenout of it again ; though others fay it was demolilhed 
by tlte I'oituguele theml'clves, as not thinking it worth 
maiiitainiiij; : but however that matter be, the tort is now 
wallieilaway by thcfea, of which part of the ruins may 
ilill be I'een at low water. Several turopean nations have 
tluir fiftoriis, and trade hither at this day without re- 
Uraiiit; and particularly the Englilh. It is a large ftrag- 
cling town, and the Prince's palace, as it is called, is an old 
irregular building out of repair, which he fetdom vifits. 
'J'here arc live white tombs a little to the northward of the 
town, which ferve as a fea mark to thefailors. The fa- 
niorin or king of this country, entered into an alliance 
and confederacy with the Englilh againil the Poituguefe 
in 161 ;. Calicut is fu' lunded by a brick wall, and con- 
tains about fix tboufand i rick houfes, mod of which have 
gardens. This was the firft place at wliich the Portuguefe 
landed in 1498, after their dilcovery of India. 

The countrvof the raiaof Sarimpatan lies contiguous to 
till- prince's dominiotu: it is faid, this country was never con- 
ijiiered , the natives are acivUlzed, jutt.andlium.-mc people. 
Farther to the fouth is the city of Cochin, a city htuatcd 
in a kiiindom of the fame name; in nine degrees fifty mi- 
nutes north latitude, and is about eighty miUs to the 
northward of Anjengo. This is a great town of trade, 
and the l>eft fenicment the Dutch have upon the Malab •, 
coall: it was fottified by the Portuguefe in the year i p+, 
when the two Albuquenjues conimaiided the I'o-.ti'guifl- 
fori IS. It is divided by f»mc into Old and New (.'c hii! ; 
No. a. 

the Old Cochin lies a lacue and a half from tlw fea, and li 
called by the PurtucucM Cochin Daciiu, or the iliglNr 
Cochin, becaule it lies higher up the river, and by the 
Dutch MaUlwr Cochii>, for here their king reiided. 
The other Cochin, commonly called New Cochin, is 
fcarce a leagii,- diftant from tiM (n upon the faina river. 
The Portuguefe built and beautified it with (cvcral fine 
edifices, chuiihcs and monafteries, tu which brlongrj 
pleafant j^ardrns and fine walks. TItc Jrluit» ch Jich a id 
college laced the fea Ihore, and had a lofty Oceple. I Iw 
cathedral was a noble piece of architcMurr, adorned * itti 
two rows of pillars, and had a lofty ftceple. The chjrcU 
and loiivcnl of the Auftin friars Hood upon the banks of 
therivir; and the church of the Doniinieans and t!'rir 
convt;nts wf ic two hue pieces of workniiiilhip, beautified 
\%ith a double row of pillars of evcclleiit (lone ; but tlie 
Dutch having ihi^ city furrendered to them in the year 
1667, iinmejiatelv gave orders for diinolilhiiig i<; part 
of the hoiilcj, and all the churches but one, in order to 
bring it into a iiai rower cumpafs, and render the fortifica- 
lioiK more regular ; and they b.ive made it almoll impreg- 
n:ihle, confideiiiig 'he pait of the world it Hands in, to 
which the Hones of the c' 'irches they pulled down in a 
gicat incafure contributed. 1 he fimiilc Portuguefe had 
converted them indeed to pious ufes ; butthe Dutch knew 
how to ciniiloy fuch nutcrials much better : and it is ob- 
lervalilc, that all over the Indies they think one church fuf- 
licicnt fur tliL'l.iigell cities, infomucli that in Jialavia it- 
felf they had for many years but one Dutch church. 

The dominions of the Kirtg of Cocliin have been re- 
peatedly invaded by the natives of Travancor, a country 
extending fiom cape Cemorin to the frontiers of Co- 
chin; and he is, from necetlity obliged to dwell in CioUl- 
tnwn, which is fituated or * river half a leaj^uc from the 
fea, and has feveral pagojas. His revenues ii fourteen 
thoufand four hundred tivtes, fiipiilated to be paid hiiii 
by antient capitulations, out of the produce of his cultonu. 

There is a colony of indudrious Jews in this town, who 
are white men, and abfurdly boad that their anccfiors were 
fettled here at the xra of the liab)lonilh captivity ; they 
have, hoA'cver, certainly Ixren here a coniidcrable time. 
They h.ivc 11 fynagogue, in which their ri.cord« .., very 
carefully prcleived. 

Cananor is a very popsilous and confuler.ible town in the 
kinf;dom of the fame imuc : it is litjalcd in twelve ..cgrces 
north latitude, aiul has amoft convenient harbour. 1 he 
Dutch, who have on .all occafions dil'iiiguiiheil tlicmftUes 
by their iudulhy and enterpniiiij genius h ive an extenlive 
fort here. Cananor was 01 ipiii.illy pollclleo by the Por- 
tuffuefe from whom the Dutch took it in ififto. I'ha 
chief articles in trade here .ire pepper, ginger, caflia, am- 
bcrgri>, mirobolan;, tanuriiuls, and precious lloiies. This 
tiiwn is inhalpited principally by .Mahometan merciiaiits. 

'I'herc isa large town at the bottom of the bay, which 
is independent of tlie Dutch: it is under the jurildifkion of 
a prince whocan bring twenty thoufand men into tbefield. 

The city of Cranganor lies fourteen or fifteen miles 
to the northward of Cochin, and was alfo the capital of a 
k ingdom of the fame name. This place was polFeffcd and 
fortified by the Portuguefe foon after tlieir arrival in In- 
dia, but taken from them by the Dutch in January 1661-2. 
The Dutch found here a noble college of jcfuits, with a 
(la>.;:ly librarv belonging to it, and it having once been the 
feat of a bilnop, here was a cathedral, and fix or fcvon 
otiiir churches, which underwent the late of thofc of 
othe ' places which the Dutch conquered, and have 110- 
thinii of litem remaining but their ruins. Without the 
walls was the college of Chanote, famous fur the refort of 
the Chriftians of St. Thomas hither, who exercifed their 
religion here in the Syrian language. I'hey had alfo a 
Syrian fcliool for the education of youth, and feveral maf- 
ters and priefts of their own. 

Hetween Cranganor and Calicut lie the towns of Panane 
aiuITaiioi ; thell- wcrealtboncepoflifll'd bythc Portuguefe. 
At Panane it was that ValLade G.ania treated with the Sa- 
inorin, or King of Calicut, concerning their lertlenieiit on 
this coaft ; but being oppofed hv the .Moors, they afterwards 
att;iclved the place in torm and took it. The iiutch fuc- 
cccded the Portuguefe, and liave now afaftory here. Tanor 
is a poor ftrajjigiinf; place. Init the Kuropeans refort hither 
fometimes on account of the trade; both thel'u towns arc 
utkoned to be in the kingdom ol Calicut. 

Cliinlura, more generally known b.y the namcof Dougli, 
IS at the diilance of about a mile from Chandernngore ; 
the Dutch have a fort here, but no other poflcllion.s what- 
evr. .1' the tcriitory round it dopciu!. vn the govern:;. ent 

tit t.lC C\»uii*i % . 

\ Huglsy 


I! . 

Ilu|k:y it fifljr mile* to tlic north nf Calcuttt : tlie 
EiiKtun dmI ofKc I hhuty lirrt, tnit rrmoTcil it to Cat- 
cum. 'I hit ii a place nf very confMcrahJc traffic, parti- 
cularly in ih« article nf xpiuiii. The Dutch have a t'ac- 
lory here, e r«Aed in an ntxu pUce, at a futall diftaiice finai 
ilic river. It ii (Icfoiideil hy a iliong fortreU, :in«l fur- 
roandoi hy a very deep ditch. 

Saumelnour ii telehiated tor it* prcclout ftonrt, which 
great nunimrt of |ictiple are rmployrd in I'carcliing for : 
tliefe are not, ai in nllicr pbi cv dug from miiiri, but found 
in the fundi of the river. Tliii ii a fniall place. 

ilandel waa formerly flic thief feat of the Portugiiefe 
cnmiiKrcc : it ii now a factory lor the fair of women to 
the Moon and Dutch : there are fnme uiilirraMc wrctchci 
here, chiefly FortugueCc, who employ tlitmdlvcj iirinci- 
pallviii thcabove Ihocking traffic, and arc at the dillance 
of ahotii eighty le.i^iici from the mouthof the Gangei. 

At Chaligan the I'ortuguefc nncc cftabilhed a fort of ah- 
folutc or fovcreipn power, ami formed an alliance with the 
rohhen of different nationi who took ref\'?e here, and a«- 
knowledv;ed no fubonlln.'ition to any pi i nee whatever, not 
< even lo tlieir own : the Mogul, howivcr, (iiKling thcni loo 

trnnhlr^>me lo be b<iriic with, feni a force agaiiil) them, 
who totally extirpated thcin. The town lict in twenty- 
three ilrf;rre< north latitude, near the mouth of the moft 
caftcrly hrancli of tlic Ganget ; it hai no cottfiderablo m»- 
• iiufaAurc. 

'I'he next fettlemint on the cnaft of Coromandel is 
Tranqiichar, which i\ claimed hy the Danes : it ii fituated 
in eleven degree 1 fixtccn minutes north latitude, furroundcd 
by a wall, and it about two miles in circumfereiKc. It wa.s 
purchafed of the Kingnf Tanjore, l>y the Danes, in i^ii. 
, ^ 'rjje ftrecti of thii town are wide, ^'id have a brick 

. > paver^nt on the fides. The houfes o» the Danes, and 

other Kuiotieani, are of brick and (tone ; but with only 
the ground-floor \ thofc of the Indians are very mean. 
The Danilh miflionaiiei have a congreeation here, which 
ihrivei thou|;h vigoroufly oppofcd by the Papiils. They 
have a ftliool here for youth, who arc inllru^ted in the 
Frotcftant faith ; alfo .i printing-office, and a pa|icr-mill. 

The town is fuppofed to contain about tivethoufand in- 
habitants ; aiul liuth a inoft agreeable profpcA from the 
fra. In xtiqc) it Oond a fix months (lege agalnll the King 
of Taniorc'i forces, allilied by the Dutch -, had not go- 
vernor Pitt fent ' its relief a reinforcement of Englilh 
from Fort St. Or.irpe. 

Tlie above difrribcdare the chief feltlcmcnts belonging 
to the F.uropcaiii, except the infular ours, which wc 
Ihall take notice of in our account of the caftern iOes ; 
and proceed to givi; a dcfcription of the lltuation and ex- 
tent of Coromaiuk-I, wlii< h is bounded by Proper Nar- 
Jinga on the weft, Golconda on the north, the bay of 
Rental on the e.-ii>, and Giiigi on the foutli, though Gingi, 
I'nnjon.-, and Madura arc pi operly enough by fomc reckon- 
ed part of the coaft of Coromandel, thefe making formerly 
the e.-iA part of the kingdom of Difnagar, and going under 
the general name of Coromandel before thefe little prin- 
cipalities wcrt erefted; and according to this account, the 
coaft of Coromandel reaches from cape Comorin, whi^h 
Hei in fevcn degrees, thirty minutes north latitude to Maf- 
fula|intan, the nrft town in (iolconda, in (Ixteen degrees, 
f thirty minutes, fo that this coaft takes up nine degrees of 

latitud'.-, which allowing for the winding of tlic Ihorcs 
makes a fea coalt of at leall (even hundred miles. 

I'he Krll fettlementi on this coall were ellablilhed near 
the Ihorc, fomc hy dint of force, and others by the con- 
■il^i. font of the fovereigns. The manufafiures of Coroman- 

del fird infpired the kuropcans with the refolution of fet- 
tling here. Hedges of thorny plants were the firil lioun- 
daiies, till, the colnnills incrcafing in power and opu- 
lence, fortllications were raifcd for tlicir defence. Alinoft 
the whok trade of this roaft is now in the hands of tlic 
Eiiro|icans ; though for lomc lime Coromandel was no 
oLJcti of th:ir attention, txring fe|)aratcd from Maiabar by 
in;icccnib!e mountains. 

Wc ihall conclude this {i:dion with a particular account 
of the kingdom of (iolconda, which extends two hundred 
and fixty miles along tlie bay of Bengal. It is in the form 
(if a crefccnt, and about two hundred inile^ in the broadctl 
part from eart to weft. It has Uifnagaron the fouth, the 
mountains of Gatiion the weft, and thofc of Orixa and 
JT llallii^.-itc on the north. 

Tins countn' is famous for its diamond millet, . i fonie 

nf which the diamonds lie (cattcred within a few uthoms 

of llic oarth's furface, and others are difcovered in a nii- 

iiinil in the rocks more tlum forty fatlioms deep. 'Ihc 

. ■ wutkincii dig into ilic rodi, snd then, by nif ans of fire; 

foficn the (Wne,andfoprtKr dtiUthey tiiulilMvein, ttlii.-h 
often iMni under tlm nick two or iliicc turlonut. All tli< 
earth it brnuBht out, and, after great iiaie it bcftowid oit 
it, produces ftonti of aconfidcrablc liiw, and pretty gosxl 
water, hut of diffvrenl fliapet. 

Near the place wlicre tlu:y dig they make a ciftcrn about 
two feet liign, and lix feet over, with a fmall vent in oim 
of iho fidci, ahuut two inches from the Iwltuni, by which 
it em|>t'ei illcit info a little pit made in the caillk to rcceivo 
fmall ftimei, if hy chance any Ihould run through. 'J tia 
vent bting flopped, they fill the ciftern llicy have made 
with water, foaking therein as much ut the earth they dig 
out of (he mine., as it can conveniently receive at a tiiue i 
hreakin]^ (he clods, picking out the grcatcft ftoiMS, and 
ftirring it with Ihoveli till the water is all muddy, the gia- 
velly iViiff' falling lo the huttoni : then they u|icii the vent, 
letting out the foul v^atct, and fupplyiiig it with clean, till 
all the earthy fuhllancc Ik wallicd away, and none hut • 
gravelly remains at tli( bottom. Thus tlicy continue walh- 
iiig till alKiut (en of (he clock before noon, when they 
take the gravelly ftuff they have walhed, and fpread it u* 
a place made plain and fninnth like a bowling -alley, lot tlie 
purimlc near the ciftein, which Uing luim di led by the heat 
of tlie fun, at that time of the day, llley very ciiiioufly look 
it over, tlint the linallell bit of a ftonc can liaidly el'ca^ic 
tlieiii. If they find a large Uone, ihcy deliver il not t>lt 
they have done work , and tlirn very privately, left it 
Ihould come to the know ledge nf the governor of the place, 
and he retjuirea Iharc, which in the kingdom ofCiolconda 
is iifually pratkiled, without ref|>eA to any agiccineiit made 
with them. 

'I'he workmen are obliged to lie watched wiili flM ul- 
moft diligence, left they Ihould lie tempted to emlK^/.lr any 
of the precious articles which they are einploved to fcareii 
for. One of them was dete£U-d in putting a fmall itone 
into the corner of hit eye j and many others have (wallowed 
the diamonds. 

The principal pcrfons concerned in this trade, are tli« 
Danyun mercluntsi but both they, and the perfoiis em- 
ployed to work the mines are greatly oppielled : the hr(t 
alTeiling to be poor, and tlie latter Ix-iiig (b in reality , tut 
tlu' governors do not htfftr any to be rich, if ihcy know thcin 
tube lb. Hut inVifiapourthey arc more humanely treated. 

Thole diamonds which exceed the u ei)^lit of a pagodil, 
are the King's property ; but all of an interior weight a|v> 
pertain to the merchants. The largeft diamond ever 
found was prcfented to the Mogul, weighing two hundretl 
and feveniy-nine carats of four grains each. 

MalFulapatan is the chief harbour in the kingdom of 
Golconda 1 and the country extends from the gulf \'ilia>- 
pour ; it once formedanartof averyextenfive empire, (ub- 
leA totJie Emperor of Hifnagar, and comprehciuled nearly 
the whole of the peninfula, from the nortliern extremity 
of Orixa to CatK; CoinoVin. 

The city, CioIcoiiil.L, whidiis about two hundred and 
thirty-eight miles wet of Mallulapatan, and al<out two 
hundred north-weft ut Madras, is lituated in a good foil, 
and falubrious air ; it flone walls (urrovinded with deep 
ditches, divided into tombs or ponds o( clear water. It 
has many grand inoUjues, r\ which an ilio tombs of the 
kiil^ '* Ciolconda In itii4 about ti' c thoufand houfes 
were » thcd aw.iv, and fume thuul-iuidt of (icoplc and 
cattle perul.»-d hv an inundation. 

The to'wn ai.J harlvjur of Matfulapatan is (Ituated on the 
north fide of ihc river Nagundi, which Icparates Golconda 
and Kifna^jii. in cii;hty-oiie degrees (buy minutes caft 
longitude trom London, and lixteen degrees thirty ramutes 
north la;^ ae. Tow.irds the clofe of the laft century, it 
was one ot the moft tlu iviiig towns in India, and the moll 
advanr.-igeou, of tlic KimIiIIi fattories. The Dane:, I'or- 
tugucfc, and Dutch, hud allb fajtoiius here, and the 
culloin* amnimrcd to tonincii tliou(aiul p.i;;odas per an- 
num, It being the ni"i\ cc'i.liratcd mart toi callicocs, indi- 
pws, di.^nioiuls, and othi i precious Uoiies ; and there were 
.•vbout tun hundred thouland inhabitants ; il is now, how- 
ever, only a Dutch fiu-Nirv for chints. It i.s furrouiuled 
by a wall anil ditch, and over the land (idc is a deep mu- 
ral's, with a Inidgc over it. 

The 1 rench, under th tnari|ui» de Conl'iiK, pof- 
feircd themfclve* of this cii\ in 1759; but it w is rake.l 
trom them by the Englilh t'orcc^ under the command of 
colonel l-'ordc. The waves, n^rvi the bar, aie lo rapid, as 
to nuke a noife like the catarafts of the iSilc, and lomc- 
times have ahii 't as great a fall. The heat hen;, efpc- 
cially in Mav, ■. iointcnfe, that jx-ople dare nor itirouc of 
then houfes In fome parts of the day. 

Between twenty and. tlnrty miles to the fouth wc^ of 
4 Hu.- 

I • * * 


Mil ^ 


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. 1 . _ <.-■»« 

Wiilf Mm 


'J^mrifdtv.'am'Bi'f/- Mii^fklrrMHt^'Rew. 

[A S I A.J 

I N D O S T A N. 

live city of MalTuIapstan, is Pettipuly, or ?enta-poolti 
wlioic til'; Eiij'.lifli liav« J faflory. The printed and dyed 
ftaffs of thii place arc highly efteemed i and in an ifland 
uppofuc to it grows a root which make! fo deep a colour, 
,', that it is obhgeJ to be mixed witli other colours to make 
; it lively, 'liie Fnglifh ha\'c alfo a faftory about one 
hundred miles farther foutli, called Coletorc, and the 
Dutch haveafai^ory called Palicatc, fliU a little farther to 
the I'uuth. 

S E C T. IV. 

' CeHlains an an»nnt »/ thi gtniut, umpir, ptrfini, halili, 
ftdy divtr/uHiy rittdSy Vc. tf ihi Indiaat. 

THOSE Indians who are Pagans (and are ten times 
more numerous than the Mahometans tlieir gover- 
,: nors) are men of bright parts, and willimitate almoft any 
thing at firft fight. They are very fober and abftemious, 
never drowning their fenfet by drunkenuefs and intem- 
perance, extremaly obliging, and of a very pretty addrefs, 
an even compofea temper, and (ludioufly avoiding all 
manner of contention ; but they are generally thought to 
want courage. 1 have known fomc of them, however, 
'ks brave, at the braved Europeans; men that would be 
: cut to pieces before they would dcfcrt their poft, and en- 
.T dure the fevereft torture, rather than betray their firiend, 
orthecaufe they were engaged in. But to return to the 
ingenuity of the Indians : they will copy our piftures fo 
nicely, thatyou can fcarce diftingui(h the copy from the 
original. The common people paint tliofe fine chints 
and calicoes we import from India, and their carpenters 
will imitate the model of an Englilh fhip, as if they had 
been brought up ihip-carpcntcrs, and it is amaxlng to fee 
how quick tlicy a.e at .iccounts. 

They are of a middle iize, feldoin corpulent, their 
features good, but tlieir complexion for die moft part 
black i they have lotVg black hair and black eyes ; but 
tliough the men in the middle of the peninfula, are as. 
black as jet, towards the north tliey are tawny, as well as 
on the coaft. The women in their itaturc, features, Ihipe, 
■irandmein, have no rivals ; without the advantage ot a 
dancing-tnafter, their motion is bewitching, they tread tlic 
ground as elegantly as an a£lrefs does tlie flagc. Their 
cloathiiig does not prevent their ihewing the natural Ihnpc 
of their bodie* ; tliey are neither diftortcd or rendered 
trooked by ftrait ftays, or lofe the true (hape in a 
nlonftrous hoop. l"hey have a piece of white callico tied 
about their waifts, which reaches to their knees, and the 
reft istlirown acrofs their flioulders, covering their brealls, 
and part of their backs. Their hair is tied up in a roll, 
and adorned with jewels or toys ; they have uendants in 
their ears and nofes, and fevcral ftrings of beads round 
their necks ; they wear bracelets on their wriil and ancles, 
and rings on their fingers and tn, ; they put tlieir bare 
feet into (lipiiers ; though the women, in the foutlicni 
parts, wear neitlier flippers nor Ihoes, 

The Indian men wear white vefts, girt about with a 
falh, in which they have a circe or dagger. Their hair, 
like the women's, is tied up in a roll, over which they 
have a fmall turban Ihe upper partof theirgarment iscon- 
trived to fit fo as that the wearer s (hapemay befecn. Under 
tliis it another fomewhat ftiorter, and their legs are covered 
by their breeches : they wear flippers peaked like women's 
Ihoes, into which they put their Dare feet. 

The Moors or Mahometans are well (hapfd j the com- 
plexion of thofe in the north it fcir; thofe in the fouth, 
tawney ; but thefe too have generally black hair and black 
eyes, and like other Maliomctans, Ihave their heads all but 
one lock on the crown, and wear tlieir beards long j tlieir 
habit is a veft and large turban. 

The banian call, or tribe of Pap.ins, eat no flefli or 
eggs any more than the bramins (pricfls) antientlv called 
brachmans, but live upon rice, herbs, roots, and fruits. 
The rert of the Pagans cat alinoft every thing but beef 
and filh without fcales. The Moors or Mahometans eat 
alinoft all flelh but that of hogs, hares, and fuch flelh as 
the Jews were prohibited to cat. They all fit crols- 
le^ed, or loll u|)on mats or carpets at their meals, and 
warn before and after, 'i he principal dilh, among both 
Moors and Pagans, is, pilau, made of fowls or mutton, or 
rice. The meat, whatever it be, is flowed to rags, of 
which thcv make a ftrong ("oup-. «.nd fcafon it verv high. 
They make n liions; loiip alio of venilon, filh, andalmoft 
all manner of tlclh. When the company is let down 
upon a fopha or raifcJ floor, covered with a mat or carpet 
at the upper end or tides of the room, a fervant comes in 

with a bafon and ewer, and a towel, anJ ever* on* witihci 
hit hands ; then a large plate, or a leaf of a toot diameter 
is fet before every one of the guefls : after which, otlttr 
f^rvanti bring in large brazen or earthern bowls, iiill of 
ric«, and with a ladle, lay a quart or three pints of boiled 
rice on every man's plate, pouring as much of the ftrong 
foup upon the rice as will moiften it, and a little part of 
the meat is laid on the fide of the plate. A bottle or cruife 
of water, alfo, which is their common liquor, it fet by 
every one, of which they drink when tliey pleafe, without 
bealtlts, or taking notice of any of the company. If 
they are entertained with fiih, a ftrong foup is made of 
them, which is called curee, and mixed with tlie rice. 
They boil their rice in fudi a manner, that it is quite dry, 
not the leaft drop of water it left in it, and frequently co- 
lour it with faffiron or turmeriok. Their faucet are cniefly 
pickles, which they call achar, made of green bamboo, 
or mangoes, and otlier fruits, And foy is another fauce 
which is brought to England, and therefore needs no de- 
fcriptionhere. Abundance of garlic is ufed in all their 
pickles, efpecially in tlie mangoe. 

They are remarkably fond of fmoaking tobacco. Tl e 
poor roll up a leaf of tobacco, about four or five indies 
long, and, lightning it at one end, fmoak the other till it 
is about lulf exhaufted and then throw it away. 

The Indians have feveral kinds of diveruons among 
them. They fometimes game for fmall matters, but not 
fo eagerly as the Chinefe, and are feldom feen out of tem- 
per. At a feaft, the mulic is fent for, particularly the 
girls dedicated to the temple, who, having lung and danced 
before the company, will retire with any of mem, if de- 
(ired. Plays are aned by torch-light in the fields, during 
the fair feafon, when the evening is exceeding ferene. 

Fights of wild beafts are the diverfion of the court, and 
the dancing of the cobre capelle, or liooded fcrpents is fecii 
in every village. Their Keepers bring them in covered 
balkets, and beginning to fing and play on very bad inftru- 
ments, at the uncovering the balkcts feven or eight of 
there creatures get up and dance to the foimds, which 
hardly deferve the name of mufic ; but if it is difcontinued 
ever fo little, they get out of their balketi, and hifs very 
terribly. However, as foon as tlie muiic begins again, tliey 
are reclaimed and fall to dancing as before. 

The chief rural fports of the Indians are hunting and 
hawking : they furround part of the country, and drive 
the game into a narrow compafs, and then flioot at it : they 
teach even tygers and leopards, it is faid, to take the game, 
which they do by jumping upon it from bulhes, or other 
cover, but never run fairly after it. They purcliafe hawks 
and other birds of prey from Perfia, which are taught to 
fly at all manner of^game, and even at wild beafts, fixing 
on the head of tlie animal, and bufl^eting him with their 
wings, while the dogs conic up and take him. An ox 
being taught to Hand fire, they make the lame ufe of him 
as wc do of ftalking horfes, to get near their game. 
Another diverfion is tli'at of racing ; they make the fame 
ufe of oxen, as we do of horfes. 

Having, among other Indian diverfions, mentioned 
''''at of die fights of wild beafts, we Ihall, before we 
quit this fubjeCt, defcribe an entertainment given by 
the great Mogul to foreign ambaflhdors, which is of a 
very lingular nature : it confifls of wild beafts of various 
forts fighting with each other, or combated by men, who 
engage in fuch dangerous enterprizes in order to obtain 
the nvour of the King. The manner of one of thefe 
fights, which was exhibited at Agra (when the Mogul's 
kept their court there) is thus related. 

Two buffaloes were let loofc at each otlier, and after-> 
wards a lion and a tyger, the two latter of which fought 
defperately for fome time. I'hefe being taken away, the 
governor arofc, and faid, "The great Mogul's will and 
pleafure is, tliat if any valiant heroes arc dilpofcd to give 
proofs of their valour, in fighting againft the wild bcafl s 
with fliield and fword, let them come fortli ; if they con- 
quer, the great Mogul will lliew high favour to them." 
On this, three pcrlons entered the lit), and engaged to 
undertake the combat; when the governor calling aloud, 
faid, " None muft fight with any other weapon but fword 
and fhield ; thofe which have a dagger about them, mull 
throw it away, and fight fairly." A lion was then driven 
into the ring, where one of tne three ftood ready to en- 
counter him : the lion immediately ran to him with the 
greaicu ferocity, but tiie man defended himieU a confidcr- 
ahle time, till his arms growing weary, the Hon laid one 
of his paws on the fhield, and tlie other on liis arm. The 
man, nnding himfclf unable to ufe his fword, >n<l feeing 
the danger he was in, with hi» left liand di-ew out his In- 




diin ftiletto, anJ gave the Iten fo v'lolfnt • flab in the 
throat, that he immediately let go his hold -, after which, 
he levered his body almoft in two with his fword, and, 
pnrfuing his viftory, cffeftually killed him, when the 
people ihouted out, " Thanks be to God, ht is con- 
quered." The Mogul, however, fmiling, faid to the con- 
igueror, " You are a brave foldier, you have fought vali- 
antly i hut did not I command you to fight fiiirly, with 
fword and fliield onlv? but, like a thief, you have flolcn 
the lion's lifi: with a ftiiotto." After this the fava<;e tyrant 
ordered tlie man's belly to be immediately ripped open, 
and that his body fhould be carried on tne oack of an 
t^lephant throughout tlic city ; which fentencc was imme- 
diately executed. 

Then a tyger was bin; )'f ro the ring, which was en- 
countered by a very ftrong man ; but die tyger was fo 
a£live, that he fuddenly leaped on his antagoniu, and tore 
him to pieces. A very fmall perfon then engaged the tyger, 
and at the firft encounter cut off both his tore feet, which 
obliged him to fall ; when purfuing his efforts, he fooii 
killed him. On this the Kmg, calling to him, aflced his 
name : to which he anfwered, Geiby. The King here- 
ufpon ordered one of his fervants to c^ry him a cloth of 
gold, who, when he delivered it to him, faid, " Geiby, 
receive this coat, which the Mogul of his liounty hath 
fcnt." The conqueror received the coat with great hu- 
mility, kifled it leven times, and afterwards holding it 
up, prayed to himfelf for the Mogul's profpcrity ; which 
done, he cried aloud, " God grant the Mogul to grow as 
great as Tamerlane, from whom he is derived ; may he live 
feven hundred years, and his generation continue for ever I" 
after he had thus expreifed himfelf, he was condn£ted by 
an eunuch to the King, who, on his going away, faid, 
" Be praiCed, Gtiby Chan, for your heroic exploits : this 
name you (hall keep for ever; I am your favourable lord, 
and you my vaffiil." 

1 he Indian roads are not laid out as with us ; in the 
open country, we travel over deep fands, where there is no 
tr.ick, and tlirough thick woods a way is fometimes cut ; 
but little or nothing done towards the raifmg or repairing 
them. At every ten or twelve miles end, however, there 
is a caravanfera, or choultrv, for the convenience of tra- 
vellers, with a tank, or reicrvoir of water, near it, and 
fire for drcrting their food ; but no inns, inn-keepers, or 
beds. 1 he traveller t.ikcs care to furnilh himlelf with 
every thing he may have occafion for on the way, before 
he fets out. 

A perfon in opulent circumflances, takes a palanrjuin, 
which is a couch, covered witli an arched canopy, with a 
mattrefs, quilts, andcufhions, or pillows to lie on. Then 
he hires ten cooleys, or chairmen, four of whom carry him 
at a time -, for the palanquin is hung upon a bamboo or 
hollow cane, about five or fix inches diameter, and ten feet 
long, and is fo bent in the middle, while it is growing, 
that it may fuilainthe arclied canopy over it ; ana a gen- 
tleman may fit upright, or lie at his length, lolling upon 
the cufliions, ifhepleafes. As there arc but four of the 
cooleys that carry him at a time, two before, and two be- 
hind, laying the ends of the bamboo cane, on which the 
couch hangs, on their fhoulders, the re{l are employed in 
carrying Urge umbrellas, finely carved and gilded, tofcreen 
the fun froni their mailer, morning and evening; for when 
the fun is many degrees above the horizon, the canopy 
fcreens him from it) ; vjhilc another cooley brufhes tne 
flies off his maftcr. 

In many parts of India where there is any danger of 
being fit upon by tlie mountaineers, they travel in cara- 
vans, or large companies of fevcn or eight hundred. For 
carrying of goods they make ui • ■ •( camels, oxen and afles; 
their horfes come from Perfia or 'I'artary, and are of too 
great a price to bo put to thefe drudgeries, and their own 
little breed are not vcn.- fit for burthens ; but what makes 
the camel of great fervicc in all hot fandy countries, is, 
that he will travel fcveral days without water ; oxen are 
alfo ul'cd to ride on, as well as for burthens, and they 
dr.iw both their waggons and hackeries, or coaches with 
two wheels; inftcad of a faddic they lay a foft culhion on 
the ox to fit on, and inftcadof a bridle put a rope through 
the cartilage which feparatcs the noftrih, and with this 
they guide him, they will trot along at a pretty round rate, 
and fometimes they run races witli them ; what tliey differ 
from ours in, is, that they have a large bunch of Helh big- 
ger than a man's double fift, that ftjnd; up between thrir 
fhoulders near fix inches. The buffalo is as large as the 
ox, but a more (luggilh animal, and therefore ufed only in 
carrying water from the tarK|ues to their houfr«, or to draw 
ia the Jcavengers carts. Their hackeries are fquare hke 

our coaches, but have no raifed feats to fit on, however 
pillows are laid at the bottom to lean on. 

There are no people of any quality but have a (table of 
fine_ Perfian horfes for their own riding, and our Eall- 
India company keep a fet of them for the ufe of tlicir 
fiiftors and fervants in their principal fettlcments. The 
Mogul and his omrahs have elephants, on which they 
travel with their women and bagpge from place to place ; 
there are not, it is faid, lefj than hve hundred of thefe that 
attend the Mogul in all his marches, befides a prodigious 
number of camels and wheel carrL-iges ; their carriages 
are ufually drawn by eight or ten oxen, and their wheels 
have nofpokesbut are only a thick round board. 

Travelling in the rainy feafon, is very tromblefome, the 
flat country being overflowed, and innumerable torrents 
falling from the mountains, but this doei not hinder the 
common people from taking journies at this time of year, 
for they will take the water like a fpanici, and fwim with 
that ftrength that I never faw any of our people able to 
come near them. I happened to be in tlte country during 
the raini, and having two or three broad rivers to crou 
which ran very fwiitly, I trufied myfelf to two of thefe 
blacks, who took me between them and fwam crofs the 
river with one hand with all the eafe imaginable, and 
thus tlte whole company was carried over to the number of 
twelve or thirteen, 

'I'hcre are no poflt in the country, but all letters and 
packets over land are difpatched by meflengcrs on purpote, 
who travel on foot with great expedition, and are very rea- 
fonablc in tlieir demands. 

S E C T. V. 

Treats tf tht uaturtil hiflory of India, namely, tf thift'il, in- 
duct, plants, animals, mintrals, iic. 

RICE is the moft common fort of grain in that part of 
India which lies within the tropic of cancer ; nirther 
north, they have wheat, barley, peas, and beans. Tlie 
rice is firil fown in beds, where coining up too tliick to 
produce any thing but draw, it is trani'planted into tlieir 
fields in Jime, when the rains begin to fall, for the huf- 
bandnian having ploughed and weeded his giound, con' 
verts the earth into a kind of hotch-pot with die water as 
it falls ; and the cottagers, with tlieir wives and diildren, 
biing the fpircs of rice in baikcts, from the beds where it 
waj firtt fown, being 'then about half a foot high, and plant 
each i'pire or blade of rice in a flrait trench, fupplyiueit 
with water as it grows, by little rills or chanels, if the nans 
do not water it tor them ; but ulually as the rice grows, 
the floods increafc in proportion, and the rice is fupptied 
witli water till near harvcft, which hapjicns in November 
or December; and by thattime the fun having exhaled all 
the water, the earth is hardened, the rice is cut, and ufoally 
tlnellicd out in the field. 

1 his grain grows moft like oats, the ftraw is not hollow 
likethat of wheat or barley, but flifFand hard, as w<e may 
fee by the wliilks or brufhes made of it and brought to 
England. Every grain of rice has a tliick brown Ikia 
upon it, and rovft be well beat in a wooden mortar and 
fitted, before it looks of that pure white we fee it here. 
And notwitliflanding f* much pains are taken with it, be- 
fore it is fit to eat, the price is very low : three-pence will 
pnrcliafe enough to feed a family of nine or ten people a 
whole day, though an Indian will eat three times as much 
as an European ; and this, with a very little flelh or fifh, 
cucumbers, melons, fruit, roots and herbs, are the ufual 
food the generality of tlie Indians live upon ; they have very 
little variety, nordo they feem to defire more than they luve. 

During tlic rains, and for fome time after, it is amaz- 
ing to fee how faft all manner of vegetables grow ; tlteii 
green fields, corn, grals, and flowers, adorn tlie face of 
the earth again : the natives rejoice, notwitlifUnding the 
loud thunder they hear every evening, well knowing that 
the rain it brings with it, is the foundation of all their 
plenty; but if the rains fail, they hive nothing to cxpeft 
nut famine and ficknefs, having been fometimes obliged 
even to fc-ll foine of tficir children to the Ea^ India com- 
[lany, tiir linall quantities of rice ; having no other choice, 
but to part with them to fave their lives, and prelisrve the 
rrft of the family fi nin pcrilhing for want of nourifhment. 
Ill this dry feafon the grals is burnt up, and tliere it none 
tu be found but luniu rank, lour flutt ii: the woods. Their 
fields lie open, except near the towns and villages, where 
people make Ionic little enclolurt"! for tlicir coiivenicucy , 
and as no man has any property in the land he lows, the 
prince's officer:; take a third, or one half of the crop, or 
more. a> they tliink fit, and leave liiu itulbandmin the 




lA S I A.) 



A if. 


ids. Their 
en, where 
veuiciicy , 
lows, the 
crop, of 
ndniia the 

reft. Nor ii it left to the hudMiuloUh'i choice Whether he 
will fow 6r hot; for the refpeAive Eovernors ind ^nenlt', 
having certain towni and villagct affigned theit^, to eriabib 
them to maintain the quota of troopt they are to fiirnifli, 
order fuch a quantity of giround to te marked out for 
every village to manure, aiul at harVeft f^itd their officer* to 
take as much of the crop as diey think fir. 

The gardens in Iiidia are flocked with i great variety of 
fruit trees ; but they are planted in Ao manner of order, 
any more than their flowen. Their fruits are mangoes, 
Kuavas, pomegranates, ananas or pine-apples, cocoa-nuts, 
limes, lemons, oranges, and all manner of tropical fruits 
in the fouth i and in the north, they have apples, pears, 
and moft of the European fruits. Botli fruit-trees and 
foreft-trees '.. the fouth of India are ever-greens, and 
fome of their fruit-trees are in bloflbm, aiid have green 
and ripe fruit on them at the fame time. The kitchen gar- 
den affords melons, pot-lierb*, and roots ; pepper grows 
on the Malabar coaft, and they have alfo ginger, faSron, 
turmeric, fugar, cotton and indigo. 

The cocoa and cottun-trecs are the moft ufefiil in India. 
The cocoa affords meat, drink, oil, and timber for build- 
ing ; the fibres of the bark make their cordage, the branches 
cover their houfcs, and the leaves ferve them to write 
upon; and from the cotton-tree they have their callico, 
and liloft of their cloathing. The province of Bengal 
furnillies tliem with iilk and muflin. The banian tree 
feems peculiar to this country, and deferves a particular de* 
fcriptiot^; The principal body grows to a great bulk, and 
fome of its branches (hoot horizontally from the trunk, 
and fi-om thbffe branches little twigs Ihoot downwards per- 
pendicularly, atul taking root form other bodies, which, 
like pillars, fupport the arms they fprung from ; and thus 
one tree comet to have twenty or thirty bodies, and covers 
a great fpace of ground, fufficient to fhelter a regiment. 
Neither this, hor aily other of the Indian trees are without 
leaves at iiny time pf the year. It is under thefe trees 
that the banians and other fuperftitious people place their 
images ; and here thei- hermits voluntarily undergo the 
feverefl penances, CorrirTining themfclves to fit or lie in 
one pollute all tL''ir indering themfelves ufelefs 

to God and manj by -. ■ ^ hope to merit paradife. 

The indigo tf'ee c '.': . ; alfo very valuable : it is 
about the fize of a ro.c-^re«t biit Itas a fmooth rind. The 
leaves, when Dripped off at a proper feafon, are laid toge- 
ther, when a Vegetable nioiftiire exhales from them. They 
are then immerkd in water, coiitained in vefTels adapted 
for the purpofc. . After the watger has er.traAed tlie olue 
from the leaves, it is drained off ; the fediment is then 
expofcd in broad Ihallow veflels td the fun-beamt, through 
the heat of which the moiilure evaporates, and the indigo 
remains in cakes at the bottoni of the velTcl. 

Oxen are of great ui%; among other Indian animals, 
cither for riding-, carrying burthens, or for draft. They 
are not fo large but make much more fpeed than ours, tra- 
velling thirty miles a day, and more, chiefly upon a trot ; 
and thuy have a bunch between their Ihoulders, very con- 
venient tor fallening their pack-faddles to; ten thoufand 
of thefe animals arc foirtetimes feen in a caravan, (which 
confifts of feveral hundred or thoufand cairielst oxen, or 
bealh of burden, loaded with merchandize, and riot wheel- 
cairiages) their governors being employed in carrying the 

Sroviiions of one province to another, and arc fometimes 
iled princes, and wear flrings of pearl about tlieir 
necks. The people are divided into four tribes, there be- 
ing about one hundred tltoufand fouls in each. They live 
in tents, and have no place they can call their home, en- 
camping on fiefh ground almoft every night, and carrying 
their wives and children with them. They are attended 
alfo by their priefts, and every morning before they fet out 
pay their devotion to an idol. One of thefe caravans 
carries barley, another rice, a third peas and beans, and a 
fourtli fait. Thereare ten or twelve oxen ufually employed 
in drawing a waggon, and two in drawing a hackery or 
chaifc ; they feed thefe o/"n with barley-dough and grafs 
when they can get it, but there is little of this to be 
had in the fouth of India in the fail feafon, which is the 
proper time of the year for travelling ; camels alfo make 
part of tlie caravan, one of which will carry feven hundred 
or eight hundred weight and more ; and the dromedaries 
which arc a fmaller fpecics of camels, are as remarkable 
for their fwifcncfs as the other for tlicir flrcngtli, for lliey 
Avill trot two hundred miles a day, Thefe are alfo fed 
with balls of harley-duiigh, or fome other grain, and are 
Very ufcfiil in this and other hot countries where water is 
i'carcc, as tiiev will travel cij^ht or nine days without water; 
but tikough tliey arc proper for faudy dcfatts, if they come 
No. <j. 

uiK>n a clay foil afier any ^aiit it fallen, the caravan it 
forced to lie fltll till the ground it dry, the caniel having^ * 
{fmooth foo^ ^thoiit tny hoof, and if he flips, he it in 
danger of being fpioiled.. 

There it a great number of elephants produced in In- 
i'w, iihifh being an animal of remarkable fize and (Quality, 
we fhall here give a particular dpfcription of it as being the 
laigeft Quadruped ih the univerfe. . it is from twelve to 
iSfteen feet high, and about feven broad. Its fkin, abovt 
the belly is fo toiigh, that a fword cannot penetrate it : it 
is of a darkiih colour, and very much fcarihed ; it hat ex- 
ceeding Ifaiall eyes, large ears, round and full body, and 
tlie back rifes tb an arch.. On each fide of its jiws, withid 
the mouth, are four teeth, or gririders, and two teeth pro- 
jeA outward* :. in the male, they bend downwards, and 
are ftrbngcft ; in the female, they turn upwards and are 
iharpeft ; both male and female ufe one which is fharp, at 
a detenfive weapon, and the other. Which is blunted, to 
grub up trees and plants for food. The teeth of the male 
fometimes grow to the leiigtli of ten feet, and have been 
known to weigh direc hundred pounds each. The teeth 
of the female though lelV, are the moft valuablie ivory. 
They naturally fhed their teeth bnce in ten years, and 
bury them carefully in tlie eartli, to prevent, as is imagined, 
their being found by man. The elephants tongue is TmaU, 
but broad) their feet are round and ample, the legs have 
joints which arc flexible ; the forehead is large, and riling ; 
the tail refembles that of a hog ; ahd the blood of this 
creature is colder tlian that of any other. But the organ 
which moft peculiarly diftinguiflies the elepliant, is its trunks 
This lingular memlicr is crooked, grilly, and Hexibte, about 
feven feet in length, and more than three in circumference 
towards the head : but it gradually diminilhes to the extre- 
mity. At the root, towards the nofc, are two paflagest 
the one into the head, the other to the moutli ; through 
the Hrft it breathes, and by the latter it receives its provi- 
fions, the trunk ferving tlte purpofcs of a hand to feed it 
and a weapon to defendit. It is fo ftrong, tltat it can liti 
a prodigious weight ; and fo delicate in the fenfation of 
Oseling, tliat it can take the fhialleft piece of coin from the 
ground. They delight, much iti water; arid will fwim a 
great way. 

The male elephant is fometimes niad after the female, at 
which times he is apt to be very mifchievous, and will 
ftrike any one he meets with but his keeper, and therefore 
they are at tlut feafon cluined by the legs to great trees, 
and if by chance they get loole, they will overturn any 
thing in their way ; nor is it poffible to ftop or divert their 
rage out by fire-works, which burfling with a loud noife 
will make them ftaiid ftill and tremble : when they are in 
thefe mad tits they fweat prodigioully, and fmell much 
ranker than a goat : it is credibly reported, that an elephant 
having broke Toofe in tliis rage, and making towards tlie 
bazar, or market-place, from A^'hence all pet>ple fled as faft 
as the)r could, he cairie to an herb woman's, that ufed to 
give him a handful of herbs as he paffed by, and the wo- 
man having run away and left her child upon the ground 
in her fright, tlie eleplumt gently took it up with his trunk, 
and laid it upon a ftall, without doing it any hurt, and 
then proceeded to overturn and do mifchief to every thing 
that came in his way as before. 

The Mogul has hve hundred, fome fay oiie thoufand of 
thefe elephants in his fervice, which are trained up to war, 
that will not only ftand Are, but fuftcr a great gun to be 
fired off their backs : the gun tliey carry is about five feet 
long, and placed upon a fquare frame of wood, which it 
fiiftened to a broad thick pannel, tycd on with ftrong cords 
and girths. At the four corners of the frame they plant 
four (ilk flagt* or colours upon little antient-ftaves. Upon 
the neck ofthe elephant fits the man who guides him, who 
hu an iron rod in his liand about half a yard long, (harp 
at the lower end, and a hook turned up, with which he 
pricks him forward, or pulls him back as he fees fit. The 
gunner fits on the wooden frame, where he has his bullets, 
and ammunition, and all things neceflkry fbr loading an4 
firing, and the gun carries a bidl about as large as a tennis* 

Befidet the bcafts of burthen already mentioned, thef 
have buftidocs, and alTet ; the bufTaloet differ very litttt 
from cows and oxen, but otily they are a more fluggifti 
animal, and have a fmootli tliick (kin, without hair : the 
female gives milk, and the flelh of tliem is feme umes eaten, 
but ■' i^ very coarfe food. 

The fhecp they have in the fonthern parti are thin long 

legged crrat'jr?!, and have s rtdith hiir inftnu of wool 

upon their backs, tlie flelh of tliem it lean and dry, and 

good for little. But towaidt Petfia and Tartary they bav* 

Z very 

fS The NEW'.'and- universal SYSTENt of 'GtOGRAPHY. 

«cry fineflieets with ijjbod fkeecv, and Un;feMilii, itti'Mvf 
Hverai pouiiaa, uid it is obfervable of tht FcMbn (hvept 
wliich Ruc brought into India, thnt they h&vc Ctom tlire e M> 
fcvcn horns iipiccc, and Ibme ot tbrir horns ihinding op- 
right oil tlieir foreheads, the battles of thtii rams arc very 
bloody. Goan they liavc here plenty, and tltc fl<Ih of their 
kids arc tolci able good eating. 

' The Indian black liogt, with their bellies down to lh« 
feround, arc looked upon to be the Heil butcher's tmat they 
have in India, crpoctally that of the viiid hogs, of which 
there is f^rcat plenty ; ai there are of deer, antelopes, and 
hares, in whicli no body daitning any projxkty, all people 
are at liberty to kill thcraas well as othtr gainei for not* 
withit^nding the Mogvil is the proprietor of all the laridl 
in the country, he doe's not nwiiopolir.e wild be*(V!i, and 
wild fowls, U Our great men do hero : nay, giaf'i, arid 
herhs, and tivei, and whatever alfo n;rows fpontjne'niflt 
in the Woods, and wide IWlds, arc cninyed by tlic people ifl 
common ; fo that though they have no lands they ^ <. call 
their own, the privileges they enjoy in thole of tlie l'. Ince 
are almoil an etjuivalent. The lion is ;he only b.aft of 
the foreft, the hunting whereof the Emperor rtferves to 
liimfelf. Their wild bcalls are lions, tygers, leopards, 
wolvct, motikics, and jackaUs, which Uft ure a kind of 
wild dogs, of tlie colour of a fox, and fometliing larger, 
which run about in companies at midnight, and make a hi- 
deous howling, not only in the country, but in the middle 
«f great towns. One or more of theie, it is faid, always 
attends upon the lion, and himts his prey for him; tne 
truth is, every creature in the foreft is fct iii motion by tite 
cries of the jackall, and by their dreadful howling t«rrify 
other animals, and make them an eafy prey to the lion 
There ore great numbers of them in all parts of thccoun- 
try, as well in thofe places where thetc are no lions as 
where there are : and they will dig a dead corpfe out of 
the grave, if it be not buried very deep : they are conftant 
attendants upon caravans and armies, exceptil^that dzath 
will fupply them with a fcaft. 

Here is ^reat plenty of all kind of poultry, as geefe, 
hens, dacks, pigeons, tnrtle-dov«8, partridges, quails, pea- 
cocks, paroquets, &c. The fiefti of the poultry is gene- 
rally dry, lean (luff, and fome ot tlicm liavi: bones as black 
as jet, but there is fcarce any difference in the eating, be- 
tween thofe which had white bones and thofe which had 
black. The vultures are no where fo common or fo ttme 
as in India, which we believe proceeds firom the banians 
feeding them as they do other aniinzts, forr the banian tree 
•bovementioned are quite covered with them, nor will 
they ftir till a Ihot is fired at them, though tlie perfon is 
under the tree ; they are confidctably larger than an eagle, 
and much of the fame make. But there is a kite with a 
white head which the banians have dill a greater venera- 
tion for, and feem to pay it divine honours. It is not an 
vncoramon thing for thefe birds as they are flying at noon- 
day, to be overcame with the intenfe heat of the fun and 
drop down in the flreets, and upon fuch al\ act:idcnt our 
foldiers never faii to make iix'-pence or a fhilKng of it, for 
Hiey carry the kite into tlie market-place, and threatning 
to wring his neck off, the fitperftitious people croud about 
him and contribute their half-pence a piece for the bird's 
liberty. We arc informed by a traveller, that they have 
Ito great variety of tinging birds in India, though he was a 
conliderable time in tlie woody part of the country ; but 
thetic is one lefs than a wren which is exceeding pretty, 
adorned with tlie payeft plumage, and whofe notes equal 
the beft of ouis. 'I'he numerous herds of monkeys which 
haunt the woods in the foutliern parts of India are terrible 
enemies to thafe linle birds, but nature has taoght them to 
preferve themfelves and their young ones, by building their 
ftefts at the extremity of the twigs, where they hang like 
fmall purfes ont of their reach, or in placet inaccelS)^le to 
their enemies. There are alfo in this country bats almoll 
as large as kites. 

We may reckon, among other inconvenieneies that lef- 
fen the pleafure of living in this defirablo country, are 
thofe fwarms of infeQs and reptilet that perpetually dif- 
turb the natives, but much more foreigners, particularly 
the giiats or moiketoes, as they arc called, that are always 
bur/.lng aboiit our ears, whofe flings fwell a man's head 
and face at his firft coming a-(horc, that his friends can 
hardly know him. The Rings have not this effect after- 
wards, indeed, but people can never reft in quiet for them, 
unlefs fome (lave ftands by and bru(he« them off, while 
they fleep. Bogs are another plague, but tliel'o may \k 
avoided by tarring the feet of the cot or couch the perion 

-• <■' . ». -I, , .,„ ...i.;-.u »i 

lies on, TOT a uug win livvci ciawiuvci l«l, wmcit MiKj 

have in averfi«n to, or u< ftoppod by their (licking in it, 

Of Mm ftorciions thont an HHttti Mn'H. Hn N^-nod 
fieotpioiu at« ibid to be binck and (heir Urn* mctnl. 
■rbehoafe <b«)^ant W* cannot well Avoid feeing ufni', 
th:y ar* about itie length of a man's little iiiiger ami a<i 
thick, ihapad aliiicft like a litAard, but caity their mils 
turned up upon their bock^, and at the end of the tail 
there is .1 ftiiig not much bigger tlimi a Iwt net's, always 
vifibtei agomkman wtko had rli« misfortune to U- Hiin'^. 
itittei that for the iirft twelve tiotn-s attur, tlic ftiii was 
as ipreat at if a ttti hot iron had been applied to the 
part, tliat he run into the ftreet like a niaduion, till tliey 
laid hold of him and anointed the place with oil of Icoi- 
pioa, and that after the (irft twelve liouri tin; pain gradu- 
ally abated tor twelve houis more, till at length it wura 
quite off. 

...There IB likewife a little grttn fnake which will dart 
from tee to tree, where the trees Hand thick, whence 
fome people have given thorn the appellation of tlie flying 

Snakes alfo will fometimea get into rooms, or war* i- 
lionfes, ahd conceal themfelves, and if you happen to 
come too near tliem, will dart themfelves at you and 
bite. They are dangerous too abroad, if you come near 
the cuvrr where they conceal tliemfelres, and few peo* 
pio care to wainlcot, or hang their rooms, left this kind 
uf vermin get behind thera. Siiaku and ferpents ara of 
various kiruls, of which the cobie capelle, or hocxled fer- 
pent, is the moft beautiful, and his bite is reckoned the 
molt daitgerous. W lion be dances to inu(ic, he 0|icn<; 
his luiad as wide as one's hand, and Ihews a kind of lui- 
inan face. I'bofe leptikM are tirft drawn from their hnle« 
by means of a mufical inilrantent, fomewhat like a (lag- , 
gcllet; fo powerfully, ai We are well int'orm^d, dcos tlie:' 
mufic operate upon them. The country phyiicians can 
cure his bite, but they pretend to do it diiefly by a 
cliarm ; however, tliey give the patient • medicine and 
ling to keep him waking, iior, it is faid, if he deeps, he 
(lies; and the poifon, wc are tald, inclines the wounded 
nun to fleep. 

During tu« taitu, frogs and toads do multiply pro<1igi- 
ouHy, and grow to a conliderable iize, which has given 
fume people occafion to imagine it rained frogs. 'J heir 
rats, which they call bandecoots, alfe grow to a vcrv great 
iizo, three or four times as big as ours, and arc lb iinpu-. 
dent tlut they will Ih-irdly give a nun the way ; but the 
modi dangerous of all venomous creatures, arc their I'cor- 
pions, centipedes and ferpents, of which there ntc various 
kinds, and as they will harbour and breed in every corn»i-, 
there is no fuch thing as beinp; fecure from them, hut by- 
continual fweeping and bruihmg ; and this we prcfuma it 
tlie reafott that uo body luis any wainfcot or hangings in 
their houfcs, for here tliey woakl certainly make their iiefts. 
'I'hc centipede (i. e. hundred feet) takes us immc fiom the 
great number of legs it has ; it is a little creature not 
much bigger than a goofe quill, and three or four indtst 
long, but though it is fo uuall, its bite is extremely dan- 

Swarms of ants alfo infeft m.iny parts of this country ( 
and they are ]iarticularly deftruflive to cloaths, furniture, 
and even buildings. 

There is a great variety and quaiitity of fea and river- 
fi(h in India: fea-filh are tlie cheapcft food we can eat; 
among tliele are dolphins, albacotes, and boiiitoes whieli 
are til'ually iiict with a good didancc from land. The 
dolphin is much abufed by oor painters, thev certainly 
meant a porpoife or fca-hog, when they drew a dol|iliin, 
which is the llraiteil filh that fwimt, and luis the bri^htoll 
colours, efpccially while he is alive; but he is dead almoft 
as foon as !ic is taken out of tlie water ', however, hi'i co- 
lours are then exceeding hoe. He may be alioot a vard 
long, the flelh white and well tailed, aiid fwims .it thc'ratc 
of eight or nine miles an hour, as dors niio the albacorc 
and bonito. Tlie bonito undoubtedly takes its nain^ 
from its being highly agreeable to tlie taReof the I'or- 
tuguefe, the tirft Kuropoans that navigated the Indiait 
ocean, and gave it this name, wliicli in their l.wgua^e, 
ligiiitics delicious. It is a (inn, but dry tifh, and re- 
quires a good. deal of fauoe to make it palatable. 1'he al- 
bacorc is nearly of the fame kind as the bonito, bat grows 
to a much larger iiic ; I'ome weigh from fifty or (ixtv to 
one hundred pounds, and are lliU drier eating than the bo- 
nito. All thefe purfuc the flying filh, the latter fpring 
out of the water, and fly circularly near half a mile, while 
rhcir fins, which ferve thcHi for wings arc <lry, and then 
tlioy drop into the water aeain, where their enemies, the 

, M hltVlll 

water therefore %s before, and take another llight as lone 
3 M 



[A S I A.]- 

N D 




land river- 
can eat : 
)oej whk'h 
Ind. 'I he 
id nimnft 
llii co- 
a yard 
lat the rate 
|c albacore 
its naini? 
the I'or- 
|[ic indiait 
, and re» 
Ibmt growB 
}T lixty t» 
m the bo- 
lile, while 
and tlifii 
Imles, the 

. ~r .1.- 

fit «s lon( 

nsthoirwingj art wet, and thiti dltj^'ttpeat till they ire 
devoured, or have midethciitdtit^)! Whitings, and a tith 
like a bream, bot much iitger, we en near the coaft, and 
another called the baldpate, having no fcales on the head 
or neck. 'i°hc raven filh ia alt'u good food, which is about 
afpanlong, and their rivors ana rcfervoirt, or ponds, af- 
ford carp and eeU : The fhark ii the greateft devouier of 
.any filh wt meet witli i>t fea : thert are fomc from twelve 
to twenty feet long. He docs not only feed upon fiih, but 
will chop oiFa naatiS tc^ at a bite, and ii milchicvous when 
he is taken out ti\ water. The carpenter therefore 
Itandii ready W!th hii. a\-, when he it drawn to the fide of 
the (hip. to cut ofFhis tail, vi'hich difablci him from doing 
hurt. He Ins feveni rows of teeth, according to his age ; 
but as he doci not fwim more than two or three miles an 
hour, it Is eafy to avoid him. When a bait is tluown 
out for him, tailened to a greM hook, two or three filh, 
twice the bignefs of gudgeons, and prettily flripcd, run be- 
fore him, and fmell to the bait, and then return to their 
mafter again, as if they would inform him if it was proper 
for him. Then he comes to it, and turning upon liis 
back, takes in the bait, nnd the motion of the (hip ilrikcs 
the hook into his jawt ; we may ealily fee tl>e whole ttanf- 
aflion, the fea bemg as clear as cryDal at a dillancc from 
land. The reafon he turns upon his back to take the bait, 
is, that his fnout, or upper jaw, is fo much longer than 
the under jaw, that he cannot take it in without turning 
npon his back : Ihark's flelh is verv indifferent food, but 
when beef is wanting, it will go down. The pilot fifh 
are looked upon as tiv: niceft filh the lea produces , they 
lately take a hook when in company with a itia.-k ; but 
when they part from him, they will fometimes bite and 
I>e caught. Thcfe filh, which are about a foot and a half 
in lengtli, are tranfveriely ilreakcd with blue and a kind of 
TcUowifh brown, which hath a moft beautiful appearance 
in the water : they, liowever, when taken out, lofc much 
cf their luftrc. 

There arc very good (heU-fifit to be met with upoli the 
coaft of Indi?, fuch as crabs, oyfters, tec. The oyfters at 
Fort St. George are much of tlic fame iiz« as ours In Eng- 
Imd, and equally good ; but there are fonie Ihell-fifh in 
thcfe feas of a prodigious bulk. There was a fltell, much 
of the Ihape of the under Ihell of an oyller, which fiood in 
the fort at Madras, which, when the lllh was in it, mult 
bave been a load for a man to carry. 

There arc amphibicus animals, called alligators or crt>- 
codiles, in India, cfpecially in the mouth of the Ganges, 
that are it great devoutert of fielh as the iharks : they 
are invited hither by the multitude of dead bodies wtiicn 
are cafl into this river, on which they prey, as they do 
upon the living when they liave an opportunity ; it is faid 
they will take In the body of a whole man at once, fome 
of them being twenty feet long ; they have rsthcr claws 
than legs, and their oacks are armed with impenetrable 
li::alcs. The crocodile will purfue his prey as well by land 
as water; but then, as his bodj is of thiLanreafottable 
length, he turns with fo much difficulty, that a man ma^' 
eafily avoid him, if he fees him. He lies in the fcdge, or 
other cover by tho bank-fide, and, looking almoft like an, • 
old tree the traveller fometimes approaches him, not being 
apprcheniivc of his danger, and tiie monfter jumps upon 
him and devours him. 

There are no mines of gold and filver opened in Tndia, 
though it cannot be luppofcd but in fo vaft an extent r^' 
countr;: there muft be fome, though perhaps not worth 
extrafting, cfpecially as there are mines in feveral of the 
neighbouring kingdoms, particularly in Siam, Pegu, ^c. 
^ome indeed mention o ; per, iron, and kad-mincc, but 
if there be I'uch, many of them arc not wrought, for lead 
was formerly one of the bell commodities the merchants 
carried to India. The diamond mines are the only re- 
markable ones : thefe lie chiefly in the provinces of Vifi- 
apour and (iulcoiula, of which notice has been taken al- 
ready. India has liecn £inious for iome othrr valuable 
jewels, particularly pearls : thev filh for poarl-ovllcrs in 
llie llrcight-i of KaraanakoicI, between the continent of 
India and the ifland of Ceylofl, which is imiw in tlte power 
of tlie Dutch, 

R r, C T. VI. 

CiHtaini an acciunt of thi Inilian maiiNfmlutts, tadt., fircign 
end domtjlic^ n,n'i^aliin, jhipfitig, Wj-. 

TH V. Iiulofl;m, the banians, and fome 
orheri, carry on i pmdi^ii'iis rich trade to Pcrlia 

ahd Arabia,, cfitecially . from Surat, furnlAiing thofe coun- 
tries witli.all the rich mcrchaiidizc of India, aitd bririgiiig 
from thence Perfiun carpets, pearl, culTce, and other gpods, 
tlie produce of thofe countries, but more trral'ure tliaii any 
thing, which they hire Engliili and Dutch Ihips to carrjr 
to Surat for thein, as tliey are better able tc defend theic 
rich cargoes againft pirates than country Ihips arc ; and this 
appears to lie a confiderable branch of the company'ir pro- 
fits i for they txa£t an extravagant price for tlic freij^ht of 
the go<>ds, as well as psffengers, which the Indians caii 
afford very well to pay, tlicic liiips being loaden as deep as 
they can Iwiin, their cargoes valued at two hundred thou- 
fand pounds and upwards fometimes. The company alfo 
ul'ually fend a (hip mion their own account to Mocha in 
Arabia, everv year, for coffee. Though the Mogul has 
a fca-coall of two tliouGuid miles extent, he Itas Icarce a 
(ingle ll'a-port, or a Ihip of war to protect the trade of hit 
fubjefts. Thert arc no harbours a Ihip can get into, ex- 
cept Goa, Bombay, and the mouth of tlie Cianges, which 
arc all pollclUd by Europeans. It may truly be faid, tlut 
though the Mogul's fuhjcfts are fome of the richcA mer- 
chants in the world, they have not a fingle man of wai^r 
harbour for their fecurity, in any part of his dominions. 
Befides their traffic by fea, the Ii'idians having long had a 
very confiderable trade by land, by numerous caravans, 
which travelled to Pcrlia and Bochara, and from thence to 
Rulfln and Tartary, to 'I rapezond on the B!ack-fca, to 
Aleppo and Smyrna, and to Coiiflantinople on the Bof- 

'I he principal ntanufaftorics of this kingdom, are flk, 
muffins, cottons, cliints, and call Icoes ; we import from 
thence diamonds and other precious ffones, great quan- 
tities of pepper the growtli of the Malabar coaif, faltpctre, 
indigo, cardainuras, opiuih, affiifoetida, and a great variety 
of pliyfical drugs. The goods carried from Europe thither, 
are Engliih broad- cloth, lead, looking-glaires,fword-bladcs, 
knives, liaberdadier's wares, gold and lilver lace, tin-ware, 
wine, brandy, beer, and fome other provifions, taken oft 
chiefly by our own faftorics ; the fliips alfo frcq^i^tly take 
in flints with their balluft, for there is not^a 'flint to be 
found in India, at Icail in thofe parts the Euxop^ns have 
vifited, iiifoinuch that a bag if gun-flints is AlscM ti vti- 
luablc as money in the inland country, where tn^people 
had not an opportunity of being fuppUed by our (hipping ; 
but it muft be confefled, th-it all the goods we carry to In- 
dia are a trifle, compared with the bullion and foreign coin 
tranfported th'.thcr. Our Ihips are in a manner empty of 
merchandi& when they go out) though there is hardly any 
of them carry lefs tluin three or fourlcorc thiufand pounds 
of treafure. which has made it a queffion, whetltertlie In- 
dia trade b; of any advantage to tliis nation. 

Weaving is the printipal employment throughout India ; 
but the greatcft iranufaftory is at Dr-ca in Bengal, where 
the liiicli cailicoes, itiufiiiks, and diinili(« ate made. Thole 
manufaAured for the immediate ulc of the Great Mogul 
and hit /Jinannalis, are of exquiffte workmandiip, and of- 
tentimes greater value th:n .ny that are permitted to be 
fold cither to natives or foreigners. The nlligrane an ad- 
mirable, tlie worknianihipc:>f\ing a great deal more than 
tlie metal itfelf. It is not perforated as with us, but cut 
with (hisds-, and joined with fuch inimitable art, that the 
nicefl eye cannot pciteive the junfturc. Tlic embroidery 
and needle-work are greatly hipcrior to any thing of the 
kind done in Europe ; but it is r«inarkablc, that there are 
no female embroiderers or fempftrefles, but th^ men do all 
the work in thefc branches, aiid tlieit.patience is aflonifh- 
ing as their flowncfs is fingular. Gold aiul filvet filki and 
gaufes are manufaAured at Benaras ; bu^their ricluiefs ex- 
ceeds their elegance. They are execute without tafte, 
and make a very dull appearance wl^en fliiUlied, being def- 
titute of that delightful glofs, »jid tholi: vivid colours, 
which fo greatly enliven, and give fuch fpiiit and beauty to 
the lilks .tud gatifcs of Europe and other countries. 

It has been eftin^ated, that there have beep annually ex- 
ported three tlioufand five hundred bales of cailicoes from 
Coromandel to tlie fevc-al fea-ports of India : of thefc the 
Engiilh carry one tlioufand two hundred to Bombav, Ma- 
labar, Sumatra, and the Philippine iflcs ; tlie French eight 
hundred to Malabar, Mocha, and the ille of France ; and 
the Dutch one thoxfand five hundred to their (evcral fet- 
tlements ; Coroinandel fupplies E'nopc with nine thou- 
I'and five hundred boles : three thoufaiid of which ate 
brought by the Engiilh ; three thoufaiid by tlie Dutch ■, 
two thou fand five hundred by the Kreneh, a-id tight hun- 
dred by the Danes. 

The Indians copv with exaflncfs, but have neither ge- 
nius to invent, nor ingenuity to improve. Hincc their 



THk NEWand universal SYSTEM of CJEOGftAPHY. 

Worki »re admirably neat, without being blcafingly ele- 
ntlt ; ind difplay the moft eXquifitc finenew, without the 
feaft delicicv of taftle to giVe them real hierit. 

Thev are', at SUrat, very flcilfiil irt the art of niip-build' 

Ing ; though it muft be acknowledged, that their naval, as 

, Well as their other architeOure, is rather auWward and 

jj dumfy. Th<ir veflels are made of a wood called beak, 

T- Which is as durable artd as fulid as oak, and their maRs 

tonie from the coaft of Malabar. Their ropes are made 

of the fibres of the cocoa-nut tree, and their fail-cloths from 

their cottoh maniifafturcs. They ufc the gum of the 

damar-tree for pitch ; and their anchors are for the moft part 

European : the moll valuable of their cordage alfo is the 

produce of Europe. The fmall vefllls that are ufed along 

the coaft of Malabar, are made of the above wood, the 

planks being fiiftetied together with cords ; they arc flat at 

the bottom, and have Hot aily rudder. 

The Indians ufc a kind of float (for it can neither bt 
called a boat or veffel), which they find is of great ufc in 
carrying anchors, great guns, and other heavy weights on 
lioard a fhip, and that is nothing more than three rough 
tiiiiber logs tied together called a cattamaran, oh which 
they fometimes fet up a fail, and at others paddle along with 
a flat ftick, about as broad as a man's hand. They go out 
upon thefe three or four miles to fea a fllhing ; ahd one 
hundred of them arc frequently feeft on a line. On one of 
thefe cattamarahs, an Englilh officer, by fetting up a fail, 
has gone one hundred miles along ths coaft in Uie feir fca- 
fon ; and there feems to be no lefs danger on thofe tlian 
m a boat, becaufe the timber will not fihk. All the diffi- 
culty is, to get throfigh the furf that beats on tlie Ihoic 
when (he winds blow hard. In fuch weather tlie fea lias 
fometimes overfct the cattairtarah, and confequently beat 
cfF the waterman ; but he turned his logs, again got upon 
them, and made his way through tlie furf to the (hip he 
Was fent to, which wa's at that time in great diftrefa, and 
to the relief of whidi he was fent. 

SECT. vir. 

Treating ef the learning, language!, charaifers, arti etild 
Jtieneet, phyjiciani,difeafe$, i^c, ef the Indians. 

TT is the general opinion, that the fciences originated in 
I this countrv, the Greeks having travelled into India 
for inftrudtion before the time of Py&agoras J however, at 
prefent tliey have not much learning, but have forae tra- 
ditions concerning Ariftotle and Avicenna (the latter was 
bom at Samarcand, Tamerlane's capital) and the Moors 
have fome patfages of the Old Teftament in the Arabian 
language ; the Moors, many of tliem, being defcendants 
of the Arabians. 

The Gentoos, or original Indians, begin tlie year the 
firft of March, and the Moors the tenth, when it is fup- 
pofed the fun enters into Aries (the vernal equinox) tlie' 
year being divided by the Moors into thirteen moons. 
From the firft of March to the tentli, the Moors celebrate 
a grand feftival to introduce the new year, and then every 
governor and great officer makes a prefent to his prince, 
who appoints what pofts every man ihall hold tlie follow- 
ing year. 

The Indians are better verfed in the praAice of arith- 
metic than in any other branch of the mathematics, and 
will caft up a fum only by the help of their fingers, fooner 
than an European Ihall with his pen. The braiiiins calcu- 
late an ecliple pretty cxaflly, but fecin to be very much 
out in otlier parts of aftronomy, when tliey imagine the 
moon to be above the fun, the contrary being calily de- 
monftratcd in an eclipfe \ and what is itill more abfurd, 
they believe, when the fun fets, that he hides himt'clf be- 
hind fome mountain, having no notion of the earth's being 
Ipherical. They know tlie figns of the zodiac, however, 
and in their language call them by the fame n.amcs we do. 
But aftrology is their beloved lludy j none of their princes 
will undertake any thing of moment, until they have en- 
quired of the aftrologer, if the hour be fortunate j and if 
he be of opinion the time tlie prince defigned to begin the 
enteq)rize is not favourable, he waits till the cunning-man 
direfls him to begin it, and li:ts out that very moment. 

'I'hcii IXill in pliyfic is not very great, underftanding no- 
thing of anatomv ; however they ufe fimplcs, and apply 
them with fucccfs, and have fecret recipes which they do 
not communicate, in feveral diftcmpers abftinencc is only 
prc('ciil>ed, and they I'cldom cat any thing but a little con- 
gee or gruel made of rice, till they find thcmfelvcs better. 
The mort-de-chiu rages fometimes ou the coaft of Ma- || 

labar; it proceeds froiti indigeflion, and throws the patient 
into a violent vomiting and purging, with racking pains, 
which fometimes carry them off in rwentv-four hours, is 
cured by clapping a red hot iron to the fole of the foot, 
near the heel ; and it is faid that the cholic is frequently 
Cured by heating an iron ring red hot, about an inch thicK 
and an inch and half diameter, and applying it to the pa- 
tient's belly, fo that the navel may be in the center of it ; 
it may be taken oflT again immediatclv, but the fudden re- 
volution it caufes in the belly, it i . willfooneafc the 
patient of his pain. 

The Indians are alfo fubjeA to the bloody flux, which 
they cure by the prefcription of ftewed rice. 'I'he plague 
alfo frequently vilits tliem, for which they fccra to have nti 

The language of the Moors is dilTerent from that of the 
aiitient original Indians, but, however, they have borrow- 
ed the Indian charafters, being dcftitutc of letters thcm- 
felves, and in all their writings ufe either the charaftcrs of 
the Pagan Indians, or of the Perfians. The court lan- 
guage is the Perliah, which is (poke by all the great om- 
rahs, and the polite world in gencial : tlic liarued language 
is the Arabian, and is written backwards from the rinlit 
t^nd to the left, like the Hebrew, from whence they borrow 
many words; but this is (till to bcunderftoodof thcMoors; 
for the antient Indians have a great variety of other lan- 
guages, very diflfcrentj from thole ufcd by tlie Moors. 'I'Jie 
bramins, or brachmans, which is the chief k& among tlic 
idolaters,' have a language peculiar to tlicnifflvcs, and in 
tliat their records, and books of divinity, and philofophy, 
and the fables of their pricfts .ire written, wherein their ig- 
norance in the creation of the world, and the duration of 
it, arc fufficicntly manifcft. 

Indoftafi, incorporated with Perfian and Arabic 
worHs, is Ipokcn in that and t'everal other ))ait>, of India, 
though the accent and diale£l differ in the rilpcitivc pl.ices 
where it is I'pukcn j the pureft is in the province of Agra. 

The Pagans generally write oft tlic cocoa-nut or palm- 
tree leaves, with an iron ftile or bodkin. They do not 
write in a ftraight line downwards, as the Chinefe, hut from 
the left hand, flanting to tlie right ; and though in molt 
places the long narrow ^m leaves and bodkin are ufed, 
yet the Moors have a thin (billing paper, fometimes ten 
feet in lengtli and a foot broad, and they tack as many 
fheets together as the writing requires ; the pen they write 
witli is the antient calamus, or reed, about the thicknefs 
of a goofc quill. When they write to u prince, the whole 
furface of the paper is gilt witli gold, and for fecuriiy of 
letters of confequence fent to court, they are inclol'ed in a 
hollow cane or bamboo, and fealed up, that no wet can 
hurt them. Upon their feals, or chops as they are called, 
they have no coat of arms, there being no I'uch thing in 
tlie country, but they have their own names engraved upon 
goW or filver, or perhaps on a cornelian ftone. 

The antient Indian medals, in fiich efteem among the 
Chincfc, prove that the arts were cultivated in India even 
before they were known in China. V\ e owe to them the 
uli; of cyphers, which, though imported among us by tho 
Arabians, came originally from India, where alio the gamo 
of cliefs was invented. 


Of the MoguFs ccurt, farces, revenues, iic. ef hii civil ga- 
vernmenl, laws and punifimenis, coins, lutighli, msu" 
fuies, iic. 

AS the Mogul has no counril of flale to advife with, 
like other princes, the afT-iirs of tlie empire .uc ini- 
iiagtd by four or five great oflictrs who receive their orders 
from him, and report the ftatc of tlie Icveral provinces to 
him. As tlic Emperor gives a p.irtiiul.ii name to every 
officer he adviinces, folic always takes anew maj^nificcnt 
title himfelf on his acceffion to the throne. ■.i>, " the con-' 
querorof the world i theorn.micnt of tl^e thi.;ne." .ind the 
like. But coronations are not known in this p>rt ot the 
world, nor does the prince ever wear a crywn. He (its 
himlclf as judge of all nutters in tiie province 
where the court rcfides, a^ his govcriiur* do in tlieir re- 
(pcitivc provinces. The Emperor's ftjiis have the title of 
fultans, and his daughters of fultanas, and the viceroys 
that of nabob. The next in degree which aiifwers to ou» 
nobility, have the title of chan, or cjun, as it i> pro- 
' ' ' ' inmcc thf*v receive 

nounccd, and arc diuingui 

upon their advancement, a; al'aph chan. tlie lich I .id ; ch.1^ 
clianua, lord of lords. One of tlv: .Moguls, it lecms i-ave 



wet can 


liirig i« 

vcU upon 

civil !!'■' 
jA/i, mw 

Ivife with* 
re arc m i- 
cir orJcrs 
viaccb to 
,K- to cvtry 
• ih; con- 
aiul tli: 
vMt ottlie 
He lit* 
ic province 
i\ their rc- 
tho title of 
iC vii-croys 
\vers to out 
it U pro- 
hfv recrivc 
,1(1 , cha^ 
lecms &ave 



^^^rntrnrif**"*^'' ™'''"'" 






'..» -• . T - 



.yiV:lXeM^::^ jmtOixit'' 

{A S I A.] 

1 N D O 8 T A N. 


kii chief pliyficiait the name of mocrih clian, or lorj of 
his hcaltit, and tiicfc iiaint:> ?-e ufuilly cx|)rt.l1ivc of foiiic 
peculiar excellency, fuppul'cd o bu iii the pcrl'oii preferred. 
J'he great military oDkiis arc called omraln, and one who 
kui been general, inir<',a, '1 lie thief eunuchi arc trea- 
(urcrs, flcwariU and cuniptrullcrH of the houlhold. fiii 
other great oHiccrs arc the I'ccrttarie i of rtatc, the governors 
ot ttkc elephants, the maftcr ul the tents, and the ktcpcri 
of tlie wardrobe, vho arc eiitriiilcd with the iewcU 

'Die ladies of the haram or fcrai;lio, as it is lifually called, 
are either wives or concubines, princclfes of the blood, go- 
vcrnantcs, or Haves. 'I'hofc which are called wives, and 
ar: contracted with ceremony, leMom exceed four, what 
the number of the concubines arc is uncertain; but it is 
generally agreed they amuunt to .ibovc a thoufand. 'I he 
Mogul never matches with the daughter of any foreign 
prince, but ufually witl) the daughter of fome great raja 
of his own country, notwithllanding they arc idolaters ; 
fometiraes he will advance the ineanell llavc to thatdi:',nity, 
if (he pleafe him, and the firll fon he has by any of thele 
wives, is looked upon to be heir to the empire ; though 
the longcft fword ufually carries it, and whoever poflellcs 
hiinfeif of the throne, immediately deftroys all his bro- 
thers, and their male iflue. Uut what is very obfcrvablc, 
ii, tliat wc nevr hear of above one fon of any one wife, 
that ever comes to man's ellate, which has given occa- 
sion to fome to cnnjcflurc that the reft are difpatched as 
foon as tliey are born. The Ilmpcror always gives fome 
iinu names to his wives, as he dues to his great officers, one 
was callod the Ii .'it of the world ; another the crown of the 
mahal, &c. Their apartments are faid to be extravagantly 
line, and their gardens beautiful, fliades, rivulets, ca^ades, 
and grottos, render tliofe abodes fo cool and refrelhing, 
that the heat of the climate is not perceived. 

The young fultans arc married when about thirteen or 
fourteen years of age, and then hive afcparate court, little 
inferior to that of the Emperor's ; and when they come to 
age are fcnt to diftant governments, except the heir appa- 
rent to the crown, who remains near his father. 1 he 
young fultaneflcs are bred up with all the tendernefs and 
ibftncfs imaginable, and are not under fo Ari£t a reftraint 
as the other women, and there do not want in(lanc;s of the 
Emperor's indulging them in their gallantries, which is 
the more reafonable, becaufc the royal blood muft never 
match with, and be under the controulof a fubjeA The 
number of jewels and precious ilones, which it ir faid the 
ladies of the leraglio wear, exceeds all Iwlief. Their 
clothes are as thin and light as poflible, fuitable to the heat 
of the climate. A certain author tells us, that the filk they 
wear is wove fo very fine, that the whole habit weighs but 
a few ounces, and that their linen is tranfparent. The 
povern.-intea of the young princeiTes, and thofe who arc 
Ipics upon the conduft of the King's women, arc aconli- 
(ferable body in the feraglio; and it is faid, have a great 
Ihaie in the government of the empire : if this Prince has 
any council, it is cumpofed of thefe ladies, for it is by 
tlieir influences the great oflicos of Hate, and governments 
arc difpofed of, and every one of them have a title anfwer- 
ablc to fome great office. One is ftylcd prime miniAer, 
another fecrctary of ftate, r.nnthcr viceroy of this or that 
province ; and each lady maintains a corrcfpondence with 
the miniiUr, whofc title ihe bcirs, and there arc eunuchs 
perpctuallycarrying letters backwards and forwards between 
them. By the interpoHtion of thefe ladies all bufinefs 
of confcquence is clfcficd, who have better opportunities 
of reprefenting things to the 1-lmperor, tlian his minifters 
have without doors. The Mogul is fcrvcd altogether by 
women in his retirement ; and it is faid his pcrfon isgi\arded 
by a number of Tartar women armgd with bows and fcy- 
metars, a multitude of eunuchs alio guard the gates, and all 
the avenues to the palace. 

The Mogul's forces arc computed at about three hun- 
dred thoufand in the whole empire ) but Ix^lidcs thefe, 
there are the forces of the raj.ihs, or Pagan princes, whom 
the Mogul has alio in hu pay, which may amount to as 
many more. Kut, befides tlic troops already mentioned, 
the Cmpcror has feveral companies and regiments, which 
may properly l>c called the body guards or troops of the 
houlhold; firft there is a regiment of four thoufand men, 
t illcd th'.' Kmperor's flaves, to exprcfs their devotion for 
the perfon of their Prince. This is the inoft honour- 
able body zmong the Mogul's troops; tlieir captain is 
called the daroga, who is an officer of great authority, 
ro whom the coniniand of the army is lonu times com- 
mitted. I'.very li'ldicr who is admitted into this battalion 
is marked in the forehead, and nut of thefe the mcnfcUlars 
or fubaltcrn officers are taken, who by degrees arc preferred 

No. g. 

to the dignity of omralii, which anfwert to our general 
officers. 'I here are alio the guards of the golden maie« 
ot the (liver mace, and the iron mace, who carry a club 
or mace on their Ihoiilders, with a large ball or globe at 
the end plated over, the foldieri whereof arc i..'Tereml]r 
marked in tht forehead, and their pay ii proportioned 
to the metal with " ' "h the mace i.4 covered. All thcf* 
bodies are pickec' vhoin their courage has recom- 

mended ) and it .« jiece!Ti>ry to have furved in one of thefe 
battalions to bcijualilicd for a poll in the government. 

The aims of a horfeman arc a broad (word bending a 
little backward, a dagger,. a bow and a (juiverof arrows, a 
lance, and fometinies a thort piece like a carbine, and to 
this is .vided a great Ihicid, fo that they are really incuu)'* 
bred with arms. A footman carries alio a fword and dag' 
gvr, a (liield, a bow and arrows, and foinctiiiMS a match* 
lock mulkct, and others of them carry pikei inflead of 
mufkets: they have alfo heavy artillery, but are generally 
obliged to European gunneis to manage them ; fome Ihort 
pieces I have already mentioned, which carry a bullet about 
as big as a tennis ball, and are fired from the back of an 
elephant ; there arc alfo about threefcorc i'mail field piecei 
which attend the grand army. 

Here it may be proper to ouferve the manner in which th« 
Indians encamp and draw up their men when they engage. 
It has been obferved already, that the Mogul takes th« 
field during the fair Ibafon, which lads fvv.^ral months< 
and makes a tour through great part of his dominions, 
being followed by all forts of people, tradefmen and tae- 
chanics, as well as by the ladies, and the rctl of the court, 
there being feldom Icfs th.aii one million of fouls attending 
him, of which one hundred thoufand are foldiers. 

The camp is always difpofed in a circular form; tha 
Mogul's pavilion being pitched on an eminence in the 
middle, is furrounded by the tents of the court-ladies, 
al>out which there is a fence ten feet high, which folds up 
like a fcreen Beyond this incl'ifurc, is another circle of 
the nobility and great officers of flute, and fo on, the 
meaneft people being in that part of the camp, at the 
greateft diftancc from the royal pavilion in the center ; and 
there is a market-place well repleiiithcd vvjili provillons in 
every quarter. In drawing up an army, every general 
commands his own men, and the moll hont.urabic place is 
in the center where the genecal takes his pofi, tliat he may 
be witnefs of the bravery of his troops, I'hcy know little 
of rank and file, or any other order in charging, but every 
man advances as his natural courage or opium infpires 
him. There are not lefs than twenty thoufand or thirty 
thoufand carriers that conAantty attend the army, and 
bring corn, flefli, fait, and all otlicr nccelfaries to the 
camp. They feldom march more than ten miles a day, 
and always chufe to pitch their tents, where they may be 
fupplied with water. There arc a great number of boats 
alio laid upon carriages, and drawn after the army for the 
conveniency of pafhng rivers : leopards, dogs, hawks, and 
their keepers, make pait of the train ; thefe expeditions 
being intended for plealurc, as well as bufinefs. The 
Mogul fpends part of his time in hearing and redrcfling 
the grievances of his fubjeAs that live at a diftance from 
tlic capital of his dominions, and the r:ft in hawking, 
hunting,^ and other fports ; and before the rains begin to 
fall, this 'vaf\ multitude retire into the towns, which during 
the fair feafon are almoil deferred. 

The revenues of the Mogul arife from the produ£l of 
the ground, the labours of the people, the cuftoms of tha 
fea-ports, the ctUtes of great men which devolve on the 
crown by their deaths, and prefents from the fabje£\s, who 
never approach their prince or governor empty handed. 
The viceroy of every province, it is faid, is obliged to an^ 
fwer the crown fuch a certain fum, which he railet out of 
the manufa£tures and the produA of the (oil : this part of 
the revenue therefore may cafily be computed ; and Ma- 
nouchi, who refidcd in the Mogul's court forty years, 
makes thefe alone amount to three hundred eighty fcvcii 
millions one hundred and ninety four thoufand roupecs, 
which he reckons to be of the value of half a crown, but 
tlie ju(l value is two (liillings and three-pence, and then 
the annual revenue of the provinces may be reckoned to 
be between forty and fifty millions llcrling ; and much the 
greateft part of the troops being maintained by the refpcc- 
tive omrahs and rajas, this may be looked upon alfo as a 
confidcrable addition to the revenue, it faviiig the crown a 
prodigious expcncc. The raias alfo many of thein vield 
a yearly tribute, but then as many of them receive large 
penfions, one perhaps may balance the other; but the 
wealth hciolTclies himfclf of when any of his viceroys or 
rich govciiiois die, and the daily prefents he receives from 
A a hi^ 



MirnSjeni, ttViift »mouiit to «ii immenf'- fani; t^4e dU' 
mond minrj «11'<> «re an iiiexluiilUblc tieiliirc. 

So extcnfivc «nil ddpotic is the a'.irlinrity of the Orrat 
Mogitli tlut tlie livci aiiil t'ort^mc* of liii lub;e£)» are iii- 
lircly M hU dHpoliil, Civil (Uvery liath licrc been added 
lb jiolilicil : and the bp)irc<lcd fuhijcit hai ilo lin to pro- 
Ittt him. I4ere » man fcaree dare to think ; ddpotit'in 
deb«ri eTery faeuIlT, and Uiflej every kind fcntiment of 
rite foul. I Ik I'ubjeit is neither matter of hit under- 
Aanding, Wn talents, his life, or proiKtrv ; the will of the 
Prince being the only law of hit fubic^s. Wlu'n the fun 
tffci, the Cliiperorot Indoftiin fomctimes appears at a win 
iovt, when all the great men of Ms court are obliged to 
attend in his apartment! to do him lioni-i^c. At Inn fet he 
■Ifo appear* at a wMow, and receives tin- ncciamatinnt of 
thte neoplc. No peribn muft preluine to enter the impe- 
rial JMlice, e^tcept the rajas and great otiiceri, who bay a 
ilMin profound reverence to the Emperor, and prohrate 
lhemlcl»ei vihen they dep.irt from him. 

The principal offirers of his empirr c, the prime vifir, 
the firrf fccretuy of ttate, tl>e trrafunr, the cliief of the 
eimuclu, the general of the elephants, and the matter of 
llic wardrobe. 

When the great Mogul appears in public, no pomp, 
magnificence, or luxury can be compared to the oUcnlations 
brilliancy exIiibittJ at that time. He (Its upon a throne 
of gold glitterinc willi precious ftones : the throne and 
monarch are both iipon the Ixick of an eiruhaiit ) which 
elevation gives the Emperor fuch an air or grandeur, as 
muft furpafs the conception of any European who has 
not feen him. As the elephant moves (lowlv on, the 
people fail proftratebeforetheirrevercnd and miglity Prince. 
Thus, he I'upports his'del'potic authority, by dazzling tlie 
eyes of his naves, and {Iriking them with terror. On his 
ihield arc diamonds and rubies -, on his t gaudy tur- 
ban i and on his neck, a rich chain of |>carh. ficlidcs a 
fword, he has a quiver of arrows i and on the right and 
left hand <ide of him bans rubier or diamonds : hciioMs a 
A»ff in his hand, adorned with drilled diamonds. He 
rich bracelets on hit wrifts, as well as. above his elbows ; 
and on his fingers are coftly rings. 

The Mosul, when he marches at the head of hi-i troops, 
M attended by about one hundred elephants, richly capa- 
rifoned, and ten or twelve thoufiiiid men. In the centre 
cither on an elephant, or a fine Perfian horfe, rides the Km- 
peror. He is feated in a covered chariot drawn by oxen, 
when he goes into the country. 

Tf'e four principal fecretaries of ftiite are, I. The bsc- 
fchi, who has the care of the army. 2. The adelei Who 
Aiperintends the miniftcrs. 3. The divan, who divides 
die land to the officers of provinces, and infpefls their 
conduA. 4. The cafaumon, or high trealurcr, who 
every week lays the accounts of the provinces before tlie 

The Mogul is above fending aiiy amhaflador to a foreign 
tourt, looking upon the reft of the princes of the world 
io be much inferior to him, neither does he treat ambafla 
4or» as reptrfcntatives of their prince, but as common 
meflengers. The Mogul's letters, and orders are received 
with as much reverence as if he himfelf was prefcnt, for 
the governor to whom they are fent, having intelligence 
they arc upon the road, rides out with all his officers to 
meet the pattamar, or ineflenger, who brings them : he ho 
fooner fees the packet, but he alights from hi j liorfe and 
fells down on his hce to the earth, then he takes thcin 
firom the mcflengerand lays them on his head, whereon he 
binds them M, artd returning back to the court where lie 
■fually difpatcbes bufinefi» he reads them, and returns an 
anfwer without delay. 

The following account will afford fome idea of ttve ad- 
ttilniftration of juftici- in India. When the Great Mogul 
himfelf holds a divan or public court, he is feated on t»ic 
muftnud, \<rhich is a kitvd of ftage elevated to tlie height 
ef about two feet, covered with aluperb cloth, embroidered 
and fringed with gold. In the centre of the rnullnud is 
placed art oblong plate of filvcr gilded, turned up at the 
edges, and refembling a teaboard, upon which the con- 
queror of the world (as the Mogul ftylcs himfelf) fits crofs- 
icgged like a taylor. His officers furround htm, his cour- 
tiers flatter him, and the unff^rtunate petition him. On 
the latter occafion the petitioner is obliged to Ic.nv; his (lip 
pers on tlie outfide of the door, and advance barefooted in 
token of humility ; he then makes three fajairn, or falutes. 
toexprefs bis profound veneration, bows his forehead to 
rtlc ground, and prcfcnts his petition, together with a purle 
of gold, as the oive would oe uiclefs without the other, 
for the tirft only contains a detail of grievances, but the 

latter is fBled with the moft perfiiaOvc cliwjucnce. Th"< 
petitioner on piving the paper nr ;iutle, uliialUfavi, "Kiail 
this my petition ; the Jay «ill romc •vluii all pctiiinnl 
(hall be rrad," If the Mo^ul dues ii'it tluilt to rceciv* 
iIm petition, he linwiMaiid turin away lii>; bm if 
the petitioner, litids favour in hit liRht, that it, il the bribrf 
is fufficicntlv l.iige, and the luitiiltcrs li.ivr licen |iHvii)ully 
well feed, he Imiles and gtvet » pmcidus n<id of appro- 
bation. The Mogul (toes not, liowc\er, alway 1 ledteli 
the gritvance when hcrereives the incin'tiil.iMdits golden 
attendant, but is (Vci.uciitly In charmed with the rhetotia 
of the latter, that he puts the olyetf of o|>|)rcllion to the 
trouble and expeiice of rencaringthc former. .Sue h is tlia 
ei)uity of this cnuntrv, wlicie av.aiite is tlic leading prin- 
ciple, and the judge himfelf il even a llrangcr to cvrrty juft 
and tender fentlmcnt. 

There are no written laws in the empire ; however cer- 
tain punilliments are ulually initidted dii certain clinieH, an 
murder and theft arc puiiilned l>y death, Imi the manner 
of the execution is entirely in the hrcaft of e prinrc or 
his viceroy. They never luOtr niaMhrtors "> lie above a 
nii(ht in puiori, and very often nut stall, for if the of- 
fender be apprehended in the time, he ii imilicdi- 
at'ly brought before the covernor and either acquitted or 
condemned, and from juogment be is hurried to his exe- 
cution, which is ulu»lly done in the bazar or market- 
place; fome milcUelbrs arc II .^-d, others licheaded, lome 
impaled on iharplUkes, fome torn in pieces by wild beaf\» 
or killed by eleptiants', and others bitten by Inakts, If an 
elephant lie commanded toditpatchacrimihal immediately, 
he (lamps upon the wretch who !><'< trembling before him^ 
with his broad round foot, and Liulhes to death in a 
moment ; if it be intended he Ihould feel his de.ith and diu 
in torture the elephant breaks firfl the bones of his legs, 
then his thighs and arms, and leaves him to die by the 
wounds he has given him. Sir Thoman Roe relates, that 
when he was at tlie Mogul's court, a hundred thieves were 
brought chained before the Mogul with their accufaiion, 
and the Moeul immediately ordered them to be tarried 
away, the chief of them to l>e torn in pieces by dogs, and 
the reft to be put to death in the oiJiiiary w.iy ; accordingly 
the prilbners were divided into livcral ijiiarti-rs of tli'j 
town, the thief of them was torn to pieces by twelve do^is 
before the aiubafl^uior's houle, aud Ihirtcin of his tillows 
at the lame pUce, had their lie,lds tied down to their I'cet, 
andthcir necks being chopped half off with a fword, tliey 
were left iLiked and bloody iti the ttrects, where tlicy be- 
came a great anntiyancc to the r.eighbourhood. 

The Mogul cxpefts prefcnts not only fiom all his fub- 

itRi whenever they addrcfs him, but from ainliairudors and 
briign minifler$; and luitablc to their prefelits, genciall/ 
is their reception. 

The coiin we Inect with in this country are the pice or 
eafh which arccopper, r.nd about the value of a half-penny; 
f;knail^s, 1 (liver cuiii of the value of three-pence ; tlm 
roupte, another filvcr coin, two (liillings and ihrec-pcntc; 
the gold moor or rupee, which is alx)ut the value of four- 
teen lllver rupees, and the pagoda, fo called from having 
the figure of a p.igoJa llaniped upon it, is o( the value of 
nine fhillings ; the Uft arc coined chiefly by the rajas or 
petty princes, they are flat on one fide and the other is con- 
vex. Tht gold and filvcr coins are finer here than in any 
other Country. Foreigners have their mints, and coirk 
both g<Sld kiid filvcr, particularly the Fnglifh at Fort St. 
(jeorgc; foreign coins alfo arc current in this country, 
but there is not much of this ; for little matters they forae- 
tiincs uCe bitter almonds, or lia (hells called black-a-nioor"» 
teeth, (ixty whereof arc about the value of a half-peimy. 
Whatever foreign ccifi falls into the bands of the Mogura 
governors is melted down into riiiiecs, with the charaflers 
of the reij;niiig Hmptror, and after his death, it abates in 
the value a half-pcniiv or pehny, on account of wear, a 
tUev pretend, and onlytheiiew coin palfes at the lull value. 

^jreat fums are rcckcmed bv lacks, carons, and arabs. 
A lack is a hundred thouland rupees. A tnicin or carol, 
as fume call it, is a hundred lacks, and an arab is ten ca- 
rons. They make a three- fold dt\ifion if intercft i one 
of which is vice, another neiiher vice nor virtue ; and a 
third virtue ; this is (heir manner of cTipitlfion. The iu- 
tricft that is vice, is four per cent a month i aud the in- 
tered that is virtue, one. 

At Surat corn and rice and other commodities whiclf 
are fold with us by hollow meafiire, are there fold by 
weight, the common weight at .Sural is the feci, .i'iOiit one 
thouland three hundred and three pounds ; fil4cs and c.'lli - 
cocs are fold by the piccei or by the cobit, which contains 
twcmy-leven inches. 










I M b o 

The cofi by which t^ty lAtlKir* their ro«di is klfo Very 
uncertain, near tlicctia.M it ii about an Englilh mile and 
an half, but tarilx i up in tile country, and particularly 
about Hranipour, it i« near two Englilli niilci. 

Ill liijuid and dry mcaturc«, one meafure Is a pint and a 
half t cii^ht mcaluri-i are one mercall, or twelve pints ; and 
four hundred mercalls arc one garl'e, or fix hundrrd galloni. 


iKitf tf thi rtlifimi, brtffjfiii in thi implri 
iiftjul, and till fieianii tr Iriiii iiH$ tuhitH 

and c?r.i • 
li contains 


Cmliilm ait actiunt «; 
»f iht (trial 
thij an dividtd, 

IDOLATRY is the religion of the P.igan inhabitants, 
of IndolUn, who arc much the moil numerous Thcfe 
are divided into upwards uf fixty calls or trlltei, that will 
tint marry, or cat and drink with one another ; and, as 1 
apprehend, every call is of a diffccnt trade or piofclfioil. 
Tlic chief of thel'e tribes, which is cfleenied rhe moll no- 
ble, is that of the hrainins or brachmans, who arc their 
priefti i and thefe are divided again, i. Into tlinl'c that 
eat no flefti. j. Thole that eat lome kind of flefh, and rc- 
fuCe others. 3. Thole that marry. 1. 'I hofe that vow 
celibacy, and will not fu much as look upon a woinm ; 
and, c. The btaitlins th.1t Ibibear walking it all, IcH ihey 
fhoulj dcftroy fame living creatun-s ; thtle wear a piece of 
filk or mullin before their mouths, that they may not draw 
in a fly with their breath. Neither will they burn any 
wood, lei\ they Ihould kill fomeinfcA, and carry a biuifi 
always in their hands to fwcep the nlace the) lU-fii,!! to fit 
on, lelt they Ihould diflodgc the foul of fome animal ; and 
fouii relate they avoid marrying for fear they Ihould dc- 
ftroy foitic animal by their embraces. Theic braiiiins arc 
prielts of every left, and are tfteemed not only the iiioft 
noble, but the moft learned of the Indian trihi-s, havliii; a 
language peculiar to themfelves, in which their divinity 
and rule of life Is written, and according to their tradi- 
tion, it was civch them by Brima, thtir lawgiver, great 
bait of which they repeat cxtempoic to their follower's. 
riiey hold there is but one C>od infinitely pcrfcft, who 
h'Ti exifted from all etcrniiV, but that tlirie arc three fu- 
bordinatc deities, n.lmel/, Brama, whom he vclted aith 
the power of creation; Whiftnow, the prilerver, and 
Routeren, the enemy and deftmyer of minkind. 

The Ihdiahs believe, that the images ihey wmlhip were 
ftttce holy men upon earth, and are medistors for tluni to 
iht fupreme God in heaven, and they have fome tradi- 
tions uf the creation and of the flood ; but thefe arc mixed 
With many fables : As that Bnima made a great numlier 
of worlds, at leail fourteen; that the world we live in has 
continued feveral hundred thoufand years, and that it has 
Hill four hundred thoufand years to come : that their god 
KlaliaJeu has appeared fevcrai limes on earth, uhder dif- 
ferent foCms. One of the images of him has four heads, 
and four arms , another, cilled Whinnow, has the Lead of 
■ hog with tufks, and the body of a man , another is part 
man and part filh; a fourth has ten heads and twenty 
hands, and fcvcral other uionftrous figures wc find adored 
in India. 

A prc-exiftent flate fecms firmly believed by the bramins, 
and that fome arc rewarded and others piini'lhed here for 
what they have done in another world; they believe alfo 
that this IS a flate of trial, and we Ihall be dealt with in 
another life according to our lichaviour here. Tlie bra- 
mins advifc their followers to go in pilgrimage, to certain 
places efleemed holy, and cfpcci.illy to the pagodas near 
the mouths of the (ianges ; the walhing in that river alone 
will cleanfc them from a niiiltitude of fins, in the opinion 
of moll Indians , but however erroneous their creed may 
be in fome refpcfts, they arc much to be commended for 
(he moral duties llicy teach, namely, temperance, juftice, 
and humanity. A certain Protcllant divine relates, that a 
biamin afTured him, that they acknowledged one fupreme 
God , and when they rcprclbnted him as having a thou- 
fand eyes, and as many hands and feet, they only intended 
to teach their jKo'ple that he is almighty and oinnifcicnt, to 
induce them to be very cxaA in the performance of all 
nioral duties. 

The mod honour.-\l)le tribe or caft next to the bramins, 
is the lajapute, or ralboot ; and this the only fighting tribe, 
making arms their prdflftion. Thcfe have lome of the 
fupcrrtitior.i of the bramins, uiit are not quite io fcru- 
pulous , they will eat the flefh of moil animals, except 
that of cattle, and fome other bealls they woilhip. 
The banians arc tlic third trib; in honour, and the inoft 

i T A M. 9i 

teivier of the livri of animals of any oF thctit. 'Thay 
do not only prnhiliil the killing of them, but fludy M 
ways for their prrl'rrvatinn, which proceeds from their fil* 
vourite doftrine of tr.iiilmir.r^ition, lielieving ttiM evel^ 
creature is annintcd by a liuntan tout, and is noble or Ig' 
noble, according tti their behaviour in aprc-exillent flatti 

Tlie begging fiiais among the Pagans arc called tib{uirn 
and of thele theie aie great numbern thr^ make vows of 
poverty and cclihuev . but their vowr of poverty »r» I'A 
far from depriving idem of food, that tliclr protclfion il 
the moll effc^liiiil nuani to be provided lor. They ar* 
almoft twkcd, letting their hair hang down to their mid* 
dle», powdering it wiihalhcs, and the,rrlieving them 11 
elleemed a very nuritoriouH atl , but though tli -le gentlif 
men ap|iear to the world to be eltlrcmvly niortitie^, they 
are fomctimes Very merry among themrelves. 'I'liere U 
alfo an order of mendicant llrollcrsamonEthe Mthometan<| 
who vow poverty and cclih;icy , but ilirfe rather cuii\malM 
thanalk charity, and if dciiud, plunder the Villij^cs the/ 
maich through. 

Helides the fcAi already mentinnedt there ii inntlitf 
Called gaurs, whd tied hither froirl I'erlla, when the Ma' 
hometans made th'.mfclves malleri of that country. ThelSl 
are di Iccndrd from (he ancient Perlians, who worfbippea 
the fun and tire; they adore (>oJ tlu- creator of the worldi 
but have a t..dition, that /eitooll, or Zoroalter, tliel* 
lawgiver fome thouflild years fince, brought fiie from lie»- 
ven and comnnnded hio dilcinles to woithlp it. 1 he ex* 
tiiijiiiilhingthc noly in-, which h*s been kept confinuall]^ 
buiiiin^ ever fince in iheir e;(»aif is 01 tcMplcs, is account* 
ed a great fin , .tnd they dn nul rrcknn the putting out mf 
other Hi c a much lei's iiiuii.'. 'I'he cock is adored bf 
them with as much devotion s the cow is by the batiLmii 
Th'.-v abllain fiom '.itiiig beef and p.jrkat Surat, in com- 
uhaiicc with the ciiftum of the country; the Pagans of 
India foiliearinj; to kill the one, which thcv hold hicrcd ; 
and the Muci! '.ihi.[iiiii.itiiig the iitliri, lookiiii'on them- 
felves to hi; p'illutc.l by tlij touch ot' any mm that has but 
toucl'-il a lio^;. They I'?' apart the (iill day of every 
Mtomli iiir lh"i\ pM )hc worlh'p, and hive prayers alio oit 
(oiiie other da^ '. 

The religion of tht- Mnhomct.tiis or MulKlmen will bd 
tieated ot iiio'.u account uf lurkvi 

The hind' lis or gcnioos, iire di(lin;»i;i(hed \r\*xs four 
tribes, or cia(Ie.<. 1 . 1 he bramins, who received iheir 
iwme (i'lin Hrinha. 'lliiicliOis th; mod noble, as It 
prmred.d from the head of iiri'ilia, when he created thd 
w irld. It is allegorical of their luperiority over the other 
clalfcs. a. ."^irtri, or the military This clafs is faid til 
have proceeded from the heart of Brinlia, which deriva- 
tion is faid to be embUniitical of the courage itcceflary td 
warriors. 3. Bice, 01 Mic trader. This claf's is fiirurii- 
tively laid to have fpriiiig lioin tlu belly, as trade f ippliei 
mankind with the neccirnic; of life. 4. Sudder, or la- 
bourer, which dais is tvpifi:J i>y having fprun^ from the 
feet, pointing out by iinpHcation the menial lituaiion of 
thofc who belong to it. I'he harri or halhchore clafs, or 
call, are the refiile of both the Mahometans aiid gentooj, 
and their only empi' v the moll bale and fervile otficcit 
The people of this i.iils, being excluded from all Ibtiety 
among the Indians of every denomination, are glad to 
find refuge in the lap of any communion ; they therefore 
b;comc Roman Catholics, and the milfionaries have few 
other profelytes to lioall of. It is very probable, from 
hence that the black Roman Catholics ir» geiieral are con- 
verts more from compullion than inclination ; for if 1 
married womatt commits arty atrocious crime, or happen* 
to millake any man's bed for that of her hulband, he iin- 
mcdiatcty cuts off her hair, which is the greateft mark of 
inliimy (lie can be brandcil with. After fuch an ignominy^ 
none will converfe, er be connefled with her ; fhe there.< 
fore flies fohcrprieft, and embraces the Rom<n Catholig 
religion, to avoid being totally excluded from fociety. 

Though the hindoos are gentle, patient, temperate, re- 
gular in their lives, charitable, and tlrifl obfervers of their 
religious ceremonies ; yet they are at the fame tiiTic ftipet- 
flitious, effeminate, avaricious, and crafty ; deceitftil atid 
dilhoneftin their dealings, void of eve*y principle of hon- 
our, generolitv, or gratitude. Cjain is the predominant 
principle ; and they can without fearing the angsr of 
their gods ; as a part of their gains, which is bellowed in 
gifts to their priells, or charitioj to the poor, will procure 
their p.irdon for any oflence. 

It Iceins generally agreed, that Chtifilariity hdth been 
planted here ever tinec the nooflks timf; ; hut however 
that be, cert .in it i-;. that Chtillians wer.i found liere when 
the Europeans tirll vilited theie coalls, who had .t tradition 




Tub new amd UNIVERSAL SV STR-M or G EOC R AP H Y. 

wiiorit' thtm, iliat 'rimmw wat mMtv'til new M«li»|)nur, 
•n iIm ciialk nC CoiiiMMiiilcl Co vrliich fnwu lliercfure tlic 
PorlUKtirlc .^trrM4iJ>giv« tliv imiim of S*. 'I'luiMUt . tliii 
ciiy lUndi ■h«uc » Iragiic to thr luulliwaij ot | urt St. 
XJrnrg^-, nihl ii xt tliM Jay a hillM)p'i <cr. 'I l.^ pfiuiU 
wherein iIkIc IimImu C'liiirti.mi iltirrii'iJ uUh the Uiimilh 
sliiirch, were llwir ntlimnilUriiik; the lacranKiit in Itntli 
|lin<i4, hue u^iii);, riiDcad of Minr, a liquor nuile witli 
r4i(im, ibcK tKiikK ttu whm made iii (lie cuuiitry. i. 'I litv 
did not hapti/r tlirircliiMrcn till tlU'7 wcte forty 4y»oli, 
■(ilcl'i thcv won- \n (Uji|;rr of death, j. 'IIk-^ had no 
tnvigci intlien churdict hut the crnfi. 4. Tliey allowed 
|ht n prJL'lh to uiarry oikc. f. I hrv ulcd iv> cutrcuie 
unilion. And, 6. 'fliey dtil nut ukiiowlrdji* the pope's 
^uriulidion. Hut 10 the lal), and fonie ot the uiIkm, 
llic Romilh milfioiurici have hrouglit them over, and they 
goto lb-; fame chuicli the I'urtu^uefc do, at MadrAl'i , 
Sut lut it the lune tune. 

S E C T. X. 

Trtali if tht marri»iit tndfmitrali tf thi /nili^nf, 

%Tiithe cunont in fmlii, I'nr ilie gcnti»j«, sr Pagans, 
J to marry their children in tlu-ii mftinc\ , the confcrti 
«f the prupcr parliei i« iKvcr alkcd, hut they are al- 
ways maincdtoonc of their own call or tribe, and to 
one ot the lame trade : a car^Kntcr never iilarries a 
finith, or a weaver with a wnterman. At what age 
fuevcr the parents contiait for til' childrers they do not 
coh.-ihit till the woman is twelve years of ai^e, and the 
man loiik: ve.vs older, ilcfore the iiwcli i^ agreed on, 
lilt articlopcr (whoiu we t.-\ke to he a hriniiiii or prUH) is 
always confulted, whether it is likely to prove lurtunatc. 
An enijiiiry alio u made, what hour m likely to prove pro- 
fiitious for the foleinni/.ation and cnnfummation of it, 
And when alt things are UtllrJ, a grand proccfTioii is made 
through the ilrects lot I'cveral nights lucciirively by the 
light of tuiches ; tltc Utly carried in one|tun on 
mem lliouldi'rs, aivl the b idcgruom in another, with 
mufic playiiii; hctoie them. VVhen the (how is over, 
the lit'le bricic and bridegroom arc let down at licr father's 
houfe, and here a table lieing placed between thcn\ they 
join their h,uidi aciofs it, and the pried covering botit their 
heads with ;i clurb, repeats lonie prayers lor their liappi- 
ncfs, anil y,\\ci them his benediction; and having Iprink- 
led tin coiiipany with perfumed water coloured with faf- 
fton, the cei'cnii~nv is cortf:luded, and an entertainment 
prcp.iied for their friends and aci|iiaintance. The woman 
IS ciitirelv in the power of jicr luilband, and confttjucntly 
Ihc ref.ault him as her lord: llie brings hiro no other for- 
tune tluii hertlu^ths, anda teinale llavc or two. Orvthc 
conTirv, :lie !iu!l>aiid, or his father, if it Ik a wealthy fa- 
mily, iiiof^:; rich prcfents to the wife's relations : no man 
fMccpn'.ic braaiias and bimians) is confined tu one wo- 
man, Iiul t.ikes .ij nuny wives and concubines as he pleafes, 
and tr>-:tts lUem, as llic gentoos do all mankind, with great 

'I'lie Itiange cuftom of one wife being fubjcft to fc»eral 
huloands, prevails anwng foiiie of the naires, or nobles ; 
the number U not fo much limited by any fj-^ecific law, 
34 by a fort of tacit convention, by which it rarely exceeds 
half a dozen. 'Ihe hufbands cohabit with her altcrrutrly, 
.according to priority of marriage ; and each on going re- 
tpe^ivcly to her, leaves his arras at the door, as a fignal 
that iKine of tlvc others mull prcfume to enter till he «le-. 

The Indians give a name to their children about ten 
days after their birth; they aflcinbletciYora dozen children, 
who ftanding in a ring hold a (licet in their h.-mds, wherein 
Ihc brainin or pricll pours a quantity of rice, upon which 
)ie lays the child to be n.-uncd; the Iwys who holil the 
Ihcet Ihaking tl>e child and the rice together nbout a quar- 
ter of an liour, when the father's filter advances and names 
the child, cullom having given her this right; but if 
the aunt be not jirefeiit, tlien the father or the mother 
name the child. A month or two afttrward.s it is caiiied 
to the pagoda or teinple to lie initi.ited in the banian reli- 
gion, where a bramin mixes fonic lha\iiigs of fandal wood, 
caiiiphirc, clous, and other fwects, and puts then) upon 
tlie child's head, from which time the infant conwncnces a 
complete liani.ui. The l\ini;-in-woinaii is looked upon 
fo impure, that none iiiull touch her for the lirft ten da 

but her nunc, aitd liil forty da 

> > aiC j>« 

ft ihe iliuft pot con- 

cern herfclf ill dielfing meat or any other houlhold affairs. 
They have fwiiiging cradles faftncil to the beam of the 
houic, which go much i|uietci; aiul calier tluii ours that 


(laiui upon the Kronnd, the laiiw fort are ufcd in llulliiitl. 
'Ihe Indiain never bind or (waddle uu tiicir children as 
we do, bullet thcnkj^opcilnilly nak«.d IxJth boy> and i^irU, 
till thcv Ale (u 01 (even )iaii old, and it 1 . ii>jt lo lie 11114- 
gined hotv very youiiK they will crawl about the Hour. 
Ihe iitiiabiunli of tlit< luuthrrn pait of India, wlHtaio 
moll of them as black ai jett lia\e a ic.lilh lall Im luni« 
lime afVer they sriiborn. and turn i|uile blaek as titcygrow 
up. riiire are no ciookcd or mil-lhi|M.'n people amoiigll 
ihiMii, but tlirv arc in general llrait aud well pioportioncil , 
which foiiie think priKccds fioiii the|ra\iiig tluni lo ihcir 
natural Uberty, and not cramping or (waddling lUeclHldrca 
M weikiher*. lint however iiut may l)c, the frequent 
tubbing and walhing them in cold water, certainly contri- 
bute • to prevent, as much as any thing, tlieir being weak 
:uid lickcry. 

VVhen a wife, who has more hulbandt llun one, bring* 
foilh a child, (lie nominate* its father, who is at the ex- 
pence of educating it; but from the impradicabilily of 
itlcei taming the I cai heir, tlic cl'atci ot the hulband de- 
(and to tltfi uln.dien ot llicir lillcrr, or uihcis near iis 

With rcfpcft to the funerals of lli'Ti' peopl'-, fonie bury 
tlie bodies of tlie deceafcd, and xiiic;, b .111 tliein oit 
piles i the latter ;s the moll cullomary. Heture ttity burr> 
tlieir dead, they carry them, on 11 Si'.-r lo a linlil diilance 
from the town orvillne whire ih, . di.J, .l.flLd in their 
ufual apparel. Ilcieu pile is eieiied, and the c«ipti: it 
placed upon it ; and, as (oon >« thebiamin has dune pi.iy- 
ing, one of tlie corners of the pile is fct fire to. When 
the body is conCumed, its relics or allies are gathered and 
thrown into the Iva by the biaiuin, lor the tuneral pile 1* 
always cretlcd near the fea, or ibiiu: large piece of water, 
as the re;idv road lo paLidife. the Ganges, and other river* 
in India, being the olijecls of their adotition. 1 he per- 
fon who fets fire to the pile, is always the nearctl uiale-te- 
lation, who walks baic headed, in I coarle tj'tered gar' 
nunt (tluir common mourniiig) tound it tlircc tunes oe- 
fore he applies llic tire Aiek, #iid when the wltolc is in • 
bla7.e, abundance of fwcet-wood is thrown into the fire ; 
but the pcifoii who let tire to lite pile, appears 'iiUtadted 
with the moll allonilhiiig grief. 

We lluU here give foiiic account of the gentoo woincfk 
burning thcmlclves on the death ot' their hiilKinds. But 
we mull til II prcniil'e, that, as tlie gentoo laws allow bi- 
gamy, the tirlt wife lia> a limited tunc given her to conli- 
der whether (he will burn hcrlclf or not, if Ihe decline,, it, 
the choice is given to the Iccond; if tlie fecund declines 
allb, then they both lie under the imputation of being re- 
tnifs in the genuine principles of honour and clUem. 
Some fay that thisculloiu was inAituted iaordec to terrify 
the women from poifoning tlie'u hulbandt, to which they 
were once addiiiledj others, that the women propofcd to 
enjov a more cxouifite and durable happincl's with her huf • 
bandin another liti: than Ihc liad done in thisi and there 
are others that impute it altogether to priellcr.-il't , for that 
the |ieople of quality being to b; dreflcd up wiih rings and 
jewels to a very great value, and tlic bramins only haviiiK 
the privilege of meildling with tlic alhcs, fomclimes pof- 
felled thcmlclves of great wealth by this means. 

Soon after the fettlement of the Knglilh at Fort St. 
George, a bramin woman demanded leave of the governor 
to burn herfclf with her hulband ; and not being able to 
diffuade her from her rclblution, and ilrongly fulicited by 
the whole call, he would grant them this their an- 
ticnt privilege, he at length conleiittd to it, it ii faid; ac- 
cordingly great preparations were made, and the womaii 
drefled lo ihc licft advantage, as if (he wcte going to her 
wedding, the inulic played, her friends rejoiced, and the 
people ihouted a.s on l<)me glorious occafioii; but the wo- 
man, when (he law the funeral pile prepared, and the fire 
about to be kindled, liegun to repent herfftlf, and would 
f.iin liivc withdrawn, but was hurried on to tlic pit where 
the Cre was m.ide, and there knocked on the head and 
luurdered by the btumins to prevent her cicape, and after- 
wards burnt with her hulUind's corpfc. 

About the year 1743, the widow of the rhaam Cluind 
Pundit, in her fcventeenth year, llgniticd to the bianiins 
her refolutionof burning lierfelf, the dreadful pnin of tiic 
death (he (ought wai dcliiiuited to lier in the mull ftrikiiig 
colours ; all, however, had no elTeil ; (he even put her 
hand into a fire and held it there fome time. Her friend'-: 
liiuiing her fo intlcxibly determined, coareiiti:d to a funcnd 
pile being cieftcd, the melancholy hour approached ; (he 
took leave of her mother and three chlluicn, diverted her- 
fclf of hevorn.iments, walked three times round the pile 
with th.- brunuti, from whom lUc received a wick of cot- 




P '" •■■'■■.. ./ 

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ton, and, taking one more tender farcwelof lier cKildneni 
he. afcendcd the pile, ard fet tire to it. The above lady's 
hiifband, who was in the twenty-ninth year of his age 
when he died, was confumed on the fame pile with her. 
Shefcated herfelf by him, looking ftedfaftly at him ; but, 
perceiving that the flames blew from her, (he, \«ith aftonilh-. 
in); refolution, fet fire to it in a frelh place, when the 
whole was foon in a blaze. 

We Ihall give but one more delbriptinn of thcfe liorri- 
blc facrifices, as Uken from a letter dated from Inglec in 
Bengal, dated December 30tht 1751, and the horrid deed 
was committed about fifteen days before the date of the 
letter, the wrriter whereof being an eye witnefs of the 
whole tranfaftion. This tragic (cene was afted at Calcutta 
in Bengal, when the naked body of a gcntoo wx] laid on 
a pile of wood, made up in a regular form, and his wife, 
not above fifteen or fixteen years of age, walked to the pile, 
condufted by her friends, tier fatlier on one fide, and her 
mother on tlie otlifer. . After a great number of previous 
ceremonies were performed, me walked round the pile 
fevcn or eight times in a melancholy and devout manner, 
condufted, f before, by her father and mother : Ihe then 
ftepped upon tlie pile, and quietly laid herfelf down by the 
fcorpfe of her hulband, about whole neck her hands were 
iiillencd, and her legs tied to his ; then both their bodies 
were anointed witli a fort of unguent called ghee ; over 
tliem was llrcwcd a fort of yellow duft, and they were 
covered with a cloth, which was kept down by fonie pieces 
■of wood. At laft, the father of the deccafed hulband fet 
fire to the pile, which ran through it like lightning, by 
jncans of the yellow powder. And tlie fire was fo fierce, 
that the fpe£tators -vtcrc obliged to draw backward from the 
. heat. 1 he whole was confumed to alhes in about an 
kour's time. 

Thefe (hocking fpeAacIcs have been much Icfs frequent 
than formerly, (ince the Mogul's became matters of In- 
doftan ; for neither the Mahometans or Europeans will 
■ now permit the barbarous cuftom to prevail, where tlicy 
have any power. 

We himed above, that the mourning ufed here, is a tat- 
tered negle£ted drefs : to which we may add, that the wo- 
°man (have their heads on the death of a hulband; but 
the men never (have tlicir heads, or cut their hair, unlcfs 
it be on the death of a father, or a fovereign prince. The 
relations, in order to Ihew their regard for die deceafed, 
.often vilit the place where the corple was burnt, carrying 
■thither rice or other food; which they cannot be ignorant 
is eaten by bcafts or birds^ as foon as they arc-gone. 

The Gaurs, the pofterity of the antient Ftrfians, who 
.fled to India when die Mahometans, conquered Perfia, 
have a repofitory for their dead about a mile from Surat, 
where there is a colony of them: they arc of opinion that 
. they cannot do their deceafed friends greater fervice than 
by leaving them to be devoured by birds of pre/. They 
• therefore ereft ftages or railed floors in this repofitory, 
which is furroundcd by a wall twelve feet high, and an 
hundred in ciicumferetKe, where may be feen great num- 
bers of dead bodies witli part of tlieir flelh torn o(F by 
. vultures, their eyes dug out and mangled from head to foot, 
and the vultures fo glutted with human flelh, that tliey 
can fcarce raife theinfelves to fly ; fo dilFerent are the cni- 
toms of different countries ! In moft places the leaving 
. a corpfe above groiind unburicd, is elleemed an aA of 
great impiety, but by the Gauis it is dveincd a piece of 
barbarity to bury them. 

S E C T. XK 

■ Ctntaini tbt hijltry tf India, from tin tarlitft aueunts. It 
tbt prtjint cinturj ,- . 

THERE fecms to hi.e been little more than the name 
of India known to the anticnts. Sciulramis, foon 
after the commencement of the Allyrian empire, is laid to 

. have carried her arms thither ; and it is conjcftured that 
Hacchus conquered tart of this country , but Alexander's 
invafion of India, alviut three hundixd years before the 
birth of Clirirt is not iloubtcd. None of tUefe heroes, 
however, rrtaiiiol any part of their conquefts if they made 

, any, 01 refidcil there long i-nounh to acquaint themfclves 
w ith tiiL- (late nf it, or even to lictcribe the bounds or true 
(ituation of liulia : and the Romans never attempted to 
mdnci: it under tlieir (iMuiininn ; contrqucntly we le-, viT*' I'.v.i'.'h in t'l" tl.i;^' as to thefe '^eo'^le vntil the 
rcinn (it 'lanuTlaiie, wlio liilnlued this, and alinoll all 
vH- teii of Alia, about the year i^oo, when it appears to 

. ■ •^" ') ' . 

h*re bebn divided atnOngft a great number of petty fove^ 
reigns. j 

' ramerlane was the great cham or chief of alltheMoi 
gul Tartars. His thirdl'on Miradia, fuCceeded him iu- the 
northern provinces of India and Perfia, and in the ftyle or 
title of Great Mogul, which title his pcfterity, the Em- 
peror of India, enjoy atxhis day. ^Ilr^cha made Herat 
in Perfia the feat of hit government ; but every year, iu 
the fair fcafon, made a tour through his Indian dominions* 
attended by tlie Court and army, and demanded the annual 
tribute due from thofe princes which, it feems, was fome- 
tiines denied hiin.i. and he found himfelf obliged to make 
war upon one of thole raja's, to compel the payment of 
it; in which war, he had the misfortune to be taken pri- 
foner, but obtained his liberty from tlie raja, oncondition 
he would relcafe the tribute, and make no demands of this 
nature on that vi£l:orious prince, or his fucceilbrs for tlie 
future. But Miracha, like fome otherprinces, renu-mbrsd 
his engagements no longer than till he liad obtained his li- 
berty ; for he no fooner returned to his dominions, but he 
levied a more powerful army than he had loft, invadci 
that raja's territories again ; and, having taken him pri- 
foner, put out his eyes. Hiftorians relate, that Miracha 
coming to view his I'artar guard, afterwards, on a day 
alTigned for their (hooting at a mark, and being informed 
that his prifoner the blirul raja, was ftill a better archer than 
any of them, he lent for Ivim, and ordering a bow and 
arrows to be brought, the raja defi red his Majefty to give 
the word of command when he fltould (hoot, which he 
had no f(xmcr done, but the raja let fly an arrow at the 
place from whence the voice came, and killed tite King 

In the reic;n of Babar the great grandfon of Miracha, 
tliere luippci.L'd a war between him and anotlier princ* of 
the polUrity of Tamerlane; in which war, BaKir loll tlic 
city of Sainaroand, and, as 1 apprehend, he loft Herat, and 
the Perlian provinces aUb ; whereu|)on he nude DcUi in 
India the capital of his dominions, and invading the In- 
dian priiKes on the fouth-eaft, cpnquered the kingdom of 
I'atan orPatna, whiclt Mcs upon tlie Ganges, and is conti- 
guous to Bengal, fiabardied in the year I53C> having 
reigned thirty-years in India, and was fucceedcd by his 
foil Amayvm. 

A young Patau lord, named Chira, having been edu- 
cated witli. Ainayum, gained fuch an afcendcnt over him, 
that he m.-ide Chira the commander of his army, and his 
prime miniftvr, who taking all opportunities of ii^ratiat- 
iiig himfelf with the Tartars and Indians in the Mogul's 
army, and being extremely concerned to find his itative 
country of Patan treated as a conquered province, h: en- 
tered iiUo. a cnnfpiracy againft Ainayum, his great bene- 
fa^or, who having received advice of his treachery, raifed 
a body ot forces, and gave battle to Chira, but was de- 
feated by him, and obliged to fly into Perfia for prote£iion, 
and Chira was immediately after proclaimed fovercign of 
lndoi\an. Here our hiftorians furnilhus with fome omens 
of Amayum's refloration ; the^ tell us, that this prince 
laying himfelf do>«-n to fleep m bis flight to Perfia, an 
eagle hovered over his head, and fcrcened his face from 
the fun: Amayum being well received in tlte court of 
Perlia, and promifed to l^ affifted in his reftoration, waited 
there, however, near nine years without any tiling done 
towards reftoring him ; but at length he received advice 
from Dclii, that Chira vnu killed by the burfting of a 
cannon which he went to fee fired, and tliat the Moguls 
and Patans could not agree upon a fuccelTor to the throne, 
but if he returned to Delli, he had now a very fair dunce 
of polTefliiig the throne of Indoftan again; and having 
communicated this advice to the Sophy of Perfia, that 
prince aftbrdcd him a body of troops, at the head of _ which 
he. marched to India, and joining with fuch of his fub- 
jefls as were in hi.'; intereft, he was advanced again to the 
throne without bloodlhed : but notwithftandilig this re- 
volution could never have beviefleSed without Perfian 
forces, and he had promifed to ccoe ihc province < f Can- 
dahor to the crown of Perfia (to which the Sophy pretended 
aright,} he was not as good as his word, but flill kept 
the pollc(fion of it. So little are the profefliom of princes, 
when they are in diftrefs, to be depended on. 

The Indians afcribc to tlic Mogul Amayum the build- 
ing of caiavaufcras or houfesfor the entertainment of tra- 
vellers, and the regulating weights and meafures. This 
prince, after his reftoration, built a moft magnificent tomb 
for himfelf in India, wliidi is, to tliis day, efteemed one 
of the "reateft curiofitic? in th^it coiintrv; And ?* he was 
ono day walking o\ or tlie fc,i(Tol>Jiiig, and giving his orders 
to tlie woikmeii, a plank dcuived hiai, ;iad foilin;^ front 
li b * great 



Ann t RfcM ht\Ak to (he ptuwA, )»ituta milVrably 
brniffd, tliut he died immedtatelyi and was buried in hit new 
tomb, «irfaidi«a5theh liewiy ilni(he4 1 bnf fetiH omamenU 
%ei« tftrrwatds added by Akehnr, tilt foA and fdccctTor. 

Akebar proved an entet^rUlng prince \ bw having ai yet 
no coinmnnkatioh withthcfeacoaft d India, front whence 
* very rkh trad« wt* carrle<i ot% wMt th« Ewepmns, par- 
ticularly from t>t« lUngdl M W of Ouzarat and Cambeya^ 
which extendi from l^utitt, fliuatt on th« river Taptc< to 
the anouth of tlie river Indm, ha detttmintd to make i 
Conquell of it< Suliait Bridiir, or BalMdar, a Mahomeun 
prinoe, Mrhofe anceftors \(reW ArabiMw, wai then fove-* 
reiijn of thatcouiitry, and had been M war tvlRh the Por-' 
toguefe for fome tinie> who were pcrpetoally ertcroaching 
on his lerritorit*, and had lately taken from him the towrt 
of ITvitf fnamt rMirthe entraiKc oi' tliegiilf of Cambaya^ 
almoft oppofite to Snrat-, bat both Siritait Badar and the 
Portugvele received advice, that tliti Mogtil was on hia 
march to invade Cambaya, and apprehendittg that neither 
of them were able to opnofe liim liHgly^ thoneht it prudent 
to make a peace, anduAitatlteir fbrcts againli tlw Mogul; 
nor were both of tlieiH able to flop die tonrerit of his armii 
They rtlied much on the Euro^aai artillery ; but, cotMng 
to an engagemcnr Akebdr's nnffierous army bore down 
-iK befott them. Stiltan Badar retired out of die battle) 
I. ' "hildren were made prifoncrs, and put to death by Ake- 
bar, who made an intire comjneftof thekiitedoro of Ga- 
«arat, except Din, and (uch other towm as the Portuguefe 
had fortiiinl and fomithed witt) artillery. 

Akebar finding Gujarat fo eafy a conqueft bent his 
ariiM tCFwards Dccan, which lies to the fouthward of it. 
I'his was divided into fet cral little fovcreignties i Mufta- 
. plia, a Mahometan prince, pofleflcd that part of the coun- 
try wherein the towns of liramponr and Acer are fitoated, 
whofe fubje^s gave him the title of melee, or king. 
Amadangcr, and the territory belonging to k, was fub- 
'jeA to the Queen of Cande; and Ardnr commanded the 
diftria of Doltabad. Thefe princes, though at other 
^■•v: • I'T^f-mies, unia-d tlieir forces aeaiirft Akebar, and 
ga\ a him battle, but were definted by him, widi TCiy little 
Mi. The towns of Acer, Brampour, and Aaoadanger, 
held tlie conqueror in play ff>me monllu afterwards; out 
St length Muftapha and the Princefs of Cande, both fur- 
rendoTcd their capitab upon conditioiR. Muftapha after- 
wards attended the Mogul's court, and was oonlent for 
feme time to remain in the rank of an Indian raja : and 
the Princefs of Cande was taktti into the number of the 
conqueror's wives, artd treated in the quality of a fa v cfc i pi 
uueen, remaining for a coniiderable time the favourite 
niltanefs : though fuch was her enmity to Akebar when 
he beiieeed \\ft capital, that defpeiring to bold wat, (he 
caufed 2l her treafure to be melted into bullets, and in- 
fcribed with the bittereft curfes againft her enemy, (hot 
them into the neighbouring woods, to prevent his pol&flT- 
ing it. Some of thefe g^d and filver bullets were af- 
terwards found by Manouchi, who was a plwfician in 
die Mogul's court, who relates, that he nad the in- 
fcription on them, and that one of the bullets weighed 
eighteen pounds. As for prince Ambar, he was killed 
iti an engsgcment during the war, and his territories feixed 
by the Coviqncror. 

After thb foceefs, Akebar irtvaded Chitor, which lies 
raft of Gnzatat, attd was then ft.>hjeft to the mja Rama, 
who liavingtntcred into a confederacy with feveral of tlie 
neighbouring powers, ventured to oppofe the Mogul, but 
beinfr foon obliged to quit the field, he retired into his ca- 
pital city of Chiltor, naturally one of the flrongeft fertreflcs 
in India, ftanding on an high mountain in the middle of a 
plaiit; riie river Nug almw fnrrounded it, a rivulet atfo 
rofe within the walls of the town, and tliere were ficMs 
within its bounds, wliich produced provifioiis fuffidant to 
Aipport a imfTKTODS garritbn. But notwitlifianding the 
advantage of its fituation after a two years fiege the town 
wa-i taken, and the reft of the country tliereupon lubmitted 
to tlie conqueror. 

Being now difpoled fo rrign in peace, Akebar :q>plied 
himfctf to>the building of fine towns, promoting the traffic 
of hi» KHj je Os -, and adorning his palaces. He rebuilt the 
city of DeHiv enlarged that o( Agra: and planted the fiite 
avenue of trees, extending from Agra to Labor, which is 
near five hundreds miles, under the llude wliereof a tra- 
veller may be fereened from the fun in the hotteft feafon. 

Some of hh favourite amui'ements were, the manage- 
ment of his war-clq)li3nis, and the breriiing head-ftrong 
horfes. Thefirft w»s foliasardous an exerciie, chat the 
friends and relations of tlie perfons, who are obliged to 
train them up to the war, put en mourning for tiinn, u 

Ittm aeftiiKd to deltniOIaiti Tlie peafiMts (by whom t 
prefome •m luftoriaiu mean the bindoos, tbfe original in' 
habitants ftf the noith ofI|Ml») brcAmg out ioto itbellioii 
agaitift the Mogul, «hdftMtt\% into aforttefs, Akefaat 
commanded the aaptains e^Hle ckpbanti to break opei< 
the gates, which they liMmiftg backward to attempt, ho 
put on a coiiunoii feldier's coat, and mounted an elephant 
nimfclf, and advsiicing to one of the gates^ Uiade his ele« 
phant break it opcii, irhiie a fhowvr of anew* was dif- 
eharged at him from the walisi This war with the hin- 
doot laftcd /•((« yean, it beiHg a mooMainoiU, woody 
couiilTy, and the people having pofleflcd theanfehres of Hio 
paies through which an enemy couU approach it ; and tlM 
Whidt jperpltsnl Akebar ftill mere was the rebellion of hit 
ekieft Ibn, Jthan Gnire, about the ftme time. However. 
(his priMe had the good fortune to fupprefs that rebellion. 
And to deter his fou from fuch attempu for the future, ht 
carried him into a foreft after he had pardoned him, and 
fhewed him the heads of his aflbciates Itanging on tha 
branches of the tree*, which had facb an tSc& on him« 
that he ever after proved a very diKiful fon. 

Tlieft wars s;erc no fooner ended, but he was neicifed 
With a rebellion of the Patans, who endeavowtd to ren- 
der their country independent of the Mogul again ; and 
thefe people were fe fortunate to defeat an army of eighty 
tfaonfind tnen, the Mogul feM agahift them. Whereupoa 
Akebar, obferving tltat the want of people to maiuge his 
artillery was the prhteipal oecafion of his ill fuccefs, in> 
vitcd buropean gurmers imo his fervice ; among whom we 
are told, tnere was an Englifhman, whom the Mogul re- 
quired to live as his people did, without ftrong liquor, t. 
which the gunner nude ole of the foltowing flratagem to . 
obtain. Being to Ihoot at his mark before the Mogul, at 
a time appointed, he (hot much wider 'Of it than he liad 
done at any time before the prohibition, and being afked 
the reafon, he faid bis fight bad &iled him ever fiaoe he 
had been debarred the ufe of wiae ; whereupon the Mogul 
ordered him as much as he would drink ; and after he-EMl ' 
drank prettv plentifully, he made fome very nice (hots, > 
and die prelkimtion againfl his drinking wine" was cdien : 
off, and it was reeorded in their arcfaieves, " That wioe ~, 
was as natural to an European, aS water was to a fifb," J 
which the hiflorian relates he faw himfelf ; and that after- 
wards foreigners were permitted to plant vineyards about ' 
Agia, and make what winr they plcafed. 

Akelvv, finding that his peeple were a« defidem in moft , 
ether iciei^cet, as in the art ef^war, invimi ttmfe of other 
profeflions ta refort to his court, oAriiu; tfaem great en- 
comMtmcnt, and f«nt for die PoitVigoafe miffionai i - ^ u 
inffania him in die ChriJUan reUgmi, as he ;^Tete.'<iJi<!:, ; 
and as the fadters, no doubt, believed ; but it is evioeat '. 
6om his fiature canAoA, that he wanted tfaem to teach the 
mathematics te his family ; hovttver, the fathers believeing . 
him to be in carneft, prepared to make a convert of him. 

The Mogul barring at length intireiy fuppteAed the Pa- ' 
tan rebellion, and hang at liberty to fiallow his inclina« ' 
lioiu without > ef li a i nt , hiilcad of frvouria^ the fiMfaers ; 
any longer, became the fomdcr of a new leligioo, which" 
liquid comj^rehend all the icligioiw he was aoooaimiad with, 
and unite hu fubjeAs in ene eniiwm way of worfhip ; in 
whidi he choie to renin the faeptifo of tbe CfariiUans, the > 
circnmcifion of the MahometaiM, and tbe idoktry of the 
Pa^^ins ; bat he vrsold never hear of p«tiiu with his wires, 
and HifiiMM; himfelf to one wmnan. The midionarics 
aflert, diat aner this he was always unfoatunate, loft his 
beloved fon, was liarrafled with infurreftions, and loll 
fome of the mod confiderable provinces of his empise ; and 
at lengtlt, having forrn^ a defign to poifon fcveral gscat 
men be fufpe£k^ were in a confpiracy againft him, died 
by the poifon he bad prepared for others ; whidi happened 
in the year 1605, and was fucceeded by his foiiCha Selim, 
who, at bis accefTion, took upon hiiu the title of J chart 
Quire, or fovereign of die world. 

This emperor, in confequenoe of the education he had 
received in nis fiither's court, was indited to make die like 
enquiries into the trath of the fieveral religions profciftd ii» 
his dominions ; aitd he looked upon the conlimiig men to • 
fome particular fiood and liquors, to proceed rather from 
fnperftiiion than true piety, as it could ferve no pood end 
orpurpofe whatever ; and obierving that the ChrtfUan re- 
ligion allowed its votaries the greatefl liberties c^tbu kind, 
he fent for the Franks, or Europeans, and drank pretty 

nsmr^-. i ney rrnnyaaea to mm, ttiorerorc, tue uniaW' 
fulnefs of drinking ftrong liquors ; but fome of the wifcit 
of them obierving, that it wu rather hit Jeve of wine thaa 


i W & 


A it. 


any incUiution to tifecome a Chriftiari,^ that iitdUcitd hint 
to take thefe libertiei, diey tkclared that the prohibiiloB to 
drink wine was never defigrtcd to extead to fovere^ prin- 
ces, they were at full liberty to eat and drink what th«y 
pleafcd ; which kind foiution of thei^ pniphet's prectptt^ 
gave hint entire fatis&ftion, and he ilevcr gave anv nir- 
tlier evidence of hie fovouring Chriftianity, unleft it was 
by his forbearance to pcriccute the Chriiliani, and admit- 
ting diem to drink with him, which they fireqnently did 
till morning. The miflionariet, it feems, looked npon 
tills alfo at an evidence that he deltgned an alteration in re- 
ligion, at well as tlie Mahometan ptieils ; but they were 
both deceived ; the indulging his appetite being all he 
meant by thefe praAices. 

The Mogul having removed the royal feat from Agra to 
Lahor ; and tlicre from his terrace feeing a moft beautiful 
iiiiiy, named Nourmahae, in a hufp on the river, being 
icreened from the fun by a canopy over her head, fell de- 
Iperatelv in love with her ; but hearing (he was married to 
one of his officen, he foon dilpaichea hit rival out of tha 
way, and then renewed his coartfhip ; but the lady, bwr- 
ing fbme intimation liow treaeheroufly her but hulbud 
had been dcftroyed, exprefibd her reientinent with great 
feverity, declaring, Ihe could never think of matching widi 
her hulbaml't murderer -, but when her mourning was 
ended, and the Mogul continuing to load her with his fa« 
Vours, Ihe was prevailed on to comply with the love-lick 
emperor on the following conditions : that Ihe Ihonld be 
Ibvereign of the fcraglio, her ^uher prime minifter, and 
her relations, preferred to the moft honourable pofts. The 
marriage was accordiiuly ibiemnized by a feftival of eight 
days continuance, and licr name changed to N'out Jahun, 
the light of the world, 'this pTince& had not been a year 
in the feragiio, before ihe deftroye